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Bibliographie de l'Institut Maurice-Lamontagne

Poissons / Anguilla anguilla / Anguille d'Europe, Anguille andouille, Anguille commune, Anguille argentée, Anguille de rivière

ALS, T.D., M.M. HANSEN, G.E. MAES, M. CASTONGUAY, L. RIEMANN, K. AARESTRUP, P. MUNK, H. SPARHOLT, R. HANEL, L. BERNATCHEZ, 2011. All roads lead to home : Panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea. Mol. Ecol., 20(7): 1333-1346.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5000 km back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between samples. Moreover, European and American eels can hybridize, but hybrids have been observed almost exclusively in Iceland, suggesting hybridization in a specific region of the Sargasso Sea and subsequent nonrandom dispersal of larvae. Here, we report the first molecular population genetics study based on analysis of 21 microsatellite loci in larvae of both Atlantic eel species sampled directly in the spawning area, supplemented by analysis of European glass eel samples. Despite a clear East–West gradient in the overlapping distribution of the two species in the Sargasso Sea, we only observed a single putative hybrid, providing evidence against the hypothesis of a wide marine hybrid zone. Analyses of genetic differentiation, isolation by distance, isolation by time and assignment tests provided strong evidence for panmixia in both the Sargasso Sea and across all continental samples of European eel after accounting for the presence of sibs among newly hatched larvae. European eel has declined catastrophically, and our findings call for management of the species as a single unit, necessitating coordinated international conservation efforts.©2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

RIEMANN, L., H. ALFREDSSON, M.M. HANSEN, T.D. ALS, T.G. NIELSEN, P. MUNK, K. AARESTRUP, G.E. MAES, H. SPARHOLT, M.I. PETERSEN, M. BACHLER, M. CASTONGUAY, 2010. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding. Biol. Letters, 6:819-822.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels. ©2010 The royal Society

BONHOMMEAU, S., M. CASTONGUAY, E. RIVOT, R. SABATIÉ, O. LE PAPE, 2010. The duration of migration of Atlantic Anguilla larvae. Fish Fish., 11(3): 289-306.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Oceanic larvae of the European (Anguilla anguilla) and American (A. rostrata) eels have to cross the Atlantic Ocean from the Sargasso Sea to European or North American coasts before entering continental habitats. In some European rivers, eel recruitment is now <1 % of levels in the 1980s. A better understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pressures and environmental fluctuations on eel larvae and subsequent recruitment is a prerequisite to build efficient management plans. The present paper provides insight into the critical oceanic phase of the eel life cycle with a focus on the duration of the larval migration whose estimates varies between 7 months and more than 2 years in both species. Does this range correspond to a natural variability in larval duration or does it stem from methodological artefacts? We first review the different methods used to estimate the duration of larval migration and critically describe their possible sources of misinterpretation. We then evaluate the consistency of these methods with the current knowledge about the ecology and physiology of eel larvae and the physical oceanography. While a moderate discrepancy in migration duration was found between methods for the American eel, the discrepancy was large in the European eel. In this species, otolith microstructure studies indicated migration durations between 7 and 9 months, while other methods pointed to durations of about 2 years. We show that estimates in favour of a long migration duration seem more robust to methodological caveats than methods estimating short durations of migration.©2010 Wiley

AARESTRUP, K., F. OKLAND, M.M. HANSEN, D. RIGHTON, P. GARGAN, M. CASTONGUAY, L. BERNATCHEZ, P. HOWEY, H. SPARHOLT, M.I. PEDERSEN, R.S. McKINLEY, 2009. Oceanic spawning migration of the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla). Science (Wash.), 325(5948): 1660.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake a ˜5000-kilometer (km) spawning migration from Europe to the Sargasso Sea. The larvae are transported back to European waters by the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift. However, details of the spawning migration remain unknown because tracking eels in the Atlantic Ocean has, so far, eluded study. Recent advances in satellite tracking enable investigation of migratory behavior of large ocean-dwelling animals. However, sizes of available tags have precluded tracking smaller animals like European eels. Here, we present information about the swimming direction, depth, and migratory behavior of European eels during spawning migration, based on a miniaturized pop-up satellite archival transmitter. Although the tagging experiment fell short of revealing the full migration to the Sargasso Sea, the data covered the first 1300 km and provided unique insights.©2009 American Association for the Advancement of Science

COUILLARD, C.M., 2009. Utilisation des poissons pour évaluer les effets biologiques des contaminants dans l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent et le fjord du Saguenay;Use of fish to assess biological effects of contaminants in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord. Rev. Sci. Eau;J. Water Sci., 22(2): 291-314.

