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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Gilles H. TREMBLAY

GIGUÈRE, N., P. NELLIS, G.H. TREMBLAY, M. GIANGIOPPI, H.-F. ELLEFSEN, A. MAGASSOUBA, S. COMTOIS, C. SAVENKOFF, R.DUFOUR, 2011. Risk assessment procedure : development of tools and application in the capelin spawning. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,2947, 44 p .

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This pilot project is linked to current national work and applies the theoretical notions of a risk analysis in the context of a real situation: capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. While phase I resulted in the identification and the formulation of the problem through the development of Pathways of Effects (PoE) models, phase II, presented in this report, focusses on the development of a proposed risk assessment procedure and associated tools to be applied. The procedure is composed of four types of analysis: analyses of predicted conditions, measured conditions, and desired conditions, and a comparative analysis of conditions. The human activities and stressors identified in PoE models that potentially affect the capelin spawning / larval retention area were used to develop and apply the tools. To do this, Gallix beach, located in the region of Sept-Îles (Quebec, Canada), was selected as the ecological unit of reference. The proposed risk assessment procedure contributed to the development of a tool to analyze the predicted conditions. To carry out the three remaining types of analysis, other avenues were explored. All in all, the second phase of the pilot project demonstrated that tools can be developed to be versatile, flexible, and to perform well when used in a real context. Lastly, the work confirmed that risk assessment within a risk analysis process can help decision makers define priorities and subsequently focus their efforts on the management and regulation of activities that have greater potential social, cultural, or economic impacts.

GIGUÈRE, N., L. PERREAULT, P. NELLIS, C. SAVENKOFF, F.BILODEAU, M. GIANGIOPPI, G.H. TREMBLAY, R. DUFOUR, S. COMTOIS, F. GRÉGOIRE, 2011. Pathways of effects (PoE) model development for capelin conservation as part of a risk analysis process. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2934, 78 p .

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The purpose of the first phase of this pilot project was to create Pathways of Effects (PoE) models for capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence as part of a risk analysis process. When conducting this type of analysis, the PoE is created during the identification and problem formulation phase, the goal being to identify the potential relationships that exist between human activities, the stressors generated, and their impacts on a component of the ecosystem, and consequently on the communities that depend on this component. This project is related to the current national work on risk analysis and applies the theoretical notions established in the earlier work in the context of a real situation. In this context, capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence was identified for this project, since capelin is a key species in the marine food chain. During this phase, six PoE models were developed, each illustrating one view of capelin conservation that is either general or specific. Together, these models serve illustrate the relationships that exist between the ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural components as well as such key ecological parameters as the quantity and quality of capelin spawning / larval retention habitat and capelin abundance. The development and application of PoE models using a real situation have confirmed their usefulness as tools for integrating knowledge and for communication; PoEs also play a role in providing support for decision-making and guidance for subsequent steps in the risk analysis process.

GIGUÈRE, N., L. PERREAULT, P. NELLIS, C. SAVENKOFF, F. BILODEAU, M. GIANGIOPPI, G.H. TREMBLAY, R. DUFOUR, S. COMTOIS, F. GRÉGOIRE, 2011. Réalisation de modèles de séquence des effets (SdE) appliqués à la conservation du capelan dans le cadre d'une approche d'analyse de risque. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2934, 83 p .

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The purpose of the first phase of this pilot project was to create Pathways of Effects (PoE) models for capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence as part of a risk analysis process. When conducting this type of analysis, the PoE is created during the identification and problem formulation phase, the goal being to identify the potential relationships that exist between human activities, the stressors generated, and their impacts on a component of the ecosystem, and consequently on the communities that depend on this component. This project is related to the current national work on risk analysis and applies the theoretical notions established in the earlier work in the context of a real situation. In this context, capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence was identified for this project, since capelin is a key species in the marine food chain. During this phase, six PoE models were developed, each illustrating one view of capelin conservation that is either general or specific. Together, these models serve illustrate the relationships that exist between the ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural components as well as such key ecological parameters as the quantity and quality of capelin spawning / larval retention habitat and capelin abundance. The development and application of PoE models using a real situation have confirmed their usefulness as tools for integrating knowledge and for communication; PoEs also play a role in providing support for decision-making and guidance for subsequent steps in the risk analysis process.

