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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Thomas G. SMITH

BECK, G.G., T.G. SMITH, M.O. HAMMILL, 1993. Evaluation of body condition in the Northwest Atlantic harp seal (Phoca groenlandica). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50: 1372-1381 .

BECK, G.G., M.O. HAMMILL, T.G. SMITH, 1993. Seasonal variation in the diet of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and western Hudson Strait. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50: 1363-1371 .

MARTIN, A.R., T.G. SMITH, 1992. Deep diving in wild, free-ranging beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49: 462-466 .

RYG, M., Y. SOLBERG, C. LYDERSEN, T.G. SMITH, 1992. The scent of rutting male ringed seals (Phoca hispida). J. Zool., 226: 681-689 .

SMITH, T.G., C. LYDERSEN, 1992. Availability of suitable land-fast ice and predation as factors limiting ringed seal populations, Phoca hispida, in Svalbard. Polar Res., 10: 585-594 .

HAMMILL, M.O., C. LYDERSEN, M. RYG, T.G. SMITH, 1991. Lactation in the ringed seal (Phoca hispida). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 48: 2471-2476 .

RYG, M., T.G. SMITH, N.A. ØRITSLAND, 1991. Seasonal and development changes of reproductive organs of male ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in the Svalbard area. J. Zool., 224: 93-100 .

SMITH, T.G., M.O. HAMMILL, G. TAUGBOL, 1991. A review of the developmental, behavioural and physiological adaptations of the ringed seal, Phoca hispida, to life in the arctic winter. Arctic, 44: 124-131 .

HAMMILL, M.O., T.G. SMITH, 1991. The role of predation in the ecology of the ringed seal in Barrow Strait, Northwest Territories, Canada. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 7: 123-135 .

HARDY, M.H., E. ROFF, T.G. SMITH, M. RYG, 1991. Facial skin glands of ringed and grey seals and their possible function as odoriferous organs. Can. J. Zool., 69: 189-200 .

Mature male ringed seals (Phoca hispida) have a very strong odour emanating from the facial region during the breeding season. The inner surface of the skin from the heads of three animals captured during the mating season revealed the distribution of closely packed, much enlarged sebaceous glands on the anterior muzzle skin and extending into the interorbital and postvibrissal regions. A histological study was made of facial skin from 22 animals of different ages and both sexes, taken from Svalbard, Norway, during the breeding season. In mature males the sebaceous glands on the face were 3–8 times larger in cross section and more actively secreting than glands on the neck. Melanin granules were concentrated in the sebum. These facial glands were also 2–10 times larger and more actively secreting than the facial glands of immature males, mature females, or immature females. The apocrine sweat glands on the face of mature males were also much larger and more active than those of the other groups. It was concluded that the greater size, secretory activity, and melanin production of the sebaceous glands of mature male ringed seals could account for the strong odour and dark colour that have been observed on the face in the breeding season. The enlarged and active apocrine sweat glands might also contribute to the odour. The facial skin of six dominant bull grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), killed during the breeding season, had sebaceous glands of intermediate size, but high activity and high melanin content in the sebum. Their apocrine sweat glands were very large and active, indicating that they also may have a role in sexual signalling.©1991 National Research Council Canada

SMITH, T.G., B. SJARE, 1990. Predation of belugas and narwhals by polar bears in the nearshore areas of the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic, 43: 99-102 .

BRETON, M., T.G. SMITH, 1990. Le béluga. Ministère des pêches et des océans (Le monde sous-marin, 63), 12 p .

BRETON, M., T.G. SMITH, 1990. The beluga. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Underwater world, 63), 12 p .

HAMMILL, M.O., T.G. SMITH, 1990. Application of removal sampling to estimate the density of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Barrow Strait, Northwest Territories. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 47: 244-250 .

SMITH, T.G., D.J. ST. AUBIN, J.R. GERACI (ed.), 1990. Advances in research on the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 224, 206 p .

REEVES, R.R., E.G. ATKINSON, J. BOULVA, A. GASTON, J. GREEN, P. LAROUCHE, D. MUDRY, J. PERCY, T.G. SMITH, 1990. Report of marine birds and mammals working group. Pages 33-38 in J.A. Percy (ed.). Proceedings of a workshop : Marine Ecosystem Studies in Hudson Strait, November 9-10, 1989, Montréal, Québec. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1770) .

CARON, L.M.J., T.G. SMITH, 1990. Philopatry and site tenacity of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, hunted by the Inuit at the Nastapoka Estuary, eastern Hudson Bay. Pages 69-79 in T.G. Smith, D.J. St. Aubin & J.R. Geraci (ed.) Advances in research on the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 224) .

MUIR, D.C.G., C.A. FORD, R.E.A. STEWART, T.G. SMITH, R.F. ADDISON, M.E. ZINCK, P. BÉLAND, 1990. Organochlorine contaminants in belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, from Canadian waters. Pages 165-190 in T.G. Smith, D.J. St. Aubin & J.R. Geraci (ed.). Advances in research on the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 224) .

