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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Gordon WALSH

CHAREST, P., G. WALSH, 1997. La récolte faunique des Mamiunnuat au début des années 1980. Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, XXVII: 39-47 .

INSTITUT MAURICE-LAMONTAGNE. DIRECTION DES SCIENCES; CENTRE DES PÊCHES DU GOLFE, DIRECTION DES SCIENCES, INSTITUT OCÉANOGRAPHIQUE DE BEDFORD, 1996. Conséquences potentielles d'un déversement de BPC provenant de la barge Irving Whale sur le milieu marin du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Direction des sciences; Centre des pêches du Golfe, Direction des sciences et Institut océanographique de Bedford, 53 p .

This document provides scientific advice on the potential impacts of s PCB spill from deht barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Although all available information was collected to assess the potential impacts of a PCB spill, the paucity of data on PCBs in the Gulf as well as the limitations of the models used mean that it is the order of magnitude of the results which should be focuses on, and not the numbers thermselsves. Two independent approaches were used to build a PCB mass budget for the Estuary and Gulf system. The resulting estimate of the present total load of PCBs in the Estuary and Gulf is in the order of 72 - 85 metric tonnes (T), more than 80 % of the total load being associated with sediments. PCBs initially contained in the barge (7.25 T) would then represent about 8 -10 % of the estimated total load. Three different scenarios for a possible PCB spill from the Irving Whale were examined : 1) a slow intermittent or continuous leak of PCBs from the barge; 2) a large release of PCBs from the barge near the bottom; and 3) a large release pf PCBs from the barge in surface waters. While the first scenario could occur if the barge is left unremediated, the secon and third scenarios are largely related to salvage operations. The report examines the possible fate of PCBs and their potential impacts for each of these scenarios.

MAURICE LAMONTAGNE INSTITUTE. SCIENCE BRANCH, GULF FISHERIES CENTRE, SCIENCE BRANCH, BEDFORD INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY, 1996. Potential consequences of a PCB spill from the barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Gulf Fisheries Centre & Bedford Institute of Oceanography, 51 p .

This document provides scientific advice on the potential impacts of s PCB spill from the barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Although all available information was collected to assess the potential impacts of a PCB spill, the paucity of data on PCBs in the Gulf as well as the limitations of the models used mean that it is the order of magnitude of the results which should be focuses on, and not the numbers thermselsves. Two independent approaches were used to build a PCB mass budget for the Estuary and Gulf system. The resulting estimate of the present total load of PCBs in the Estuary and Gulf is in the order of 72 - 85 metric tonnes (T), more than 80 % of the total load being associated with sediments. PCBs initially contained in the barge (7.25 T) would then represent about 8 - 10 % of the estimated total load. Three different scenarios for a possible PCB spill from the Irving Whale were examined : 1) a slow intermittent or continuous leak of PCBs from the barge; 2) a large release of PCBs from the barge near the bottom; and 3) a large release pf PCBs from the barge in surface waters. While the first scenario could occur if the barge is left unremediated, the secon and third scenarios are largely related to salvage operations. The report examines the possible fate of PCBs and their potential impacts for each of these scenarios.

WALSH, G., A. BOURGEOIS (ed.), 1996. July 1996 floods in Québec : identification of potential impacts on the marine environment and freshwater habitats in the Saguenay, North Shore, and Charlevoix Regions. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2382, 20 p .

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This report provides and assessment of the potential impacts of the July 1996 floods on the marine environment and freshwater habitats in the Saguenay, North Shore and Charlevoix regions. Overall, the most impacted sectors are situated in Ha! Ha! Bay and on the various waterways in The Saguenay area. On the North Shore and in the Charlevoix region, damage to the marine environment and freshwater habitats was less severe and less widespread. The main impacts observed on the tributaries of the Saguenay consist in severe erosion of the riverbanks and riverbed, along with a mass flushing of fish species downriver. The alterations observed in the marine environment are attributable to the influx of sediments and assorted debris that were deposited on the sea bed. These deposits likely had considerable effects on benthic fauna an aquatic weedbeds, resulting in a loss of spawning and feeding habitats for several species. Based on new information collected by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) and other scientific organizations, DFO's Science Sector plans to continue its evaluation work concerning the impacts of the floods and, as required, will recommend future action appropriate for the follow-up of the state of the marine environment, fishery resources, and use of the Saguenay marine environment.