GIGUÈRE, N., P. NELLIS, G.H. TREMBLAY, M. GIANGIOPPI, H.-F. ELLEFSEN, A. MAGASSOUBA, S. COMTOIS, C. SAVENKOFF, R. DUFOUR, 2011. Démarche d’évaluation du risque : développement d’outils et application à la zone de fraie et d’alevinage du capelan. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2947, 45 p .

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This pilot project is linked to current national work and applies the theoretical notions of a risk analysis in the context of a real situation: capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. While phase I resulted in the identification and the formulation of the problem through the development of Pathways of Effects (PoE) models, phase II, presented in this report, focusses on the development of a proposed risk assessment procedure and associated tools to be applied. The procedure is composed of four types of analysis: analyses of predicted conditions, measured conditions, and desired conditions, and a comparative analysis of conditions. The human activities and stressors identified in PoE models that potentially affect the capelin spawning / larval retention area were used to develop and apply the tools. To do this, Gallix beach, located in the region of Sept-Îles (Quebec, Canada), was selected as the ecological unit of reference. The proposed risk assessment procedure contributed to the development of a tool to analyze the predicted conditions. To carry out the three remaining types of analysis, other avenues were explored. All in all, the second phase of the pilot project demonstrated that tools can be developed to be versatile, flexible, and to perform well when used in a real context. Lastly, the work confirmed that risk assessment within a risk analysis process can help decision makers define priorities and subsequently focus their efforts on the management and regulation of activities that have greater potential social, cultural, or economic impacts.

LEE, K., G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, S.E. COBANLI, A.D. VENOSA, M.T. SUIDAN, S. GARCIA-BLANCO, C.W. GREER, G.H. TREMBLAY, K.G. DOE, 2005. Habitat recovery in an oil-contaminated salt marsh following biorestoration treatments. Pages 10176-10181 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005 .

Wetlands are among the most sensitive of habitats to oil spills. A field experiment was conducted on a salt morsh in Atlantic Canada to determine the significance of bioremediation by nutrient enrichment in enhancing wetland restoration. Six experimental treatments were monitored: (1) unoiled control (2) unoiled control + nutrients, (3) oil with no treatment (natural attenuation), (4) oil + nutrients, (5) oil + nutrients with plants cut back, (6) oil + nutrients with disking (tilling) to enrich oxygen penetration. Remediation success was quantified by determining changes in the composition and concentration of the residual oil, plant recovery and reduction in sediment toxicity. The experimental results advocate natural attenuation as the clean-up strategy for the ecotype under study. Within the untreated plots, significant recovery of the predominant plant species within the marsh (Spartina alterniflora) was observed after 20 weeks and approximately 90 % of the resolved n-alkanes and 70 % of the parent and alkyl-substituted polyaromotic hydrocarbons (PAH) were biodegraded.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

GILBERT, D., B. SUNDBY, C. GOBEIL, A. MUCCI, G.-H. TREMBLAY, 2005. A seventy-two-year record of diminishing deep-water oxygen in the St. Lawrence estuary: the northwest Atlantic connection. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5): 1654-1666 .

Oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters of the Lower St. Lawrence estuary (LSLE) decreased from 125 αmol L-1 (37.7 % saturation) in the 1930s to an average of 65 αmol L-1 (20.7 % saturation) for the 1984-2003 period. A concurrent 1.65 °C warming of the bottom water from the 1930s to the 1980s suggests that changes in the relative proportions of cold, fresh, oxygen-rich Labrador Current Water (LCW) and warm, salty, oxygen-poor North Atlantic Central Water (NACW) in the water mass entering the Laurentian Channel probably played a role in the oxygen depletion. We estimate that about one half to two thirds of the oxygen loss in the bottom waters of the LSLE can be attributed to a decreased proportion of LCW. This leaves between one third and one half of the oxygen decrease to be explained by causes other than changes in water mass composition. An increase in the along-channel oxygen gradient from Cabot Strait to the LSLE over the past decades, combined with data from sediment cores, suggests that increased sediment oxygen demand may be partly responsible for the remainder of the oxygen decline. In July 2003, approximately 1,300 km2 of seafloor in the LSLE was bathed in hypoxic water (<62.5 αmol L-1).©2005 The American Society of Limnollogy and Oceanography

CRANFORD, P.J., S.L. ARMSWORTHY, S. McGEE, T. KING, K. LEE, G.H. TREMBLAY, 2005. Scallops as sentinel organisms for off-shore environmental effects monitoring. Pages 267-296 in S.L. Armsworthy, P.J. Cranford & K.Lee (ed.). Offshore oil and gas environmental effects monitoring : approaches and technologies. Battelle Press .

Two environmental effects monitoring approaches were tested at the Hibernia offshore oil production field. Both methods use bivalves as sentinel organisms for assessing operational waste bioavailability, and for relating contaminant exposure and dose to the onset of biological effects. Bivalve cages containing caged Icelandic and sea scallops and blue mussels were placed on the seabed at different distances to the Hibernia platform. Lethal and sublethal (shell and tissue growth) impacts and hydrocarbon body burden measurements were used to assess the spatial extent of contamination and benthic impacts from drilling activities. The second monitoring approach utilised an in situ biological effects monitoring system (HABITRAP) that provided daily measurements of drilling waste exposure (barium and hydrocarbon sedimentation rate) and bivalve biodeposition rate, a measure known to be sensitive to the presence of drilling wastes. Additional supporting technologies developed for this study included an inexpensive subsurface float release mechanism for the bivalve cages that prevented mooring loss from ship collisions with surface floats, and a new barium extraction methodology that was developed to improve recovery from sediment containing high barite concentrations. Standard extraction methods were shown to inefficiently extract barite at concentrations greater than 200 μg/g. Observations of bivalve responses to temporal and spatial variations in metal and hydrocarbon contaminants are compared with the results of benthic community analysis.©2005 Battelle Press

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, J.E.H. WILSON, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 2005. Natural recovery reduces impact of the 1970 ARROW oil spill. Pages 4999-5003 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005 .

In 1970 the tanker ARROW ran aground releasing 2,000 m3 of Bunker C crude oil along 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline, of which only 10 % was subjected to cleanup, the rest was left to degrade naturally. Sediment and interstitial water collected in 1993 and 1997 from Black Duck Cove in Chedabucto Bay, a representative untreated site, showed that the remaining residual oil has undergone substantial biodegradation. The environmental significance of this intrinsic remediation process was assessed with a battery of microscale biotests: CYP1A and mixed function oxygenase induction in winter flounder, Amphipod Survival, Echinoid Fertilization, Grass Shrimp Embryo-Larval Toxicity, Microtox® Solid-Phase and 100 % Tests. While much oil remains in the sediment (426-12,744 ppm), results of the biotests show that it is of low toxicity and habitat recovery is evident from the level of benthic diversity.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, S.E. COBANLI, M. GRIFFIN, 2005. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation : a paradox between laboratory and field results. Pages 626-634 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference : prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, May 15-19, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida .

In both shaker-flask and mesocosm-scale experiments, a commercial oleophilic bioremediation agent containing biostimulation (nutrients) and bioaugmentation (bacterial inocula) properties was more effective in enhancing oil biodegradation rates than that of no treatment and/or periodic inorganic nutrient addition. However, similar results were not obtained from subsequent 129-days field trial conducted in a sand beach environment. In this case, periodic additions of inorganic nutrients, with and without the commercial bioremediation agent, enhanced the number of heterotrophic bacteria and microbial respiration rates within the oiled sediments. The commercial product appeared to elevate the number of oil-degrading bacteria within the oiled sediment between days 17 and 89. However, the addition of inorganic nutrients alone, on a periodic basis, was the most effective means of enhancing the extent of oil biodegradation within the residual oil and of reducing sediment toxicity. By retaining residual oil and altering the physical and chemical characteristics of the treated sediment, the oleophilic product suppressed both the rate and extent of oil loss by tidal activity and biodegradation. This is not to say that the use of the product was ineffective in protecting the environment or was detrimental to it; the product does enhance natural biodegradation rates, and it limits the transport of beached oil to more sensitive areas. This study clearly illustrates the complexity associated with the selection of bioremediation agents, the need for improved experimental protocols for evaluating the performance and toxicity of bioremediation agents, and the potential of nutrient enrichment as a bioremediation strategy.©2005 The Authors

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, E.M. LEVY, 2005. Bioremediation : application of slow-release fertilizers on low-energy shorelines. Page 730 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005 .

In situ biodegradation, the activation of microbial processes capable of destroying contaminants where they are found in the environment, is a biological process that responds rapidly to changing environmental factors. Accordingly, in situ sediment enclosures were used to test the efficacy of selected nutrient formulations to enhance the biodegradation of a waxy crude oil in a low-energy shoreline environment. The addition of soluble inorganic fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) and slow-release nutrient formulations (sulfur coated urea) stimulated microbial activity and prolonged the period of oil degradation, despite a decline in seasonal temperatures. Low temperatures reduced the permeability of the coating on the slow release fertilizers, effectively suppressing nutrient release. Of the nutrient formulations evaluated, we recommend the application of granular slow-release fertilizers (such as sulfur-coated urea) when the overlying water temperatures are above 15 °C, and the application of soluble inorganic fertilizers (such as ammonium nitrate) at lower temperatures. Comprehensive analysis of the experimental results indicate that application protocols for bioremediation (form and type of fertilizer or type and frequency of application), be specifically tailored to account for differences in environmental parameters (including oil characteristics) at each contaminated site.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, 2005. Evaluating the addition of fine particles to enhance oil degradation. Pages 2699-2704 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005 .

Natural biodegradation rates of oil within the marine environment are partly controlled by surface availability, as microbial attack primarily occurs at the oilwater interface. Therefore, increasing the surface area of residual oil by the addition of fine oleophilic particles may prove to be an effective bioremediation strategy. Considering commercial availability and cost, heat-treated peat was identified to be a promising particle source as it has high oil absorption properties and does not compete with oil as an alternative carbon source to oil-degrading bacteria. A preliminary laboratory experiment conducted with a respirometry system demonstrated the feasibility of nutrient and peat additions to enhance the metabolic activity of bacteria within oil-contaminated sand beach sediments. Field trials were conducted with similar peat and nutrient concentrations in a north-temperate beach environment with weathered Scotian Light crude oil over a 138-day period. The rates of microbial respiration and productivity were enhanced significantly above unoiled and oiled control sediments with the addition of inorganic nutrients with and without peat amendments. Treatment of sediments with inorganic nutrients and peat did not increase the toxicity of the residual oil. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis was used to quantify bioremediation success by normalizing the loss of individual components to the conserved marker 17α(H), 21β(H)-hopane. While there is evidence of a stimulatory effect with the addition of peat, results suggest that nutrient availability in the interstitial water limited optimal rates of oil bioremediation.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, S.E COBANLI, 2005. Bioremediation of oiled beach sediments : assessment of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Pages 708-723 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005 .

