Contenu archivé

L’information archivée est fournie à des fins de référence, de recherche ou de tenue de documents. Elle n’est pas assujettie aux normes Web du gouvernement du Canada et n’a pas été modifiée ou mise à jour depuis son archivage. Pour obtenir cette information dans un autre format, veuillez communiquer avec nous.

Bibliographie de l'Institut Maurice-Lamontagne

Mammifères marins - Baleines / Balaenoptera musculus / Baleine bleue, Rorqual bleu

BOXALL, P.C., W.L. ADAMOWICZ, M. OLAR, G.E. WEST, G. CANTIN, 2011. Analysis of the economic benefits associated with the recovery of threatened marine mammal species in the Canadian St. Lawrence Estuary. Mar. Policy, 36: 189-197.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
This paper examines Canadians’ willingness to pay to recover the populations of three marine mammal species found in the St Lawrence Estuary. The valuation approach utilized a stated preference tool that is somewhat a hybrid between contingent valuation and a choice experiment with multiple species recovery program options and choices framed as referenda. Program options involved the use of a marine protected area and restrictions on whale watching and shipping industries. The estimated willingness to pay (WTP) for different levels of marine mammal recovery ranged from $77 to $229 per year per household and varied according to the species affected and the recovery program effort. A series of tests revealed that people would be willing to pay more for programs that contribute to greater increases in marine mammal populations, but the additional value of programs that improve a species status beyond the ‘‘at risk’’ threshold is relatively small.©2011 Elsevier Ltd.

DONIOL-VALCROZE, T., V. LESAGE, J. GIARD, R. MICHAUD, 2011. Optimal foraging theory predicts diving and feeling strategies of the largest marine predator. Behav. Ecol., 22(4): 880-888.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Accurate predictions of predator behavior remain elusive in natural settings. Optimal foraging theory predicts that breath-hold divers should adjust time allocation within their dives to the distance separating prey from the surface. Quantitative tests of these models have been hampered by the difficulty of documenting underwater feeding behavior and the lack of systems, experimental or natural, in which prey depth varies over a large range. We tested these predictions on blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), which track the diel vertical migration of their prey. A model using simple allometric arguments successfully predicted diving behavior measured with data loggers. Foraging times within each dive increased to compensate longer transit times and optimize resource acquisition. Shallow dives were short and yielded the highest feeding rates, explaining why feeding activity was more intense at night. An optimal framework thus provides powerful tools to predict the behavior of free-ranging marine predators and inform conservation studies.©2011 Oxford University Press

CHION, C., P. LAMONTAGNE, S. TURGEON, L. PARROTT, J.-A. LANDRY, D.J. MARCEAU, C.C.A. MARTINS, R. MICHAUD, N. MÉNARD, G. CANTIN, S. DIONNE, 2011. Eliciting cognitive processes underlying patterns of human-wildlife interactions for agent-based modelling. Ecol. Model., 222(14): 2213--2226.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Integrating humans in our perception of ecosystems is of critical importance to adequately protect natural resources. This poses the challenge of understanding human decision making in the context of decisions potentially threatening nature’s integrity. We developed a spatially explicit agent-based model that simulates commercial whale-watching vessel movements based on a representation of the captains’ decision making process when observing marine mammals in and around the Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park in Québec, Canada. We focus here on the human part of the global model, the submodel of whale movements having been developed and validated independently (Lamontagne, 2009). The objective of this study is to select and validate a model of whale-watching captains’ decision making using the patternoriented modelling approach (POM): three models of cognitive heuristics (satisficing, tallying and Take The Best) along with a null model (random choice) were tested. These concurrent decision making models were built upon knowledge extracted from data collected during field investigations, including interviews with whale-watching captains and park wardens, onboard and shore-based observations, and analyses of a multi-year dataset of sampled whale-watching excursions. Model selection is performed by statistically comparing simulated and real patterns of boat trajectories (excursion length), spatial hotspots (kernel home range 50 %), and excursion content (species observed, time allocated to different activities). The selection process revealed that the Take The Best heuristic was the best performing model. We used the distribution of the number of whale-watching boats in the vicinity (2000 m) of each vessel as a secondary pattern to validate the ability of each decision making model to reproduce real observations. Given the prevalence of the species attribute in the choice of which whale to observe, the Take The Best heuristic’s ability to deal with non-compensatory information partly explains its overall best performance. Moreover, implementation of communication abilities between modelled captains led to the emergence of persistent observation sites in the park, which is a well-known collective spatiotemporal characteristic of the whale-watching industry; thus validating the fundamental assumption that cooperation is an important mechanism behind the pattern of whale-watching boat dynamics. The relatively good performance of the satisficing and tallying heuristics supports both field evidence and literature on bounded rationality in that humans likely use collections of heuristics (adaptive toolbox) to solve decision problems in different contexts. The POM strategy appears suitable to build up an informative ABM regarding the management of human activities in a natural environment so that further developments will be assessed following the same approach.©2011 Elsevier B.V.