WALSH, G., A. BOURGEOIS (éd.), 1996. Inondations de juillet 1996 au Québec : identification des impacts potentiels sur le milieu marin et les habitats d'eau douce dans les régions du Saguenay, de la Côte-Nord et de Charlevoix. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2382, 21 p .

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This report provides an assessment of the potential impacts of the July 1996 floods on the marine environment and freshwater habitats in the Saguenay, North Shore and Charlevoix regions. Overall, the most impacted sectors are situated in Ha! Ha! Bay and on the various waterways in the Saguenay area. On the North Shore and in Charlevoix region, damage to the marine environment and freshwater habitats was less severe and less widespread. The main impacts observed on the tributaries of the Saguenay consist in severe erosion of the riverbanks and riverbed, along with a mass flushing of fish species downriver. The alterations observed in the marine environment are attributable to the influx of sediments and assorted debris that were deposited on the sea bed. These deposits likely had considerable effects on benthic fauna and aquatic weedbeds, resulting in a loss of spawning and feeding habitats for several species. Based on new information collected by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) and other scientific organizations, DFO's Science Sector plans to continue its evaluation work concerning the impacts of the floods and, as required, will recommend future action appropriate for the follow-up of the state of the marine environment, fishery resources, and use of the Saguenay marine environment.

GILBERT, M., D. GAUTHIER, J.A. GAGNÉ, Y. GRATTON, P. LAROUCHE, B. MORIN, R. MORIN, J.A. PERCY, T.G. SMITH, G.-H. TREMBLAY, G. WALSH, 1996. Hypothèses reliées aux effets environnementaux du projet Grande Baleine sur l'écosystème marin côtier du sud-est de la baie d'Hudson. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2127, 67 p .

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The possible realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric development project could have significant biophysical impacts on the coastal marine environment of southeastern Hudson Bay.This document presents the results of discussions held within a working group composed of scientific personnel of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans - Laurentian Region that defined, in the form of hypotheses and research proposals, the environmental aspects related to the realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric project. These aspects mainly concern the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of southeastern Hudson Bay as well as the biology of some important species of fish and marine mammals inhabiting this region. A brief description of the actual and planned hydroelectric developments in the hydrographic basin of James and Hudson bays, as well as a synthesis of ongoing research activities and knowledge acquired to date on the marine environment of this region, are also presented.

GILBERT, M., G. WALSH (éd.), 1996. Conséquences potentielles d'un déversement de BPC provenant de la barge Irving Whale sur le milieu marin du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Potential consequences of a PCB spill from the barge Irvin Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2113, 62 p .

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This report describes the potential consequences of a possible PCB spill from the barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The description of impacts is based on : 1) the physical characteristics and fisheries resources present in the Gulf of St. Law-rence and more specifically in the vicinity of the barge; 2) the physical and chemical characteristics of PCBs as well as their bioaccumulation and toxicity in the marine environment; 3) known accidental spills of PCBs in the aquatic environment; 4) their distribution and mass budget in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence; 5) the location of PCBs in the barge and the associated current levels of contamination of sediments and organisms near the Irving Whale; and 6) the modelling of the potential behaviour and dispersion of PCBs when large quantities are spilled in the enviroment. Potential impacts are examined according to three different hypothetical scenarios of a PCB spill : a slow intermittent or continuous leak of PCBs contained in the barge and major spills of PCBs close to the bottom or close to the surface during the lifting operations of the Irving Whale. Finally, general orientations are proposed for an eventual monitoring program in light of the available information and research needs on PCBs in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and in the vicinity of the barge.

