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Bibliographie de l'Institut Maurice-Lamontagne

Poissons / Fundulus heteroclitus / Choquemort

BLANAR, C.A., D.J. MARCOGLIESE, C.M. COUILLARD, 2011. Natural and anthropogenic factors shape metazoan parasite community structure in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) from two estuaries in New Brunswick, Canada. Folia Parasit., 58(3): 240-248.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Previously published multidisciplinary studies in the Miramichi and Bouctouche rivers (New Brunswick, Canada) noted significant changes in fish health parameters, including elevated tissue levels of organic contaminants and a wide range of physiological disturbances, in mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus (L.) from a site on the Miramichi River that received bleached kraft pulpmill and municipal effluent. The present study reports differences in the abundance of individual parasite species, as well as parasite infracommunity and component community composition, in mummichog from both rivers. These differences were evaluated in relation to host (size, condition, immune function, tissue organochlorine contaminant levels) and environmental (faecal coliform counts, salinity, temperature) data derived from the previously published studies. Overall, 18 parasite species were identified, the most common of which were Ascocotyle sp. Larv., Ornithodiplostomum sp. Larv., Posthodiplostomum sp. Larv., and Proteocephalus filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802). There were broad differences in parasite community structure and composition between rivers and within rivers, the most prominent pattern being a pronounced difference between sites in the upper and lower estuary of each river that was likely driven by salinity. Mean infracommunity richness was also positively related to faecal coliforms (considered here as a surrogate measure of eutrophication via municipal sewage), and both were highest at the most polluted site. We noted no other significant relationships. Thus our data suggest that the parasite communities in these two estuaries were primarily structured by large upstream/downstream ecological gradients in salinity, and secondarily by eutrophication due to pollution by municipal and industrial effluents. Overall, our results highlight the value of coordinated multidisciplinary studies for understanding the factors that shape parasite abundance and community structure.© 2011 Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre ASCR

COUILLARD, C.M., B. LÉGARÉ, A. BERNIER, Z. DIONNE, 2011. Embryonic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB126 affect prey capture ability of Fundulus heteroclitus. Mar. Environ. Res., 71(4): 257-265.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Early life stages from a marine fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to sublethal doses of 3,3',4,4',5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) to evaluate its effects on ecologically relevant responses: growth and behavior. A few hours after fertilisation, eggs were treated topically with PCB126 (2.5–50 pg egg-1). Four days post-hatching (dph), morphological changes (body length and malformations), spontaneous locomotor activity (active swimming speed, rate of travel, % inactivity), prey capture ability (Artemia franciscana nauplii) and whole body EROD activity were evaluated in larvae. Untreated larvae collected at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 dph were also examined. PCB126 did not increase the mortality or malformation rates. Body length and spontaneous locomotor activity were altered only in larvae treated with the highest dose. Treatment with PCB126 caused a dose-responsive reduction in prey capture ability (rate of decline in the number of Artemia) and induction of EROD activity. The lowest observed effective dose for both of these responses was 5.0 pg PCB126 egg-1 or 5.0 TCDD-toxic equivalents pg g-1 egg, using a TCDD-toxic equivalent factor of 0.005 and an egg mass of 5 mg. Prey capture efficiency (number of Artemia captured per feeding strike) was reduced at ≥10.0 pg egg-1. In untreated developing larvae, prey capture ability and efficiency increased as post-hatching development progressed and EROD activity remained low. The pattern of behavioral responses observed in PCB126-exposed Fundulus larvae differed from that observed in less-developed larvae indicating that other mechanisms than retarded development were involved. Behavioral dysfunction was a more sensitive response to PCB126 than morphological alterations and it occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations.©2011 Elsevier Ltd.