COMTOIS, S., C. SAVENKOFF, M.-N. BOURASSA, J.-C. BRÊTHES, R. SEARS, 2010. Regional distribution and abundance of Blue and Humpback Whales in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2877, 46 p.

Cliquer pour voir tout le texte

La Station de Recherche des Îles Mingan (ou MICS) effectue le monitorage des rorquals bleus fréquentant le golfe du Saint-Laurent (GSL) depuis 1979. Jusqu’à présent, plus de 400 individus ont pu être photo-identifiés dans diverses régions du Golfe. Ce rapport vise à décrire qualitativement la distribution, l’abondance et le comportement des rorquals bleus à une échelle tant spatiale que temporelle. Les informations collectées sur les rorquals à bosse sont également décrites. Les résultats obtenus confirment le caractère généralement nomade du rorqual bleu et laissent présager que le GSL ne constitue qu’un fragment de l’aire d’alimentation estival de l’espèce. Les résultats révèlent également l’existence de divers comportements individuels par rapport à la fidélité au site : visiteurs occasionnels vs. réguliers et individus cosmopolites vs. exclusifs. Aussi, nous avons été capables d’effectuer une distinction entre les diverses zones de concentration des observations en se basant sur les tendances temporelles dans la fréquentation des sites. Alors que l’estuaire maritime semble être la région où les rorquals bleus sont le plus souvent observés, le nombre d’individus fréquentant la Minganie a décliné au cours du temps, au point où les observations sont maintenant un phénomène rare. Parallèlement, un nombre toujours croissant de rorquals à bosse a été observé chaque année dans cette même région. Comme plusieurs questions sur leur écologie générale restent sans réponse, le but de cette étude était d’augmenter l’état des connaissances sur le comportement et l’utilisation de l’habitat par ces rorquals. Les mammifères marins pourraient exercer le rôle de « sentinelle écosystémique ». Dans ce contexte, le monitorage à long terme permettrait de détecter toute tendance spatiale ou temporelle susceptible de refléter un changement dans l’environnement

BAHOURA, M., Y. SIMARD, 2009. Blue Whale calls classification using short-time Fourier and wavelet packet transforms and artificial neural network. Digit. Signal Process., 20(4): 1256-1263.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Two new characterization methods based on the short-time Fourier and the wavelet packet transforms are proposed to classify blue whale calls. The vocalizations are divided into short-time overlapping segments before applying these transforms to each segment. Then, the feature vectors are constructed by computing the coefficient energies within two subbands in order to capture the AB phrase and D vocalization characteristics, respectively. Finally, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) is used to classify the vocalization into A, B and D classes. The proposed methods present high classification performance (86.25 %) on the tested database.©2009 Elsevier Inc.

