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Bibliographie de l'Institut Maurice-Lamontagne

Crustacés - Copépodes / Calanus hyperboreus / 

POMERLEAU, C., G. WINKLER, A.R. SASTRI, R.J. NELSON, S. VAGLE, V. LESAGE, S.H. FERGUSON, 2011. Spatial patterns in zooplankton communities across the eastern Canadian sub-Arctic and Arctic waters : Insights from stable carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios. J. Plankton Res., 33(12): 1779-1792.

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This study defined the status quo of biogeographic domains and examined spatial patterns of stable isotopes (Sis) of carbon and nitrogen in relation to biophysical groupings to gain greater insight into how mesozooplankton may respond to continuous environmental change in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. Mesozooplankton communities were sampled during the summer of 2007 along a transect from Belle-Isle Strait, NFL, to Kugluktuk, NU (Canada), and during the early autumn of 2009 along a transect extending from Pelly Bay to Hall Beach, NU. Five broad water mass types corresponded to geographical regions. In general, we found relationships between water mass and species composition; however, this relationship was not always straightforward. Mesozooplankton community composition varied along the transect, revealing eight species assemblages. Calanus finmarchicus was abundant in the warmer and saltier Atlantic waters of the Labrador Sea, whereas Calanus hyperboreus, Calanus glacialis and Metridia longa were most abundant in the cold Arctic waters of Central Baffin Bay and in the eastern portion of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Nitrogen and carbon SI analysis revealed that δ15N (but not δ13C) varied spatially for C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus, Paraeuchaeta spp. And Themisto libellula. δ15N values were less enriched in Davis Strait and more enriched in the Gulf of Boothia. Seasonality, oceanic fronts and changes in the trophic structure at the base of each regional food web may explain some of the observed variability. This study represents the first broad-scale characterization of the composition and isotopic signatures for mesozooplankton communities ranging from the sub-Arctic Atlantic to the western Central Arctic Archipelago. Our study provides a baseline of the zooplankton community for monitoring species biogeographical range.©2011 Oxford University Press

PARENT, G.J., S. PLOURDE, J. TURGEON, 2011. Overlapping size ranges of Calanus spp. off the Canadian Arctic and Atlantic Coasts : impact on species abundances. J. Plankton Res., 33(11): 1654-1665.

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In the North Atlantic, Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus are identified based on subtle morphological traits, which is fastidious, or based on their allegedly non-overlapping prosome length ranges. We reappraised the prosome length-based diagnosis for the copepodite stage V stage by coupling prosome length and molecular identifications (mtDNA, 16S gene) for 1159 individuals collected over 2 years from 15 stations off the Canadian coast from the Arctic to the Atlantic. We observed spatial but no intra-annual variation in species’ average prosome length. At sympatric coastal sites, prosome length overlap was frequent between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis and restricted to the Estuary/Gulf of St. Lawrence between C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus. We used discriminant analyses to redefine prosome length criteria to minimize errors in species identification. Species abundances were corrected and this affected mostly C. glacialis. In the St. Lawrence Estuary and on the Labrador shelf, abundance of C. glacialis was underestimated by 19 and 35 %, respectively, with important interannual variations since 2000. This increase in abundance could enhance estimation of the role of <Ic. Glacialis in the food web and potentially alter our view of the long-term changes along the eastern Canadian coast.© 2011 Oxford University Press

PLOURDE, S., G. WINKLER, P. JOLY, J.-F. ST-PIERRE, M. STARR, 2011. Long-term seasonal and interannuel variations of krill spawning in the lower St Lawrence Estuary, Canada, 1979-2009. J. Plankton Res., 33(5): 703-714.

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This study describes the long-term seasonal and interannual variations in krill spawning using abundance of krill eggs collected during an on-going long-term monitoring program at an anchor station in the lower St Lawrence Estuary from 1992 to 2009 and data collected in the same region in 1979 to 1980. The longterm seasonal semi-monthly climatology in egg abundance revealed that krill generally reproduced during two periods, i.e. in late spring (mid-May to late June) and in late summer (August to mid-September), when phytoplankton biomass in the upper 50 m was greater than 75 mg chlorophyll a m-2. The identification of krill eggs to the species level in 2007 revealed that Meganyctiphanes norvegica egg abundance was related to the biomass of phytoplankton averaged over the month prior to sampling, corresponding to the duration of one spawning cycle (two intermolt periods) known for this species. Overall krill egg abundance varied significantly between years, showing high abundance every 3–5 years with no long-term interannual trend. The annual mean egg abundance normalized for the duration of krill spawning showed the same interannual long-term pattern. Both egg abundance indices were independent of the annual phytoplankton biomass, indicating that interannual variations in krill spawning biomass would be the most likely candidate to explain interannual variability in egg abundance. We propose that such normalized annual egg abundance based on high-resolution seasonal sampling could be a useful index of interannual variations in krill spawning biomass which is otherwise difficult to sample.©2011 Oxford University Press