VALDEZ DOMINGOS, F.X., C.A. OLIVEIRA RIBEIRO, É PELLETIER, C. ROULEAU, 2011. Tissue distribution and depuration kinetics of waterborne 14C-labeled light PAHs in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Environ. Sci. Technol., 45(7): 2684-2690.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of petrogenic origin are commonly found in estuaries and coastal areas. Though they are known to be toxic to fish, little is known about their uptake and tissue distribution. This paper reports on the results of a study on uptake, elimination, and tissue distribution of three waterborne 14C-labeled PAHs in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, using whole-body autoradiography. After a 24 h exposure to 1 μCi•3 L–1 of 14C-naphthalene, 14C-1-naphthol, and 14C-phenanthrene, fish were transferred to clean water and tissue distribution examined after 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of depuration. All compounds were readily accumulated by fish and were also rapidly eliminated (t0.5 range = 1.1 to 3.0 days). Most of the radioactivity in naphthalene- and phenanthrene-treated fish was found in gall bladder >> liver > intestinal lumen. In naphthol-exposed fish, an important labeling of some brain areas was observed. Brain of naphthalene-exposed fish was also labeled after 24 h depuration, indicating that exposure to naphthalene may result in metabolite accumulation in the brain. This is the first study showing that naphthalene, naphthol, and/or unidentified metabolite(s) can accumulate in brain tissues, which may impair normal brain function.©2011 American Chemical Society

MALTAIS, D., R.L. ROY, 2009. Purification and partial characterization of vitellogenin from shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum)and copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi) and detection in plasma and mucus with a heterologous antibody. Fish. Physiol. Biochem., 35: 241-254.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Vitellogenin (VTG), the egg yolk precursor protein, was purified from plasma of estradiol-3- benzoate (E2B)-treated male shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) and immature copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi) by a two-step chromatographic procedure without precipitation. Intact VTGs appeared as dimers with apparent molecular masses, determined by gel filtration, of ˜425 kDa (copper redhorse) and ˜450 kDa (shorthead redhorse). In native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), dimeric redhorse VTGs appeared as a 520 kDa band. Both VTGs were reduced to a single monomer of ˜150 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing and nonreducing conditions, indicating that monomers are not linked by disulfide bonds in the dimer form. The purified proteins were characterized as phospholipoglycoproteins. Isoelectric focusing of both VTGs revealed components with isoelectric points ranging from 5.3 to 6.0, suggesting charge heterogeneity. The amino acid composition of both VTGs contains a high proportion of nonpolar amino acids and was similar to those of other teleosts. An antibody developed against carp (Cyprinus carpio) VTG showed cross-reactivity with VTG from both redhorse species. Using this antibody, VTG was detected in plasma and surface mucus of E2B-treated redhorse. This is the most extensive report on purification and characterization of vitellogenin from catostomidid species.©2009 Springer

COUILLARD, C.M., B. LAPLATTE, É. PELLETIER, 2009. A fish bioassay to evaluate the toxicity associated with the ingestion of benzo[a]pyrene-contaminated benthic prey. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 28(4): 772-781.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
A bioassay was developed to assess the toxic effects of ingested prey contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus as a predator and the polychaete Nereis virens as a benthic vector. Ten groups of nine male adult Fundulus were exposed for 21 d to 10 different diets of Nereis contaminated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by spiking dead Nereis with BaP (spiked Nereis [SN] diets, 0–26 μg of BaP per gram dry wt) or by exposing living Nereis to a diet, to sediments, or to both contaminated with BaP (exposed Nereis [EN] diets, 0–16 μg/g dry wt). Another group was exposed to commercial fish food, used as reference diet. Condition and prevalence of histopathological changes were not affected. Exposure to the SN diets containing at least 3.5 μg of BaP per gram dry weight caused an induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in the intestine but not in the liver. In contrast, fish exposed to the highest doses (≥13.4 μg of BaP per gram dry wt) had increased cellular proliferation rate in the liver but not in the intestine. Quantifiable levels of free BaP tetrol–like metabolites were detected in the bile of fish exposed to diets containing more than 6.8 μg/g dry weight of BaP, and exhibited a dose–response relationship in fish exposed to SN diets. For a similar dose of BaP, EN and SN diets had similar effects. Thus, the BaP metabolic products that could have been produced in Nereis apparently did not contribute to the biomarkers responses. This bioassay can be applied to a variety of prey contaminated naturally or experimentally with PAHs. The present study supports the use of intestinal biomarkers, in addition to hepatic biomarkers, in environmental monitoring to assess the impact of dietary exposure to PAHs.©2009 SETAC