The effects of inorganic (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) and organic (fish bone-meal) fertilizers on the biodegradation rates of Venture condensate within a sand-beach environment were assessed over 333 days. Field results showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated microbial growth and metabolic activity to the greatest extent. However, based on chemical analysis of residual oil concentrations and composition, the application of inorganic fertilizers was the superior bioremeditation strategy. This paradox between microbiological and chemical results was attributed to the selective growth of different bacterial populations, the preferential use of components within the organic fertilizer over oil by the indigenous microflora, and the production of toxic metabolic by-products from the degradation of the organic fertilizer.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, B.T. JOHNSON, G.A. SERGY, R.C. PRINCE, C.C. GUÉNETTE, E.H. OWENS, 2003. Toxicity evaluation with the microtox test to assess the impact of in-situ oiled shoreline treatment options: Natural attenuation and sediment relocation. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull., 8: 273-284 .

LEE, K., R.C. PRINCE, C.W. GREER, K.G. DOE, J.E.H. WILSON, S.E. COBANLI, G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, D. ALROUMI, T.L. KING, G.H. TREMBLAY, 2003. Composition and Toxicity of Residual Bunker C Fuel Oil in Intertidal Sediments After 30 Years. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull., 8: 187-199 .

LEE, K., A.D. VENOSA, M.T. SUIDAN, S. GARCIA-BLANCO, C.W. GREER, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, S.E. COBANLI, G.H. TREMBLAY, K.G. DOE, 2003. Habitat recovery in an oil-contaminated salt marsh following biorestoration treatments. Pages 977-982 in Proceedings of the 2003 International Oil Spill Conference, Vancouver, C.-B., April 7-10, 2003 (American Petroleum Institute Publication, 14730B) .

LEE, K., P. STOFFYN-EGLI, G.H. TREMBLAY, E.H. OWENS, G.A. SERGY, C.C. GUÉNETTE, R.C. PRINCE, 2003. Oil-mineral aggregate formation on oiled beaches; Natural attenuation and sediment relocation. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull., 8: 285-296 .

LEE, K., S. COBANLI, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, A.D. VENOSA, M.T. SUIDAN, J. GAUTHIER, G.H. TREMBLAY, C.W. GREER, K.G. DOE, 2002. Habitat recovery in a crude oil-contaminated saltmarsh following biorestoration treatments. Pages 329-340 in Proceedings of the 25th the Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, Calgary, Alberta June 11-13 .

VENOSA, A.D., K. LEE, M.T. SUIDAN, S. GARCIA-BLANCO, S. COBANLI, M. MOTELEB, J.R. HAINES, G.H. TREMBLAY, M. HAZELWOOD, 2002. Bioremediation and biorestoration of a crude oil-contaminated freshwater wetland on the St. Lawrence River. Bioremediation J., 6: 261-281 .

LEE, K., A.D. VENOSA, M.T. SUIDAN, C.W. GREER, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, C. COBANLI, G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, K. DOE, 2002. Monitoring recovery of a crude oil-contaminated saltmarsh following in-situ remediation treatments. Pages 127-139 in C.A. Brebbia (ed.). Coastal Environment: Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions IV .

TREMBLAY, G.H., K. LEE, 2001. Nettoyage en cas de déversement d'hydrocarbures: la biorestauration expérimentée en milieu d'eau douce. Naturaliste can., 125(2): 68-71 .

ARMSWORTHY, S.L., P.J. CRANFORD, G.H. TREMBLAY, K. LEE, 2000. Chronic Toxicity of Orimulsion to the Sea Scallop Placopecten magellanicus: Influences on Survival, Feeding, Digestion, and Growth. Pages 1003-1022 in Proceedings of the 23rd Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, Vancouver, British Columbia, June 14-16 .

LONGPRÉ, D., K. LEE, G.H. TREMBLAY, V. JARRY, 2000. The response of Scirpus pungens to Crude Oil Contaminated Sediments.. Page 127 in Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2331 .

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, J.E.H. WILSON, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1999. Natural recovery reduces impact of the 1970 Arrow oil spill. Pages 1075-1078 in Proceedings : 1999 International Oil Spill Conference (Beyond 2000, Balancing Perspectives), March 8-11, 1999, Seattle, Washington .