MOUY, X., M. BAHOURA, Y. SIMARD, 2009. Automatic recognition of Fin and Blue Whale calls for real-time monitoring in the St. Lawrence. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 126(6): 2918-2928.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Monitoring blue and fin whales summering in the St. Lawrence Estuary with passive acoustics requires call recognition algorithms that can cope with the heavy shipping noise of the St Lawrence Seaway and with multipath propagation characteristics that generate overlapping copies of the calls. In this paper, the performance of three time-frequency methods aiming at such automatic detection and classification is tested on more than 2000 calls and compared at several levels of signal-to-noise ratio using typical recordings collected in this area. For all methods, image processing techniques are used to reduce the noise in the spectrogram. The first approach consists in matching the spectrogram with binary time-frequency templates of the calls (coincidence of spectrograms). The second approach is based on the extraction of the frequency contours of the calls and their classification using dynamic time warping (DTW) and the vector quantization (VQ) algorithms. The coincidence of spectrograms was the fastest method and performed better for blue whale A and B calls. VQ detected more 20 Hz fin whale calls but with a higher false alarm rate. DTW and VQ outperformed for the more variable blue whale D calls.©2009 Acoustical Society of America

DONIOL-VALCROZE, T., D. BERTEAUX, P. LAROUCHE, R. SEARS, 2008. Influence of thermal fronts on habitat selection by four rorqual whale species in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 335: 207-216.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Understanding the factors influencing habitat selection is critical to improving management and conservation plans for large whales. Many studies have linked the distribution of cetaceans to basic environmental features such as underwater topography and sea surface temperature (SST), but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. Dynamic mesoscale processes like thermal fronts are prime candidates to link physiographic factors to whale distribution because they increase biological productivity and aggregate prey. However, previous studies of large whales have found little evidence of such associations, possibly because they were not at the appropriate spatio-temporal scales. We quantified the relationship between SST fronts and the distribution of blue Balaenoptera musculus, finback B. physalus, humpback Megaptera novaeangliae and minke B. acutorostrata whales in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. We compared the distribution of 1094 whale sightings collected from boat surveys conducted in 1996 to 2000 to the locations of frontal areas determined from 61 satellite maps. The distributions of whales and thermal fronts were highly correlated (random resampling and Mantel tests of matrix similarity). Spatial distributions differed among species, probably reflecting differences in feeding strategies. Identification of surface fronts from satellite imagery thus effectively complemented field observations of whales. These findings significantly increase our understanding of habitat quality in rorqual whales, and encourage a greater use of dynamic environmental variables in future studies of whale habitat use. ©2007 Inter-Research

SIMARD Y., N. ROY, 2008. Detection and localization of blue and fin whales from large-aperture autonomous hydrophone arrays: a case study from the St.Lawrence estuary. Can. Acoust., 36(1): 104-110.

La faisabilité d’utiliser la technologie de monitorage acoustique passif (PAM) pour suivre la distribution spatio-temporelle des rorquals bleus et communs dans le Parc Marin Saguenay-Saint-Laurent a été explorée à l’aide de réseaux d’hydrophones à maille lâche couvrant de grandes distances. Les réseaux ont été déployés pendant les étés 2003 à 2005 à la tête du chenal laurentien, profond de 300 m. Ils étaient composés de 5 hydrophones autonomes AURAL mouillés à mi-profondeur, près du couloir de son estival. Un petit réseau côtier de faible ouverture complétait le déploiement en 2003. Les ouvertures des réseaux étaient de 20 à 40 km et leurs configurations étaient changées à chaque année. Les vocalisations les plus fréquentes étaient les infrasons identitaires des rorquals bleus et communs. Le bruit de navires transitant dans la Voie Maritime achalandée du Saint-Laurent masquait souvent les vocalisations sur les hydrophones les plus proches, ce qui parfois résultait en un nombre insuffisant de récepteurs pour localiser les baleines à l’aide de méthodes utilisant les différences de temps d’arrivée (TDoA). Les caractéristiques techniques des réseaux et du traitement des données sont présentées avec un exemple de détection et de localisation. Malgré les difficultés inhérentes à cet environnement, la technologie PAM peut y être efficacement implémentée, éventuellement pour des opérations en temps réel.©2008 Association Canadienne d'Acoustique