RYG, M., T.G. SMITH, N.A. ØRITSLAND, 1990. Seasonal changes in body mass and body composition of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) on Svalbard. Can. J. Zool., 68: 470-475 .

Seasonal changes in body mass and body composition of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the Svalbard Islands are described. The blubber content of adult females decreased from a high of about 50 % at the beginning of the pupping season in March–April to a low of 31 % during moulting in June. In adult males, the blubber content decreased from 41 % in March to 29 % in June. By estimating an individual seal's body mass by 1 April from its standard body length, we calculated an average daily loss of body mass of 160 g/day in adult females and 100 g/day in adult males from the start of lactation to the middle of moulting. The blubber content of sexually immature seals was less in June and July than in April, but the seasonal changes were smaller than in adult seals. We found no evidence of significant changes in core mass in adult seals, and suggest that the seasonal body mass changes are mostly due to changes in body fat content.©1990 National Research Council Canada

RYG, M., C. LYDERSEN, N.H. MARKUSSEN, T.G. SMITH, N.A. ORITSLAND, 1990. Estimating the blubber content of phocid seals. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 47: 1223-1227 .

SMITH, T.G., H. WRIGHT, 1989. Economic status and role of hunters in a modern Inuit village. Polar Rec., 25: 93-98 .

HAMMILL, M.O., T.G. SMITH, 1989. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of ringed seal structures in Barrow Strait, Northwest Territories. Can. J. Zool., 67: 2212-2219 .

The relationship between the distribution of ringed seals, Phoca hispida, and habitat was examoned in Barrow Strait, Northwest Territories. Density of seal breathing holes was used as an index of seal abundance. Birth lairs were associated whit the largest snowdrifts. L’air formation can occur within 24h after a snowdrift forms over the top of a breathing hole. Seal structures were associated whit ridges consisting of ice pieces 15-25 cm thick projecting upwards to a height of 80-150 cm. In 1975 and 1986, the combination of date of ice consolidation and snow depth were the most important habitat features affecting the distribution of ringed seals structures. This was also true whit respect to distribution of birth lairs and undefined haul-out lairs, but no relationship was identified between density of structures used by males and habitat. Snow cover and date of ice consolidation were not identified as important habitat variables in 1984 and 1985 when overall distribution of ice in Barrow Strait was very different. Birth lairs were not seen before 4 April, but were found in increasing frequency as the season progressed. Male structures were evident in late March, but were not found after mid-May©1989 National Research Council Canada

CLEATOR, H.J., I. STIRLING, T.G. SMITH, 1989. Underwater vocalizations of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus). Can. J. Zool., 67: 1900-1910 .

The underwater vocalizations of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) were recorded between March and June in 1979, 1982, and 1983 at six sites in the Arctic. In total, 970 trills were measured for temporal and spectral characteristics and then classified as one of six types. Trills were narrow in bandwidth and frequency modulated. The repertoires of vocalizing bearded seals varied amongst the six recording sites. Between-site differences in temporal and spectral features, call use, and sequential organization were measured. The results suggest that bearded seals may be relatively sedentary and that geographically different vocal repertoires may be characteristic of discrete breeding stocks. A prominent daily cycle in rate of calling during April and May was found at two sites; rate of calling was higher during the early morning hours (i.e., 03:00–04:00 sun time) than at other times of the day. No distinct temporal cycle occurred during late May and early June. Rate of calling appeared to be negatively correlated with pattern of haul out. In simultaneous recordings, a few (13 of 156) bearded seal trills were recorded up to a distance of 25 km underwater.©1989 National Research Council Canada

LYDERSEN, C., T.G. SMITH, 1989. Avian predation on ringed seal (Phoca hispida) pups. Polar Biol., 9: 489-490 .

RYG, M., T.G. SMITH, N.A. ØRITSLAND, 1988. Thermal significance of the topographical distribution of blubber in ringed seals (Phoca hispida). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 45: 985-992 .

SMITH, T.G., G. HORONOWITSCH, 1987. Phoques communs dans les Lacs des Loups Marins et le bassin hydrographique de l'est de la Baie d'Hudson. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1536, 17 p .

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aerial surveys were flown in the Lacs des Loups Marins area during the period 18 February to 6 March 1986. We located 12 sites where significant open water existed in the lakes' system. No seals (Phoca vitulina) were seen hauled-out at any of these sites, but numerous other tracks were observed. We camped at one site midway along the narrows of Lacs des Loups Marins on 3-4 March. There we made one observation of a harbour seal swimming in an area of open water approximately 150 x 700 m in extent. Under-ice shoreline shelters caused by lowered water levels in the winter might provide important resting sites for seals, protecting them from low temperatures and predators. It is impossible at present to either estimate the number of seals or ascertain whether the population in Lacs des Loups Marins is a closed one. The sub-specific status of the seals is by no means definite. Radio-telemetry studies might be the best approach for future investigations.