LEE, K., S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, 1999. Evaluating the addition of fine particles to enhance oil degradation. Pages 765-770 in Proceedings : 1999 International Oil Spill Conference (Beyond 2000, Balancing Perspectives), March 8-11, 1999, Seattle, Washington .

CRANFORD, P.J., D.C. GORDON Jr., K. LEE, S.L. ARMSWORTHY, G.-H. TREMBLAY, 1999. Chronic toxicity and physical disturbance effects of water- and oil- drilling fluids and some major constituents on adult sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus). Mar. Environ. Res., 48: 225-256 .

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1999. Persistance, biodégradation et impacts biologiques des résidus de Bunker C à Black Duck Cove, Nouvelle-Écosse. In Actes du colloque Vingt ans après l'Amoco Cadiz, Brest, France, October 15-17, 1998 .

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1999. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia. In Actes du colloque Vingt ans après l'Amoco Cadiz, Brest, France, October 15-17, 1998 .

ARMSWORTHY, S.L., P.J. CRANFORD, G.H. TREMBLAY, K. LEE, 1999. Effects of orimulsion on food acquisition and growth of sea scallops. Report to Bitor America Corporation, 29 p .

LEE, K., P. STOFFYN-EGLI, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, S.E. COBANLI, R. PRINCE, R.E. BARE, R.M. GARRETT, M.J. GROSSMAN, G. SERGY, E.H. OWENS, C.C. GUENETTE, T. JOHNSON, 1999. In-situ Treatment of Oiled Sediment Shorelines, Volume 4. Environmental Impact and Validation of Oil-Mineral Aggregate Formation. Environment Canada, 60 p + appendices .

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1999. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia. Page 112 in Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2260 .

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1998. Residual hydrocarbon toxicity in sediments impacted by the 1970 Arrow spill. Pages 485-504 in Proceedings : Twenty-first Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, June 10 to 12, 1998, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada .

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, S.E. COBANLI, M. GRIFFIN, 1997. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation : a paradox between laboratory and field results. Pages 697-705 in 1997 International Oil Spill Conference : improving environmental protection : progress, challenges, responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida .

GILBERT, M., D. GAUTHIER, J.A. GAGNÉ, Y. GRATTON, P. LAROUCHE, B. MORIN, R. MORIN, J.A. PERCY, T.G. SMITH, G.-H. TREMBLAY, G. WALSH, 1996. Hypothèses reliées aux effets environnementaux du projet Grande Baleine sur l'écosystème marin côtier du sud-est de la baie d'Hudson. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2127, 67 p .

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The possible realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric development project could have significant biophysical impacts on the coastal marine environment of southeastern Hudson Bay.This document presents the results of discussions held within a working group composed of scientific personnel of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans - Laurentian Region that defined, in the form of hypotheses and research proposals, the environmental aspects related to the realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric project. These aspects mainly concern the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of southeastern Hudson Bay as well as the biology of some important species of fish and marine mammals inhabiting this region. A brief description of the actual and planned hydroelectric developments in the hydrographic basin of James and Hudson bays, as well as a synthesis of ongoing research activities and knowledge acquired to date on the marine environment of this region, are also presented.

LEE, K., R. SIRON, G.H. TREMBLAY, 1995. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments. Pages 117-127 in R.E. Hinchee, C.M. Vogel & F.J. Brockman (ed.). Microbial processes for bioremediation. Battelle Press (Bioremediation 3-8) .

LEE, K., R. SIRON, G.H. TREMBLAY, J. LAVOIE, 1995. Application of the microtox solid-phase test to monitor the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies. Pages 152-156 in G.F. Westlake, J.L. Parrott & A.J. Niimi (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st Annual Toxicity Workshop, October 2-5, 1994, Sarnia, Ontario. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci, 2050) .

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, 1995. Oil spill bioremediation studies in low-energy shoreline environments. Pages 175-177 in G.F. Westlake, J.L Parrott & A.J. Niimi (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop : October 3-5, 1994, Sarnia, Ontario. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2050) .