PINHO, G.L.L., A. BIANCHINI, C. ROULEAU, 2011. Whole-body autoradiography : an efficient technique to study copper accumulation and body distribution in small organisms. Chemosphere, 85: 1-6.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Copepods have been widely used to evaluate toxicity of metals present in marine environments. However, a technical difficulty is to understand the possible routes of metal uptake and to identify in which tissues or organs metals are being accumulated. Traditional techniques are hard to be employed once each organ has to be analyzed separately. Autoradiography is an alternative technique to circumvent this limitation, since metal distribution in tissues can be visualized and quantified, even in small organisms like copepods. In the present study, accumulation and distribution of 64Cu in the copepod Calanus hyperboreus was studied using autoradiography. Copepods were exposed for 2 h to copper (2.3 mg L-1; 1.08 MBq 64Cu mg-1 Cu) and then allowed to depurate for 2 h in clean seawater. Total 64Cu was determined by gamma-spectrometry after a metal exposure and a depuration period. 64Cu distribution was determined based on images generated by autoradiography. Metal accumulation was observed on all external surfaces of the copepods, being accumulated mostly on the ventral region, followed by dorsal, urossoma and internal regions. After depuration, radioactivity levels had a decrease in the sum of external body surface. Our results show that copper uptake by C. hyperboreus is fast and that a non-negligible proportion of the accumulated metal can reach internal tissues, which may lead to detrimental physiological effects. Moreover, whole-body autoradiography was demonstrated to be an efficient technique to study copper accumulation and body distribution in a very small organism such as the copepod C. hyperboreus.©2011 Elsevier Ltd.

DUFOUR, R., H. BENOIT, M. CASTONGUAY, J. CHASSÉ, L. DEVINE, P. GALBRAITH, M. HARVEY, P. LAROUCHE, S. LESSARD, B. PETRIE, L. SAVARD, C. SAVENKOFF, L. ST-AMAND, M. STARR, 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence ecozone. Rapport sur l’état et les tendances des écosystèmes : écozone de l’estuaire et du golfe du Saint Laurent. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche; 2010/030, 193 p.

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Le présent document a été produit dans la foulée du programme national sur l'état et les tendances des écosystèmes et traite de l'écozone de l'estuaire et du golfe Saint-Laurent. Il s'articule autour de l'état et des tendances de plusieurs espèces marines ainsi que de certaines variables physico-chimiques importantes de l'écosystème. Le rapport national sur l'état et les tendances des écosystèmes servira à établir les priorités pour un programme national sur la biodiversité et intègrera de l'information écosystémique de portée nationale et provinciale. Il traitera de nombreuses écozones terrestres et marines d'envergure.

HARVEY, M., L. DEVINE, 2010. Nine years of zooplankton monitoring in the St.Lawrence Marine System (2001-2009). AZMP Bull. PMZA, 10: 32-36.

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POMERLEAU, C., S.H. FURGUSON, W. WALKUSZ, 2010. Stomach contents of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus>/i>) from four locations in the Canadian Artic. Polar Biol., 34(4): 615-620.

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Abstract The stomach contents of four bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) harvested between 1994 and 2008 from the Canadian Arctic were examined to assess diet composition. Three samples were collected from bowhead whales of the Eastern Canada––West Greenland (EC––WG) population and represent, according to our knowledge, the first diet analysis from this bowhead whale stock. We also examined the stomach content of one bowhead whale from the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort (BCB) population hunted in 1996. All four whales had food in their stomachs and their diet varied from exclusively pelagic (BCB whale), with Limnocalanus macrurus being the main prey, to epibenthic and benthic (EC––WG) with Mysis oculata playing an important role. These results indicate broad foraging spectrum of the bowhead whales and add to a basic knowledge of their diet.&Copy;2010 Springer-Verlag

MORISSETTE, L., M. CASTONGUAY, C. SAVENKOFF, D.P. SWAIN, D. CHABOT, H. BOURDAGES, M.O. HAMMILL, J. MARK HANSON, 2009. Contrasting changes between the northern and southern Gulf of St. Lawrence ecosystems associated with the collapse of groundfish stocks. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Top. Stud. Oceanogr., 56(21-22): 2117-2131.