SMITH, T.G., 1987. The ringed seal, Phoca hispida, of the Canadian western Arctic. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 216, 81 p .

SMITH, T.G., G. HORONOWITSCH, 1987. Harbour seals in the Lac des Loups Marins and eastern Hudson Bay drainage. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1536, 17 p .

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Aerial surveys were flown in the Lacs des Loups Marins area during the period 18 February to 6 March 1986. We located 12 sites where significant open water existed in the lakes' system. No seals (Phoca vitulina) were seen hauled-out at any of these sites, but numerous other tracks were observed. We camped at one site midway along the narrows of Lacs des Loups Marins on 3 -4  March. There we made one observation of a harbour seal swimming in an area of open water approximately 150 x 700 m in extent. Under-ice shoreline shelters caused by lowered water levels in the winter might provide important resting sites for seals, protecting them from low temperatures and predators. It is impossible at present to either estimate the number of seals or ascertain whether the population in Lacs des Loups Marins is a closed one. The sub-specific status of the seals is by no means definite. Radio-telemetry studies might be the best approach for future investigations.

SMITH, T.G., 1986. Marine mammals. Pages 155-165 in B. Sage (ed.). The Arctic and its wildlife. Facts on File Publications, New York, New York .

SMITH, T.G., M. BRETON, 1986. Population estimates of the white whales in Northern Quebec. Taqralik, Febr.-March: 31-37 .

SMITH, T.G., M.O. HAMMILL, 1986. Population estimates of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in James Bay, eastern Hudson Bay and Ungava Bay. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 43: 1982-1987 .

SMITH, T.G., G.A. SLENO, 1986. Do white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, carry surrogates in response to early loss of their young?. Can. J. Zool., 64: 1581-1582 .

SJARE, B.L., T.G. SMITH, 1986. The vocal repertoire of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, summering in Cunningham Inlet, Northwest Territories. Can. J. Zool., 64: 407-415 .

The underwater vocalizations of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, summering at Cunningham Inlet, Northwest Territories, were recorded from mid-July to mid-August 1981 to 1983. A total of 807 tonal calls (whistles) were classified into 16 contour types. The following acoustic parameters were measured for each whistle : minimum, maximum, and mean frequency of the fundamental, contour or shape of the fundamental, duration, and the slope of the frequency changes during the call. Some 436 pulsed calls were classified into three major categories : click series, pulsed tones, and noisy vocalizations. Acoustic parameters measured for each of these calls included pulse repetition rate, range and mean frequency of the call, and duration. Results show that the wistle repertoire of white whales is more varied than has been previously reported. Mean frequencies for the whistle contour types ranged from 2.0 to 5.9 kHz; mean duration ranged from 0.25 to 1.95 s. Although whistles were the most commonly emitted type of vocalization, pulsed tones and noisy vocalizations made up a significant proportion of the white whales' vocal repertoire. The mean pulse repetition rate of pulsed tones ranged from 203.9 to 1289.0 pulses/s. There does not appear to be any between/year variation in the vocal repertoire of these white whales©1986 National Research Council Canada

ADDISON, R.F., M.E. ZINCK, T.G. SMITH, 1986. PCBs have declined more than DDT-group residues in Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) between 1972 and 1981. Environ. Sci. Technol., 20: 253-256 .

SJARE, B.L., T.G. SMITH, 1986. The relationship between behavioral activity and underwater vocalizations of the white whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Can. J. Zool., 64: 2824-2831 .

The underwater vocalizations of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, summering at Cunningham Inlet, N.W.T. (74°05’N, 93°45’W), were recorded from mid-July to mid-August 1983. Vocalizations were classified into one of eight major whistle contour types, one of four pulsed call categories including click series and three types of pulsed tones, and noisy vocalizations. To determine the relationship between vocalizations and behavioral activities, a total of sixty-three 2-min samples were recorded when whales were resting, swimmming in a directive manner, socially interactive, and alarmed. Differences in the total number of whistles, pulsed tones (including noisy vocalizations), and click series emitted per whale/min during each behavioral activity were examined. The number of whistles emitted did not differ with changes in behavioral activity (x2=5.42, df=3, p=0.143); however, the number of click series and the total number of pulsed tones emitted (x2=31.85, df=3, p=0.0001) and the total number of pulsed tones emitted (x2=7.33, df=3, p=0.062) did show distinct trends. More specific analyses considering each of the major whistle contour types, the three types of pulsed tones, and noisy vocalizations were also completed. The rate at which one type of whistle, two types of pulsed tones, and the noisy vocalizations were emitted was influenced by changes in behavioral activity. These results reveal a general association between white whale behavioral activity and the types of vocalizations emitted©1986 National Research Council Canada