DRAPEAU, G., D. LAVALLÉE, J.F. DUMAIS, G. WALSH, 1993. Dispersion model of dredge spoil dumped in coastal waters. Pages 3054-3067 in Coastal engineering, 1992 : proceedings of the twenty-third International Conference, October 4-9, 1992, Venice, Italy. American Society of Civil Engineers .

MORIN, B., G. WALSH, C. AUDET, L. LAPIERRE, 1992. Histopathologie des branchies et du foie de poisson comme indicateur de la qualité des habitats aquatiques du Saint-Laurent. Pages 128-130 in A.J. Niimi & M.C. Taylor (éd.). Comptes rendus du dix-huitième atelier annuel sur la toxicité aquatique, 30 septembre au 3 octobre 1991, Ottawa, Ontario (Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1863) .

WALSH, G., Y. LAVERGNE, 1991. Sédimentation et dispersion des déblais de dragage en mer et effets sur la moule bleue (Mytilus edulis) en élevage dans la baie des Chaleurs. Pages 55-73 in Atelier de planification sur les mollusques et la pollution marine, les 12-13 septembre 1990, Percé. Ministère de l'agriculture, des pêcheries et de l'alimentation, Québec .

VAILLANCOURT, R., D. VÉZINA, G. WALSH, 1990. Revue des indicateurs d'effets sous-létaux des contaminants en milieu aquatique. Pages 203-223 in D. Messier, P. Legendre & C.E. Delisle (éd.). Symposium sur le Saint-Laurent : un fleuve à reconquérir. Association des biologistes du Québec et Centre Saint-Laurent (Collection environnement et géologie, 11) .

JACQUAZ, B., L. COUILLARD, M. PELLETIER, M. SARRAZIN, G. WALSH, 1990. Étude bio-physique de l'habitat du poisson de quatre barachois de la baie des Chaleurs. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2089, 131 p .

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Between spring 1984 and winter 1985 a description of the "barachois" (regional term for lagoon) at Carleton, Bonaventure, Hopetown and Paspebiac on the north shore of baie des Chaleurs was carried out; the role of these "barachois" as fish habitat was also addressed. Features documented include morphology, sedimentology, currents, physical chemistry, plants, zooplankton, benthos and fish. The study shows that each lagoon is distinctive in all these respects, with freshwater input being the most important determinant of the differences. The study brings out the role of the lagoons in the migration of salmonids from saltwater to freshwater, as well as their role in spawning, juvenile rearing and feeding for at least ten commercial species of fish. These habitats should be protected against any change that might endanger their ecological balance.

BERGERON, P., M. FRÉCHETTE, L. PAGÉ, Y. LAVERGNE, G. WALSH, 1990. Sédimentation et dispersion des déblais de dragage en mer et effets sur la moule bleue (Mytilus edulis) en élevage dans la baie des Chaleurs. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1746, 59 p .

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Dredging operations conducted along the wharf in Carleton and Saint-Godefroi yielded respectively a total of 1,903 and 3,660 m3 of deposits. This material was dumped offshore approximately 2,5 nautical miles from the coast and its dispersal was monitored with an echosounder and a transmissometer along compass courses radiating from the dumping site. Water transparency was analyzed along with data collected on grain-size frequency distribution, current speed and direction in order to estimate dispersal rates and sediment motions. A maximal reduction of 47,2 % of initial water transparency was recorded within 50 m of the dumping site. The coarse-grained fraction of the sediments sinked within one to three minutes close to the dumping site. Sediment dispersal was generally unidirectional and the size of the plume estimated with sounder echoes was below 20 m in diameter. Reduction of water transparency droped to 5-15 % of pre-dredging values 0,75 nautical mile from the source indicating that near complete dispersal and deposition of particulates were achieved within approximately 1 mile in the direction of prevailing currents. Results do not indicate any immediatly or long term effects (3 months) of the presence of dredged sediments on filtration rates, growth and mortality of transplanted cultured mussels. High sinking rate and limited dispersal of dredged material along with the net water movement during dumping activities however suggest that mussels may not have experienced high loads of suspended material during the study.

