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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Andrea M. WEISE

WEISE, A.M., C.J. CROMEY, M.D. CALLIER, P. ARCHAMBAULT, J. CHAMBERLAIN, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2009. Shellfish-DEPOMOD : modelling the biodeposition from suspended shellfish aquaculture and assessing benthic effects. Aquaculture, 288(3-4): 239-253 .

By predicting the dispersal of particulate aquaculture wastes around farm sites, numerical modelling can provide an effective tool to assess the spatial extent of environmental effects. The present paper describes how the aquaculture waste model DEPOMOD (Cromey, C.J., Nickell, T.D., Black, K.D. 2002a. DEPOMOD – modelling the deposition and biological effects of waste solids from marine cage farms. Aquaculture 214, 211-239.), originally developed for finfish aquaculture sites, was adapted and validated for suspended shellfish aquaculture. Field data were collected for species-specific model input parameters (mussel biodeposition rates and particle settling velocities) and several finfish model parameters (farm representation and calculation of aquaculture wastes) were adjusted for the shellfish scenario. Shellfish-DEPOMOD was tested at three coastal mussel Mytilus edulis farms with differing hydrodynamic regimes in Quebec, Canada. For each site, model predictions were compared to observed deposition measured in situ with sediment traps. Sedimentation rates under the three mussel culture sites were ca. Two to five times those observed at corresponding reference sites. Mussel biodeposits were predicted to accumulate within 30 m of the farms in the shallow depositional sites while being dispersed more than 90 m in the deeper dispersive site. At the farm site in Great-Entry Lagoon, model predictions agreed well with field data for the 0+ and 1+ mussel cohorts when the maximum biodeposit production parameter was used. At the farm site in House-Harbour Lagoon, model predictions did not agree with observed sedimentation rates, due most likely to the resuspension and advection of non farm-derived material and complex hydrodynamics. The model correctly predicted the pattern of waste dispersal at the third farm site in Cascapedia Bay, although it underestimated biodeposition. Predicted fluxes may have been underestimated at this site because biodeposits from biofouling communities were not included in the calculation of aquaculture wastes. The relationship between modelled long-term biodeposition and benthic descriptors was assessed for the three farms. Alterations to the benthic community were observed at high biodeposition rates (>15 g m-2d-1). At the most disturbed site, predicted fluxes were best correlated with the Infaunal Trophic Index (ITI) (R=-0.79, P<0.001), followed by AZTI's marine disturbance index (AMBI) (R=0.64, Pb0.001). The potential application of Shellfish-DEPOMOD in terms of the management of shellfish aquaculture sites is discussed.©2008 Elsevier B.V.

McKINDSEY, C.W., M. LECUONA, M. HUOT, A.M. WEISE, 2009. Biodeposit production and benthic loading by farmed mussels and associated tunicate epifauna in Prince Edward Island. Aquaculture, 295(1-2): 44-51 .

An experimental study was done to evaluate the biodeposition dynamics associated with mussels and two fouling tunicates, Ciona intestinalis and Styela clava, in mussel aquaculture in Prince Edward Island (PEI), eastern Canada. The presence of C. intestinalis on small constructed mussel socks increased biodeposition by a factor of about 2 relative to mussel socks without tunicates. S. clava were small and had a negligible effect on total biodeposition from mussel socks although they increased sedimentation rates relative to that of abiotic control socks. Sinking rates of faecal pellets from large C. intestinalis varied between 1.39 and 6.54 cm s- 1 (LSMean = 2.35 cm s- 1). Using biodeposit production and sinking rates and hydrological data obtained in the present study, footprints of benthic loading due to mussel and tunicate biodeposition for a typical mussel farm in PEI were modelled using Shellfish-DEPOMOD. The results show benthic loading below longlines with C. intestinalis to be ca. 2 times greater than those from lines with only mussels with rates of up to 15.2 g m- 2 d- 1. However, given the greater settling rate of C. intestinalis biodeposits relative to mussel biodeposits, the extent of the footprint (≥ 1 g m- 2 d- 1) is similar or even more restrained. Crown Copyright ©2009 Elsevier B.V.

CHAMBERLAIN, J., A.M. WEISE, M. DOWD, J. GRANT, 2006. Modeling approaches to assess the potential effects of shellfish aquaculture on the marine environment ; Approches de modélisation pour évaluer les effets potentiels de la conchyliculture sur le milieu marin. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2006/032, 54 p .