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In order to have a global view of ecosystem changes associated with the collapse of groundfish species in the Gulf of St.Lawrence during the early 1990s, Ecopath mass balance models were constructed in corporating uncertainty in the input data.These models covered two ecosystems (northern and southern Gulf of St.Lawrence; NAFO divisions 4RSand 4T), and two time periods (before the collapse, in the mid-1980s, and after it, in the mid 1990s). Our analyses revealed that the ecosystem structure shifted dramatically from one previously dominated by piscivorous groundfish and small-bodied forage species during the mid-1980s to one now dominated only by small-bodied pelagic species during the mid-1990s in both southern and northern Gulf.The species structure in the northern Gulf versus southern Gulf was different, which may explain why these two ecosystems did not recover the same way from the collapse in the early1990s. Productivity declined in the northern Gulf after the collapse but increased in the southern Gulf. The collapse of groundfish stocks resulted in declines in the mean trophic level of the landings in both the northern and the southern Gulf. Even though fishing mortality was then intentionally reduced, this part of the total mortality was taken up by predation.The temporal changes in the internal structure of both ecosystems are reflected in their overall emergent properties.©2009 Elsevier Ltd.

PLOURDE, S., F. MAPS, P. JOLY, 2009. Mortality and survival in early stages control recruitment in Calanus finmarchicus. J. Plankton Res., 31(4): 371-388.

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We present a data set describing the seasonal climatology and the spatial pattern in mortality and recruitment in early stages of Calanus finmarchicus in the lower St Lawrence estuary (LSLE) and the Gulf of St Lawrence (GSL), respectively. Contrary to the common assumption of constant mortality, daily mortality during development from egg to N3 or N6 showed important seasonal and spatial variations mostly independent from patterns in population egg production. Patterns in recruitment rate to late naupliar stages were mainly associated with patterns in survival, and dictated patterns in abundance of nauplii N4–6 (seasonal, LSLE) and early copepodite C1–2 (spatial, GSL). Consequently, recruitment to late naupliar and early copepodid stages was largely independent from patterns in population egg production. A multiple regression model showed that phytoplankton biomass and female abundance exerted opposite effects in the control of mortality, illustrating the beneficial effect of high phytoplankton biomass on the survival due to a relaxation of the cannibalism pressure or mortality owing to food shortage. A sensitivity analysis using a stage-based model clearly showed variations in the amplitude and the timing in recruitment to late naupliar stages solely due to different mortality formulations. Moreover, our simulations suggested that temperature alone should not be of primary importance in determining patterns in survival because of its general scaling effect on metabolism. Our study reinforces the importance of an adequate description of mortality and survival in studies of population dynamics and illustrates the importance of developing dynamic mortality formulations integrating multiple effects for future use in models of C. finmarchicus.©2009 Oxford University Press

PLOURDE, S., P. PÉPIN, E.J.H. HEAD, 2009. Long-term seasonal and spatial patterns in mortality and survival of Calanus finmarchicus across the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Programme region, Northwest Atlantic. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 66(9): 1942-1958.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
The vertical life table method was used to estimate stage-specific daily mortality rates and survival from 1999 to 2006 for Calanus finmarchicus sampled in the Canadian Atlantic Zone Monitoring Programme, which covers the Newfoundland–Labrador Shelf (NLS), Gulf of St Lawrence (GSL), and Scotian Shelf (SS). Stage-specific mortality rates and survival showed significant regional and seasonal differences, with the largest signal associated with variations in temperature. Density-dependent mortality, associated with the abundance of C6 females, was the main factor influencing mortality in the egg–C1 transition during the period of population growth in spring on the SS, and in summer in the GSL and on the NLS. In autumn, mortality in egg–C1 was positively related to temperature and negatively related to phytoplankton biomass, with particularly high mortality rates on the SS. The integration of our results into stage-specific recruitment rates from egg to C5 revealed that C. finmarchicus populations experience their greatest loss (mortality) during the egg–C1 transition. Loss during development to C1 was greater in the GSL than in the other regions during the period of population growth, resulting in lower recruitment success in the GSL. In autumn, C. finmarchicus showed low stage-specific daily recruitment rates on the SS at high temperatures, and low phytoplankton biomass compared with those in the GSL and on the NLS. Our findings reinforce the necessity of describing regional and seasonal patterns in mortality and survival to understand factors controlling the population dynamics of C. finmarchicus.©2009 Oxford Journals

HARVEY, M., L. DEVINE, 2009. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2008 : zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l’estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 2008 : zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2009/083, 60 p.