THERRIAULT, J.-C., J. PAINCHAUD, P. HODSON, M. CASTONGUAY, G. WALSH, J. GEARING, M. KINGSLEY, B. TESSIER, 1990. Le plan d'action Saint-Laurent à la Direction des sciences, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne : orientations et objectifs. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2055, 15 p .

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The authors from the Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Quebec, Canada, present a research plan that will add to their knowledge of the causes and effects of the chemical pollution of the St. Lawrence River.

BERTRAND, P., G. VERREAULT, Y. VIGNEAULT, G. WALSH, 1988. Biphényles polychlorés dans les sédiments et les organismes marins de la Baie-des-Anglais (Côte-Nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent). Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1669, 42 p .

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Since 1983, the Baie-des-Anglais is considered to be the coastal area most contaminated by PCB in the St . Lawrence estuary. Local industrial effluent pourings are at the origin of this contamination. This study has defined the PCB dispersion pattern, identified and determined the extent of the long term accumulation area and established an accumulation rate of contaminated sediments. In this perspective, biological (Buccinum undatum L. and Mytilus edulis L.) and physico-chemical indicators (sediments, Pb, Zn and Cs-137) have been utilized. In the Baie-des-Anglais, the dispersion pattern extends from the Anse du Moulin, t o about 4 km Baie Comeau at depths up t o 70-80 m. A more permanent accumulation zone takes place at the center of this dispersion pattern where the contaminated particules in suspension are accumulated in sediments at a rate of 0,2 cm yr-1. Contamination of the marine organism seems t o confirm this dispersion model. A significant relationship between the PCB content in sediments and whelk of the Baie-des-Anglais is observed.

WALSH, G., R. MORIN, R.J. NAIMAN, 1988. Daily rations, diel feeding activity and distribution of age-0 brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in two subarctic streams. Environ. Biol. Fishes, 21: 195-205 .

LACHANCE, M., D. BROUARD, G. WALSH, 1988. Airborne transport of sulphur : impacts on chemical composition of rivers on North Shore of the St. Lawrence River (Québec). Water Air Soil Pollut., 39: 311-322 .

WALSH, G., G. VERREAULT, Y. VIGNEAULT, 1987. Acidification minérale et organique des rivières de la Côte-Nord (golfe du Saint-Laurent). Naturaliste can., 114: 269-282 .

LACHANCE, M., D. BROUARD, G. WALSH, 1987. Importance du transport atmosphérique du soufre dans la composition chimique des rivières de la Côte-Nord du fleuve Saint-Laurent (Québec). Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Rapport scientifique, 231), 20 p .

WALSH, G., Y. VIGNEAULT, 1986. Analyse de la qualité de l'eau de rivières de la Côte-Nord du golfe Saint-Laurent en relation avec les processus d'acidification. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1540, 118 p .

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Physico-chemical data from 33 rivers of the North Shore of the St. Lawrence River, sampled periodically from 1981 to 1986, were analyzed within a research program on acid deposition. The river watersheds are very sensitive to acid fallouts in view of the weak weatherability of the bedrock (granite and granite gneiss) and the noncalcareous surface deposits as well as the low levels of alkalinity (mean ± standard deviation : 59 ± 50 µeq HCO3-/l) and conductivity (21 ± 8 µS/cm) of the surface waters. During the spring snowmelt, the pH levels of several rivers dropped below 5.5 and, in some cases, the alkalinity practically disappeared. Non-marine sulfates concentrations followed a decreasing gradient from west to east. Background SO4-2 concentrations were around 20-30 µeq/l. Estimated organic anions were high (46 ± 12 µeq RCOO-/l), representing 36 % (± 14 %) of the anions. The use of a model showed a marked spring acidification for most of the rivers. The integration of RCOO- in the model revealed the acidification was due, for several rivers, to organic acids, which are important in the ionic equilibrium of fluvial waters of the North Shore, especially in the eastern portion of the study area.