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The purpose of this document is to provide advice on the application of mathematical models as tools for assessing the potential effects of shellfish farming operations on the marine environment. Models that provide predictions of the potential effects of aquaculture operations may be used in the planning phase of developments to assess appropriate farm locations and sizes; to provide guidance to all stakeholders on the potential effects of such developments; and incorporated within management decision frameworks to provide objective assessment of potential environmental risk of such developments. The scale over which the effects of shellfish aquaculture operations may occur, ranging from very localized (within metres) to far-field (kilometers), means that different processes have to be taken into account within models, depending on the type of effect being simulated. This paper presents three different approaches to modeling specific aspects of the effects of shellfish aquaculture. These range from predicting the near field benthic effects from increased flux of waste material, to effects on lower trophic level ecosystems and finally the use of simple index models of waste output to predict ecosystem level impacts. We propose that modeling techniques and methodologies are available that simulate and predict shellfish aquaculture-environment interactions with reasonable predictive capability and could already be of use to Habitat Management. As further data become available and validation exercises are completed, predictive skill and confidence in model outputs will increase

CALLIER, M.D., A.M. WEISE, C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2006. Sedimentation rates in a suspended mussel farm (Great-Entry Lagoon, Canada): biodeposit production and dispersion. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 322: 129-141 .

Experimental and field studies were carried out to characterise biodeposit dynamics in a suspended mussel Mytilus edulis L. farm in Great-Entry Lagoon, eastern Canada. We assessed: (1) the quantity and quality of biodeposits produced by different age classes of mussels, (2) the size-dependent sinking velocity of faeces and (3) the variation in sedimentation rates at different spatial and temporal scales. Individual 0+ mussels produced on average only 63 % of the mass of biodeposits (32.4 mg dry wt d-1 ind.-1 that 1+ mussels did (51.5 mg dry wt d-1 ind.-1. In contrast, the amount of biodeposits produced per unit body weight (dry weight of soft tissue) was greater for 0+ than for 1+ mussels. Faecal pellet sinking velocity ranged from 0.27 to 1.81 cm s-1 for mussels ranging in size from 3 to 7 cm, and was best correlated with faecal pellet width. Sedimentation rates were greater within the farm than at reference sites, supporting the hypothesis that mussel farming increases sedimentation rates. Variations in sedimentation were also observed at small spatial scales and through time. Prior to the harvesting of 1+ mussels, sedimentation rates directly under the 1+ mussel lines were about twice those 10 m distant, between the lines, and in other zones (reference sites and sites in the lease with 0+ mussels). These observations and sedimentation patterns along transects leading away from the mussel farm suggest that biodeposits from the farm are not dispersed broadly. The estimated initial dispersal of faecal pellets ranges from 0-7.4 m (1+ mussels) to 7-24.4 m (0+ mussels).©2006 Inter-Research

FAUCHOT, J., M. LEVASSEUR, S. ROY, R. GAGNON, A.M. WEISE, 2005. Environmental factors controlling Alexandrium tamarense (dinophyceae) growth rate during a red tide event in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada). J. Phycol., 41(2): 263-272 .

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech 1985 is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning in the St. Lawrence Estuary. In July 1998, an A. tamarense red tide developed in the estuary with maximum cell concentrations reaching 2.3 × 106 cells·L-1 in brackish surface waters. To estimate the growth rate of these cells, surface water samples from different locations and days during the bloom were incubated for 5 to 9 days under in situ temperature and light conditions. Growth rates varied both spatially and temporally between 0 and 0.55 day-1, reaching the maximum growth rate reported for this species in culture. High growth rates were measured even during the peak of the red tide, suggesting that the extremely high cell concentrations observed did not solely result from aggregation or physical concentration but also involved active cellular growth. Alexandrium tamarense cells were found over a large range of salinity (20.8-29.5 psu), but high densities and significant growth were only measured when salinity was lower than 24.5 psu. Under these conditions, the number of divisions achieved by A. tamarense was proportional to the amount of nitrate available at the beginning of the incubations, whereas variations in growth rate were apparently controlled by the availability of phosphate. We hypothesize that the ability of A. tamarense to perform vertical migrations and acquire nitrate at night pushes this species toward phosphate limitation in the St. Lawrence Estuary.©2005 Phycological Society of America

GAGNON, R., M. LEVASSEUR, A.M. WEISE, J. FAUCHOT, P.G.C. CAMPBELL, B.J. WEISSENBOECK, A. MERZOUK, M. GOSSELIN, B. VIGNEAULT, 2005. Growth stimulation of Alexandrium tamarense (dinophyceae) by humic substances from the Manicouagan River (eastern Canada). J. Phycol., 41(3): 489-497 .

In the St. Lawrence Estuary, annual recurrent blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense L. Balech are associated with brackish waters. Riverine inputs are suspected to favor bloom development by increasing water column stability and/or by providing growth stimulants such as humic substances (HS). A 17-day culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of HS as growth factors for A. tamarense. Nonaxenic cultures were exposed to four HS extracts from three different sources: humic and fulvic acids isolated from the Manicouagan River, Quebec, Canada; humic acids from the Suwannee River, Georgia, United States; and a desalted alkaline soil extract. For each extract, four concentrations were tested as supplements to the artificial Keller medium, a nitrate-rich algal culture medium. Additions of HS from all sources significantly enhanced the overall growth rates relative to the controls. Concentrations of HS, estimated by UV spectrophotometry, remained constant throughout the exponential growth phase, suggesting that the HS were acting mainly as growth promoters during our experiment. Dose-response curves indicated that HS could increase the growth rate of A. tamarense even at low concentrations, such as those encountered in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Our results support the hypothesis that HS from the Manicouagan River plume can stimulate the development of toxic dinoflagellate blooms.©2005 Phycological Society of America

GENDRON, L., A.M. WEISE, M. FRECHETTE, P. OUELLET, C.W. McKINDSEY, L. GIRARD, 2003. Evaluation of the potential of cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) to ingest state I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae. Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 274, 20 p .