Les organismes aquatiques de l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent (ESL) et du fjord du Saguenay (FS) sont exposés à des mélanges complexes de composés toxiques pouvant avoir lin impact sur les populations, seuls ou en interaction avec d'autres facteurs environnementaux. Lobjectif de cet article est de résumer l'information sur les effets biologiques des contaminants dans l'ESL et le FS obtenue à l'aide de poissons sentinelles. Trois études de cas démontrent la complémentarité de l'information obtenue avec différentes espèces. Les études sur l'anguille d'Amérique (Anguilla rostrata) montrent comment des poissons migrateurs peuvent être un vecteur important de contamination pour les prédateurs de haut niveau trophique de l'ESL. Des lésions prénéoplasiques au foie chez les anguilles en migration, probablement liées à une exposition aux hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) sur leurs aires de croissance, sont un exemple d'effet à long terme de contaminants qui ne persistent pas dans les tissus des poissons. La présence d'adduits à l'ADN a été démontrée chez les poulamons atlantiques (Microgadus tomcod) résidents dans l'ESL et permet de comparer les niveaux d'exposition aux HAP génotoxiques entre l'ESL et d'autres estuaires de la côte Atlantique. Les études sur le poulamon ont aussi révélé une interaction entre leur période de jeûne hivernal et les produits organiques persistants (POP) menant à une augmentation transitoire des concentrations de POP dans le foie et à une dysfonction hépatique. Des échantillonnages sur le terrain, couplés à des expositions en cages in situ et à des expériences en laboratoire, ont permis de mettre évidence chez des plies canadiennes (Hipoglossoides platessoides) exposées à des sédiments contaminés de la baie des Anglais, des altérations immunitaires causant une augmentation de la susceptibilité aux maladies infectieuses. Les futures études devraient poursuivre le développement de biomarqueurs pour différents groupes de contaminants et les utiliser chez des espèces de poissons clés, à des stades sensibles de leur cycle de vie, en combinant différentes approches expérimentales multistresseurs à des études de surveillance sur le terrain.©2009 RSE inc.

BONHOMMEAU, S., O. LE PAPE, D. GASCUEL, B. BLANKE, A.-M. TRÉGUIER, N. GRIMA, Y. VERMARD, M. CASTONGUAY, E. RIVOT, 2009. Estimates of the mortality and the duration of the trans-Atlantic migration of European Eel Anguilla anguilla leptocephali using a particle tracking model. J. Fish. Biol., 74(9): 1891-1914.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Using Lagrangian simulations, based on circulation models over three different hydroclimatic periods in the last 45 years in the North Atlantic Ocean, the trans-Atlantic migration of the European Eel Anguilla anguilla leptocephali was simulated via the passive drift of particles released in the spawning area. Three different behaviours were modelled: drifting at fixed depth, undergoing a vertical migration or choosing the fastest currents. Simulations included mortality hypotheses to estimate a realistic mean migration duration and relative survival of A. anguilla larvae. The mean migration duration was estimated as 21 months and the mortality rate as 3•8 per year, i.e. <0•2 % of A. anguilla larvae may typically survive the trans-Atlantic migration.©2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles

BONHOMMEAU, S., E. CHASSOT, E, RIVOT, 2008. Fluctuations in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) recruitment resulting from environmental changes in the Sargasso Sea. Fish. Oceanogr., 17(1): 32-44.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
European eel decline is now widely observed and involves a large number of factors such as overfishing, pollution, habitat loss, dam construction, river obstruction, parasitism and environmental changes. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of environmental conditions in the Sargasso Sea and Atlantic ocean circulation on European glass eel recruitment success. Over a recent 11-yr period, we showed a strong positive correlation between an original index of glass eel recruitment and primary production (PP) in eel spawning area. Moreover, PP was negatively correlated with temperature in the Sargasso Sea. Therefore, we used sea temperature as an inverse proxy of marine production. A close negative relationship has been found over the last four decades between long-term fluctuations in recruitment and in sea temperature. These findings were reinforced by the detection of a regime shift in sea temperature that preceded the start of the decline in glass eel recruitment in the early 1980s. By contrast, variations in integrative indices measuring ocean circulation, i.e. Latitude and strength of the Gulf Stream, did not seem to explain variations in glass eel recruitment. Our results support the hypothesis of a strong bottom-up control of leptocephali survival and growth by PP in the Sargasso Sea on short and long time scales. We argue that sea warming in the eel spawning area since the early 1980s has modified marine production and eventually affected the survival rate of European eels at early life stages.©2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

CASTONGUAY, M., P.V. HODSON, C. MORIARTY, 1994. Is there a role of ocean environment in American and European eel decline. ICES C.M., 1994/Mini:06, 20 p.

CASTONGUAY, M., P.V. HODSON, C. MORIARTY, K.F. DRINKWATER, B.M. JESSOP, 1994. Is there a role of ocean environment in American and European eel decline. Fish. Oceanogr., 3: 197-203.

MARCOGLIESE, D.J., D.K. CONE, 1993. What metazoan parasites tell us about the evolution of American and European eels. Evolution, 47: 1632-1635.

ES-SOUNNI, A., M.-A. KLYNE, J.-D. DUTIL, M.A. ALI, 1987. Retinal cone movements in the yellow eel. Zool. Anz., 219, 5/6, S: 377-381 .