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Ce document donne un aperçu de la variabilité temporelle de la biomasse de zooplancton, l'abondance et la composition des espèces en 2008 à quatre stations fixes et sept sections du PMZA ainsi qu'un aperçu de la variabilité interannuelle de la composition spécifique, l'abondance et la biomasse du macrozooplancton dans l’estuaire maritime et le nord-ouest du golfe du Saint-Laurent de 1994 à 2008. Par rapport aux années précédentes (1999–2007) l’état du zooplancton aux quatre stations fixes de la région en 2008 est considéré inférieur (biomasse) et supérieure (abondance totale de zooplancton autre que copépode, abondance totale de copépodes, abondance de Calanus finmarchicus, abondance de Pseudocalanus spp.) à la normale dans la AG et GC; inférieure à la normale (biomasse de zooplancton), normale (abondance totale de zooplancton autre que copépode, abondance totale de copépodes, abondance de Pseudocalanus spp.) et supérieure à la normale (abondance de C. finmarchicus) dans la RS; et normale (biomasse de zooplancton, abondance de C. finmarchicus, abondance de Pseudocalanus spp.) et supérieure à la normale (abondance totale de zooplancton autre que copépode, abondance totale de copépodes) dans la SV. Également, des changements dans la structure de la communauté de zooplancton ont été observés en 2008. En plus d’un changement au niveau de l’ordre d’abondance des espèces dominantes à chacune des stations, de nouvelles espèces sont apparues pour la première fois parmi les 10 espèces dominantes («top 10») : appendiculaires et Temora spp. Dans la AG, Temora spp., cladodère et larves de bivalve dans le GC, Paraeuchaeta norvegica et Calanus glacialis à la SV et larves de polychète dans la RS. Les indices de biomasse de Calanus hyperboreus et du mesozooplancton observés le long des sept sections du Québec au printemps et à l’automne 2008 ont été évalués comme normal ou inférieure à la normale, excepté dans l’estuaire maritime (TESL) où la biomasse de C. Hyperboreus a été évaluée supérieure à la normale. En ce qui concerne les neuf indices d’abondance, la plupart ont été évalués à la normale ou supérieur à la normale au printemps 2008 excepté dans certains cas qui ont été évalués inférieure à la normale comme les nauplii de copépodes le long des sections TESL et TIDM, l’abondance du mésozooplancton (excluant les copépodes) dans le centre et le nord-est du golfe (TCEN, TBB) et les larves de krill dans le détroit de Cabot (TDC). Cependant, la situation a été différente pendant l’automne 2008 : quelques indices ont également été évalués à la normale ou supérieur à la normale (l’ensemble des copépodes, les nauplii de copépode, les petits copépodes, le zooplancton carnivore, le mésozooplancton [excluant les copépodes] et les larves de krill) et d’autres à la normale ou inférieure à la normale (les larges copépodes, C. finmarchicus CIV–CV, le meroplancton). En 2008, quelques changements dans la structure de la communauté de zooplancton ont aussi été observés le long des sept sections. En plus d’un changement au niveau de l’ordre d’abondance, de nouvelles espèces sont apparues pour la première fois dans le «top 10» : Eurytemora spp. et C. glacialis le long de la section TESL; Temora spp. et les œufs de copepode dans le nord-ouest du GSL (TSI); les œufs de copépodes dans le sud-ouest de l’île d’Anticosti (TASO); P. Norvegica et C. glacialis dans le centre du GSL (TCEN); C. glacialis dans le nord-est et le sud du GSL (TBB, TIDM); et Ostracoda dans le détroit de Cabot (TDC). La biomasse de mésozooplancton observée en novembre 2008 dans l’estuaire maritime et le nord-ouest du GSL était 1.8 et 1.4 fois plus élevée qu’en 2006 et 2007 et correspond à la seconde valeur la plus élevée observée au cours des 15 dernières années dans ces deux régions. Par ailleurs, la biomasse moyenne de macrozooplancton a diminué de 15.4 g/m2 (poids humide) en 2005, à 5.9 en 2006, à 8.6 en 2007 et 6.2 en 2008. Les valeurs observées en 2006, 2007 et 2008 correspondent aux plus faibles valeurs observées au cours des 15 dernières années dans les deux régions. Un fait marquant des années 2006, 2007 et 2008 est la forte diminution de l’abondance de l’espèce Thysanoessa raschii qui était 5.3 fois moins abondante en 2006–2008 qu’au cours des 15 années précédentes. Finalement, les années 2006, 2007 et 2008 correspondent aux plus faibles abondances moyennes de l’amphipode pélagique Themisto libellula des 15 dernières années excepté en 2000.

CAMPBELL, R.G., E.B. SHERR, C.J. ASHJIAN, S. PLOURDE, B.F. SHERR, V. HILL, D.A. STOCKWELL, 2009. Mesozooplankton prey preference and grazing impact in the western Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Top. Stud. Oceanogr., 56(17): 1274-1289.