COUILLARD, C.M., M. LEBEUF, B. LÉGARÉ, S. TROTTIER, 2008. Effects of diazinon on mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) larvae produced from eggs differentially treated with PCB126. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 54(2): 283-291.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
During their formation, fish eggs receive a load of contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their mother and then, after spawning, are exposed to pesticides present in water. This is the first study investigating the interaction between PCBs and organophosphorous pesticides in fish. The effect of diazinon was evaluated in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) larvae produced from eggs differentially treated with 3,3′,4,4′,5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). A few hours after fertilization, eggs were treated topically with a solution of PCB126 (100 pg/μl) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (Group P), DMSO (Group D), or not treated (Group N). Newly hatched larvae from Groups P and D were exposed to diazinon (125–12,900 ng/L) in saltwater and Group N larvae to saltwater alone. Diazinon caused a dose-responsive inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity at environmentally realistic concentrations (≥361 ng/L), with up to 85 % inhibition at 12,900 ng/L. Body length was also inversely related to diazinon at concentrations ≥361 ng/L and was significantly reduced (by 4 %) at 12,900 ng/L compared to controls. Mummichog larvae were highly sensitive to PCB126 with an eightfold induction of the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase at a dose of 710 pg PCB126 or 3.6 pg TCDD-TEQ/g wet weight. Treatment with PCB126 also caused a slight reduction in body length but no effect on ChE activity. This study indicates that the effects of PCB126 and diazinon on body length are cumulative because no significant synergistic or antagonistic interactions were observed. Longer term studies with several doses of PCB126 are needed to fully assess the overall impact of joint exposure to diazinon and PCB126 on growth and survival of fish larvae.©2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

FORTIN, M.-G., C.M. COUILLARD, J. PELLERIN, M. LEBEUF, 2008. Effects of salinity on sublethal toxicity of atrazine to mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) larvae. Mar. Environ. Res., 65(2): 158-170.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Early life stages from a marine fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exEarly life stages from a marine fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to sublethal doses of 3,30,4,40,5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) to evaluate its effects on ecologically relevant responses: growth and behavior. A few hours after fertilisation, eggs were treated topically with PCB126 (2.5e50 pg egg1). Four days post-hatching (dph), morphological changes (body length and malformations), spontaneous locomotor activity (active swimming speed, rate of travel, % inactivity), prey capture ability (Artemia franciscana nauplii) and whole body EROD activity were evaluated in larvae. Untreated larvae collected at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 dph were also examined. PCB126 did not increase the mortality or malformation rates. Body length and spontaneous locomotor activity were altered only in larvae treated with the highest dose. Treatment with PCB126 caused a dose-responsive reduction in prey capture ability (rate of decline in the number of Artemia) and induction of EROD activity. The lowest observed effective dose for both of these responses was 5.0 pg PCB126 egg1 or 5.0 TCDD-toxic equivalents pg g1 egg, using a TCDD-toxic equivalent factor of 0.005 and an egg mass of 5 mg. Prey capture efficiency (number of Artemia captured per feeding strike) was reduced at 10.0 pg egg1. In untreated developing larvae, prey capture ability and efficiency increased as post-hatching development progressed and EROD activity remained low. The pattern of behavioral responses observed in PCB126-exposed Fundulus larvae differed from that observed in less-developed larvae indicating that other mechanisms than retarded development were involved. Behavioral dysfunction was a more sensitive response to PCB126 than morphological alterations and it occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations.posed to sublethal doses of 3,30,4,40,5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) to evaluate its effects on ecologically relevant responses: growth and behavior. A few hours after fertilisation, eggs were treated topically with PCB126 (2.5e50 pg egg1). Four days post-hatching (dph), morphological changes (body length and malformations), spontaneous locomotor activity (active swimming speed, rate of travel, % inactivity), prey capture ability (Artemia franciscana nauplii) and whole body EROD activity were evaluated in larvae. Untreated larvae collected at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 dph were also examined. PCB126 did not increase the mortality or malformation rates. Body length and spontaneous locomotor activity were altered only in larvae treated with the highest dose. Treatment with PCB126 caused a dose-responsive reduction in prey capture ability (rate of decline in the number of Artemia) and induction of EROD activity. The lowest observed effective dose for both of these responses was 5.0 pg PCB126 egg1 or 5.0 TCDD-toxic equivalents pg g1 egg, using a TCDD-toxic equivalent factor of 0.005 and an egg mass of 5 mg. Prey capture efficiency (number of Artemia captured per feeding strike) was reduced at 10.0 pg egg1. In untreated developing larvae, prey capture ability and efficiency increased as post-hatching development progressed and EROD activity remained low. The pattern of behavioral responses observed in PCB126-exposed Fundulus larvae differed from that observed in less-developed larvae indicating that other mechanisms than retarded development were involved. Behavioral dysfunction was a more sensitive response to PCB126 than morphological alterations and it occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations.