SIMARD, Y., N. ROY, C. GERVAISE, 2008. Passive acoustic detection and localization of whales: Effects of shipping noise in Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 123(6): 4109-4117.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
The performance of large-aperture hydrophone arrays to detect and localize blue and fin whales' 15-85 Hz signature vocalizations under ocean noise conditions was assessed through simulations from a normal mode propagation model combined to noise statistics from 15960 h of recordings in Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park. The probability density functions of 2482 summer noise level estimates in the call bands were used to attach a probability of detection/masking to the simulated call levels as a function of whale depth and range for typical environmental conditions. Results indicate that call detection was modulated by the calling depth relative to the sound channel axis and by modal constructive and destructive interferences with range. Masking of loud infrasounds could reach 40 % at 30 km for a receiver at the optimal depth. The 30 dB weaker blue whale D-call were subject to severe masking. Mapping the percentages of detection and localization allowed assessing the performance of a six-hydrophone array under mean- and low-noise conditions. This approach is helpful for optimizing hydrophone configuration in implementing passive acoustic monitoring arrays and building their detection function for whale density assessment, as an alternative to or in combination with the traditional undersampling visual methods.©2008 Acoustical Society of America

DONIOL-VALCROZE, T., D. BERTEAUX, P. LAROUCHE, R. SEARS, 2007. Influence of thermal fronts on habitat selection by four rorqual whale species in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 335: 207-216.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Understanding the factors influencing habitat selection is critical to improving management and conservation plans for large whales. Many studies have linked the distribution of cetaceans to basic environmental features such as underwater topography and sea surface temperature (SST), but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. Dynamic mesoscale processes like thermal fronts are prime candidates to link physiographic factors to whale distribution because they increase biological productivity and aggregate prey. However, previous studies of large whales have found little evidence of such associations, possibly because they were not at the appropriate spatio-temporal scales. We quantified the relationship between SST fronts and the distribution of blue Balaenoptera musculus, finback B. physalus, humpback Megaptera novaeangliae and minke B. acutorostrata whales in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. We compared the distribution of 1094 whale sightings collected from boat surveys conducted in 1996 to 2000 to the locations of frontal areas determined from 61 satellite maps. The distributions of whales and thermal fronts were highly correlated (random resampling and Mantel tests of matrix similarity). Spatial distributions differed among species, probably reflecting differences in feeding strategies. Identification of surface fronts from satellite imagery thus effectively complemented field observations of whales. These findings significantly increase our understanding of habitat quality in rorqual whales, and encourage a greater use of dynamic environmental variables in future studies of whale habitat use. ©2007 Inter-Research

LESAGE, V., M.O. HAMMILL, 2003. Proceedings of the workshop on the development of research priorities for the northwest Atlantic blue whale population. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus, 2003/031, 35 p.

Cliquer pour voir tout le texte

Un atelier sur le développement de priorités de recherche sur la population de rorquals bleus de l'atlantique nord-est s'est tenu à Québec les 20 et 21 novembre 2002. L'obtention des connaissances manquantes pour cette espèce en voie de disparition constitue un élément clé du développement et de la mise en œuvre d'un programme de rétablissement, prévus pour 2003-2004. Les présentations ont résumé les programmes de recherche existants au Canada, aux Etats-Unis et en Islande. Les participants ont revu les lacunes au niveau des connaissances et les menaces concernant le rorqual bleu, tel qu'identifiées dans le rapport du COSEPAC. D'importantes lacunes ont été identifiées au niveau des connaissances de la distribution saisonnière, de l'abondance, de la structure des stocks et des mouvements saisonniers. La détermination et la définition des aires d'alimentation, et du pouvoir des processus physiques et biologiques à déterminer la distribution, le comportement et les mouvements des rorquals bleus devraient constituer une priorité. Cette information aidera à définir l'habitat essentiel tel que requis par la Loi sur les espèces en péril. Les participants ont également identifié les approches les plus efficaces afin d'adresser les manques particuliers de connaissances, et ont évalué les pour et les contre des différentes approches telles que la photo-identification, l'acoustique passive, les inventaires visuels, la génétique, la télémétrie, etc. Les actions à entreprendre ont été ordonnées en accord avec les priorités. Ces recommandations aideront les gestionnaires du MPO dans l'évaluation des besoins futurs de recherche en regard d'un programme de rétablissement pour le rorqual bleu.

MEASURES, L.N., 1993. Annotated list of metazoan parasites reported from the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 60: 62-66.

MEASURES, L.N., 1992. Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala) in a blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, stranded in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 59: 206-211 .