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The role of mesozooplankton as consumers and transformers of primary and secondary production in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas was examined during four cruises in spring and summer of both 2002 and 2004 as part of the western Arctic Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) program. Forty-seven grazing experiments using dominant mesozooplankton species and life stages were conducted at locations across the shelf, slope, and basin of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas to measure feeding rates on both chlorophyll and microzooplankton and to determine mesozooplankton prey preferences. Mesozooplankton biomass was at all times dominated by life stages of four copepod taxa: Calanus glacialis, Calanus hyperboreus, Metridia longa, and Pseudocalanus spp. Significant interannual, seasonal, regional, between species and within species differences in grazing rates were observed. Overall, the dominant zooplankton exhibited typical feeding behavior in response to chlorophyll concentration that could be modeled using species and life-stage specific Ivlev functions. Microzooplankton were preferred prey at almost all times, with the strength of the preference positively related to the proportion of microzooplankton prey availability. Average mesozooplankton grazing impacts on both chlorophyll standing stock (0.6±0.5 % d-1 in spring, 5.1±6.3 % d-1 in summer) and primary production (12.8±11.8 % d-1 in spring, 27.6±24.5 % d-1 in summer) were quite low and varied between shelf, slope, and basin. Coincident microzooplankton grazing experiments [Sherr, E.B., Sherr, B.F., Hartz, A.J., 2009. Microzooplankton grazing impact in the Western Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II] were conducted at most stations. Together, microzooplankton-mesozooplankton grazing consumed only 44 % of the total water-column primary production, leaving more than half directly available for local export to the benthos or for offshore transport into the adjacent basin.©2009 Elsevier Ltd.

CASTONGUAY, M., S. PLOURDE, D. ROBERT, J.A. RUNGE, L. FORTIER, 2008. Copepod production drives recruitment in a marine fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 65: 1528-1531.

La prédiction des fluctuations de recrutement des poissons marins d’importance commerciale demeure le Saint Graal des sciences halieutiques. Au cours d’études précédentes, nous avons identifié des relations statistiques reliant le recrutement du maquereau bleu (Scomber scombrus) au climat régional, à la biomasse du zooplancton ainsi qu’à la production en nauplii de copépodes durant une décennie (1982-1991) qui incluait la classe d’âge exceptionnelle de 1982. Ici nous testons la validité de ces relations en ajoutant une deuxième décennie (1992-2003) d’observations qui incluent une autre classe d’âge exceptionnelle en 1999. Nous présentons les premières preuves basées sur des données de terrain qu’il existe un lien entre la disponibilité des proies planctoniques en mer, la croissance des jeunes larves et la force des classes d’âge chez une espèce de poisson marin exploitée commercialement. Nous démontrons que le recrutement dépend fortement de la production en nauplii des espèces de copépodes qui contribuent à l’alimentation des larves de maquereau. Les deux fortes classes d’âge ont été caractérisées par une disponibilité exceptionnelle de ces proies spécifiques. Nous suggérons que le recrutement du maquereau peut être anticipé 3 ans à l’avance selon la disponibilité des proies durant les premières semaines de vie planctonique et prédisons une forte classe d’âge pour les poissons nés en 2006.©2008 NRC Canada

PLOURDE, S., P. JOLY, J.A. RUNGE, J. DODSON, B. ZAKARDJIAN, 2003. Life cycle of Calanus hyperboreus in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and its relationship to local environmental conditions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 255: 219-233.

RINGUETTE, M., L. FORTIER, M. FORTIER, J.A. RUNGE, S. BÉLANGER, P. LAROUCHE, J.-M. WESLAWSKI, S. KWASNIEWSKI, 2002. Advanced recruitment and accelerated population development in Arctic calanoid copepods of the North Water. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 49: 5081-5099.

PLOURDE, S., J.J. DODSON, J.A. RUNGE, J.-C. THERRIAULT, 2002. Spatial and temporal variations in copepod community structure in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 230: 211-224.

RUNGE, J.A., P. JOLY, 1995. Zooplancton (Euphausiacés et Calanus) de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Pages 128-137 in L. Savard (éd.). Rapport sur l'état des invertébrés en 1994 : crustacés et mollusques des côtes du Québec, crevette nordique et zooplancton de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent. MPO (Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2323).

RUNGE, J., P. JOLY, 1995. Zooplankton (Euphausids and Calanus) in the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Pages 123-132 in L. Savard (ed.). Status report on invertebrates in 1994 : crustaceans and molluscs on the Québec coast, northern shrimp and zooplankton in the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO (Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2323) .