COUILLARD, C.M., 2002. A microscale test to measure petroleum oil toxicity to mummichog embryos. Environ. Toxicol., 17: 195-202.

COUILLARD, C.M., P. NELLIS, 1999. Organochlorine contaminants in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) living downstream from a bleached-kraft pulp mill in the Miramichi Estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 18: 2545-2556.

KIRCHHOFF, S., J.-M. SÉVIGNY, C.M. COUILLARD, 1999. Genetic and meristic variations in the mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, living in polluted and reference estuaries. Mar. Environ. Res., 47: 261-283.

COURTENAY, S.C., C.M. COUILLARD, 1998. The mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as a sentinel species for pulp and paper mill EEM surveys in the Atlantic coastal environment. Pages 50-54 in Proceedings of a workshop to assess alternatives to the fish survey component of the environmental effects monitoring program for canadian pulp and paper mills. DFO (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2233).

LEBLANC, J., C.M. COUILLARD, J.-C. F. BRÊTHES, 1997. Modifications of the reproductive period in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) living downstream from a bleached kraft pulp mill in the Miramichi Estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54: 2564-2573.

Nous avons évalué si le début, l'intensité et la durée de la période de ponte étaient modifiés chez des choquemorts (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposés aux effluents d'une usine de pâtes et papiers kraft à blanchiment au chlore (KBC). Le rapport gonadosomatique (RGS), le pourcentage de poissons matures, la fécondité et la taille des oeufs ont été mesurés chez des choquemorts capturés hebdomadairement, entre mai et août 1994, à 4 (M1), 21 (M2) et 39 km (M3) en aval de l'usine de pâtes et papiers kraft à blanchiment au chlore dans l'estuaire de la Miramichi et à deux dites, en amont (B1) et distant de 20 km en aval (B2), dans un estuaire de référence, l'estuaire de la Bouctouche. Dans l'estuaire de la Miramichi, le début de la période de reproduction était retardé et la taille des oeufs inférieure à M1 et à M2, comparé à M3, alors qu'il n'y avait pas de différence dans l'estuaire de la Bouctouche. L'investissement reproducteur des poissons capturés à M1 était plus intense qu'ailleurs, alors que la fécondité et le RGS étaient supérieurs aux maxima de reproduction, et allait à l'encontre de la tendance amont-aval observée dans les deux estuaires. Le facteur de condition n'était pas inférieur à M1, suggérant que la nourriture était plus disponible qu'ailleurs. Des sources de contamination autres que les effluents KBC et (ou) des facteurs naturels peuvent aussi expliquer les réponses observées.

LEBLANC, J., C.M. COUILLARD, 1995. Description de la période de reproduction d'un poisson sentinelle : le choquemort (Fundulus heteroclitus) de l'estuaire de la Miramichi. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2057, 39 p.

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Une connaissance de la période de reproduction du choquemort (Fundulus heteroclitus) de l'estuaire de la Miramichi est essentielle pour la planification d'études écotoxicologiques visant à évaluer les effets des contaminants sur la santé et la reproduction des poissons. Nous avons étudié la période de reproduction chez une population de choquemorts de l'estuaire de la Miramichi en mesurant hebdomadairement, de mai à août 1993, le rapport gonadosomatique, le stade de maturité des gonades, le pourcentage de femelles ayant des oeufs matures, la fécondité, les concentrations plasmatiques d'estradiol et de testostérone. La période de ponte a duré environ 9 semaines, de la fin mai à la fin juillet et elle était discontinue avec 4 pics de ponte. La fécondité individuelle a été estimée à plus de 200 oeufs par acte de ponte et la relation linéaire entre la fécondité et la taille de la femelle a été évaluée. De plus, les changements dans la condition et le rapport hépatosomatique des poissons ont été décrits.

MARCOGLIESE, D.J., 1995. Comparison of parasites of mummichogs and sticklebacks from brackish and freshwater ponds on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Am. Midl. Nat., 133: 333-343 .