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, S.E. COBANLI, 1995. Bioremediation of oiled-beach sediments : assessment of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Pages 107-113 in Proceedings of the 1995 International Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control and Cleanup), Long Beach, California, February 27 - March 2, 1995 .

LEE, K., G.-H. TREMBLAY, E.M. LEVY, 1993. Bioremediation : application of slow-release fertilizers on low-energy shorelines. Pages 449-454 in Proceedings : 1993 International Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Preparedness, Response), March 29 - April 1, 1993, Tampa, Florida .

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, 1993. Bioremediation : composition changes in experimentally-oiled sand beach sediments. Page 353 in Proceedings 16th Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program, Calgary, Alberta .

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, 1993. Oil spill bioremediation studies in low-energy shoreline environments. Pages 252 in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Aquatic Toxicology Conference, Québec, Québec .

TREMBLAY, G.-H., J.N. GEARING, M. NOËL, 1992. Méthodes d'analyse et résultats sur les concentrations en hydrocarbures aliphatiques dans les sédiments du fleuve Saint-Laurent. Rapp. stat. can. hydrogr. sci. océan., 103, 54 p .

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A sampling cruise on the St. Lawrence River was carried out with the MV PETREL V in September 1988. The analytical methods used, and the data describing the distribution of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments are presented in the following report. This study was supported in part by the St. Lawrence Action Plan.

TREMBLAY, G.-H., C. GOBEIL, 1990. Dissolved arsenic in the St. Lawrence Estuary and the Saguenay Fjord, Canada. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 21: 465-469 .

PAINCHAUD, J., D. LEFAIVRE, G.-H. TREMBLAY, J.-C. THERRIAULT, 1990. Analysis of the distribution of suspended particulate matter, bacteria, chlorophyll a and Po4 in the Upper St. Lawrence Estuary, using a two-dimensional box model. Pages 59-65 in W. Michaelis (ed.). Estuarine water quality management : monitoring, modelling and research. Springer-Verlag, New York (Coastal and estuarine studies, 36) .

COSSA, D., G.-H. TREMBLAY, C. GOBEIL, 1990. Seasonality in iron and manganese concentrations of the St. Lawrence River. Sci. Total Environ., 97/98: 185-190 .

BISSON, M., J-.P. BLOUIN, B. DUBREUIL, R. GAGNÉ, M. SOUCY, G. TREMBLAY, G.-H. TREMBLAY, 1987. Eaux - analyse de l'argent, dosage par spectrophotométrie d'absorption atomique, aspiration directe dans une flamme air-acétylène. Bureau de normalisation du Québec, Ministère de l'industrie et du commerce, Québec (Norme NQ 3600-605), 8 p .

TREMBLAY, G.-H., D. COSSA, 1987. Major ion composition of the St. Lawrence River : variations since the start of industrialization. Pages 289-293 in E.T. Degens, S. Kempe & G. Weibin (ed.). Transport of carbon and minerals in major world rivers, part 4 (Mitt. Geol. Palaontol. Inst. Univ. Hamburg, 64) .

BISSON, M., J.-P. BLOUIN, B. DUBREUIL, R. GAGNÉ, M. SOUCY, G. TREMBLAY, G.-H. TREMBLAY, 1987. Eaux - analyse du plomb, dosage par spectrophotométrie d'absorption atomique à la flamme après chélation et extraction. Bureau de normalisation du Québec, Ministère de l'industrie et du commerce, Québec (Norme NQ 3600-605), 9 p .

BISSON, M., J-.P. BLOUIN, B. DUBREUIL, R. GAGNÉ, M. SOUCY, G. TREMBLAY, G.-H. TREMBLAY, 1987. Eaux - analyse du cadmium, dosage par spectrophotométrie d'absorption atomique à la flamme après chélation et extraction. Bureau de normalisation du Québec, Ministère de l'industrie et du commerce, Québec (Norme NQ 3600-605), 9 p .