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In Quebec, mussel aquaculture is expanding rapidly and is being developed in areas where lobster is present and where lobster larvae are likely to be found. Lobster fishermen are concerned that mussel aquaculture could pose a threat to lobster larvae. They believe that cultured mussels may ingest or otherwise kill lobster larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) to ingest stage I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae and, if this does occur, determine whether this ingestion kills or other wise harms the larvae.

LEVASSEUR, M., J.-Y. COUTURE, A.M. WEISE, S. MICHAUD, M. ELBRACHTER, G. SAUVÉ, E. BONNEAU, 2003. Pelagic and epiphytic summer distributions of prorocentrum lima and P. mexicanum at two mussel farms in the Gulf of St.Lawrence, Canada. Aquat. Microbiol. Ecol., 30: 283-293 .

GENDRON, L., A.M. WEISE, M. FRECHETTE, P. OUELLET, C.W. McKINDSEY, L. GIRARD, 2003. Évaluation du potentiel des moules d’élevage (Mytilus edulis) à ingérer des larves de homard (Homarus americanus) de stade I. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 274, 20 p .

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In Quebec, mussel aquaculture is expanding rapidly and is being developed in areas where lobster is present and where lobster larvae are likely to be found. Lobster fishermen are concerned that mussel aquaculture could pose a threat to lobster larvae. They believe that cultured mussels may ingest or otherwise kill lobster larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) to ingest stage I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae and, if this does occur, determine whether this ingestion kills or other wise harms the larvae.

WEISE, A.M., M. LEVASSEUR, F.J. SAUCIER, S. SENNEVILLE, E. BONNEAU, S. ROY, G. SAUVÉ, S. MICHAUD, J. FAUCHOT, 2002. The link between precipitation, river runoff, and blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in the St. Lawrence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 59: 464-473 .

Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning, are annually recurrent events in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada. The analysis of abundance data for this algal species between 1989 and 1998 at Sept-Iles, a presumed initiation site in the north-western Gulf of St. Lawrence, revealed yearly fluctuations in the onset, duration, and magnitude of toxic A. tamarense blooms. Hydrological and meteorological data for the region indicate that rainfall, Moisie River runoff, and wind are highly related to the pattern of bloom development each year. Results from the 10-year data set reveal that in this system: 1) high Moisie River runoff from a prolonged spring freshet or from heavy rainfall events in the summer and fall can initiate A. tamarense blooms; 2) high Moisie River runoff combined with prolonged periods of weak winds (<  4 m times s-1) favour the continued development of blooms; and 3) winds > 8 m times s-1 disrupt blooms. Salinity, which reflects the general state of the water column in terms of freshwater input and stability, had a strong negative correlation with the probability of observing A. tamarense cells at this station and could thus be used as a predictive tool for the presence of cells in this system.

WEISE, A., 2001. Phytoplankton monitoring related to toxin distribution, and innovations and application of biotoxin assessment related to public health issues. Pages 142-146 in J. N. C. Whyte (ed.). Proceedings of the 7th Canadian Workshop on Harmful Marine Algae (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2386) .

LEVASSEUR, M., A. WEISE, F. SAUCIER, 2001. Potential sensitivity of harmful algal blooms to climate changes. Pages 15-16 in Report of the ICES/IOC Working Group on Harmful Algal Bloom Dynamics. Dublin, Ireland, 12-16 March 2001 (ICES C.M., 2001/C:04) .

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WEISE. A.M., C. NALEWAJKO, K. LEE, 1999. Oil-mineral fine interactions facilitate oil biodegradation in seawater. Environ. Technol., 20: 811-824 .

LEE, K., A.M. WEISE, S. ST-PIERRE, 1997. Enhanced oil biodegradation with mineral fine interaction. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull., 3: 263-267 .

LEE, K., A.M. WEISE, T. LUNEL, 1997. Marine oil spills : enhanced biodegradation with mineral fine interaction. Pages 365-370 in In situ and on-site bioremediation, volume 4 .

WEISE, A.M., K. LEE, 1997. The effect of clay-oil flocculation on natural oil degradation. Pages 955-956 in 1997 International Oil Spill Conference : improving environmental protection : progress, challenges, responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida .

LEE, K., A.M. WEISE, S. ST-PIERRE, 1997. Enhanced oil biodegradation with mineral fine interaction. Pages 715-722 in Proceedings : Twentieth Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, June 11 to 13, 1997, Vancouver, British Columbia .