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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Nathalie SIMARD

SIMARD, N., S. PLOURDE, M. GILBERT, S. GOLLACH, 2011. Net efficacy of open ocean ballast water exchange on plankton communities. J. Plankton Res., 33(9): 1378-1395 .

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We evaluated the efficacy of two ballast water exchange (BWE) methods during two transoceanic voyages of a bulk carrier in September 1999 and October 2000 between Rotterdam (The Netherlands) and Sept-Iles (Canada). The experimental design accounted for the uptake of new species during exchanges by considering only those taxa observed prior to BWE (initial taxa). To account for natural decreases due to mortality in the tanks, communities in exchanged ballast tanks were compared with those in control tanks, thus allowing the ‘net BWE efficacy’of the procedures to be determined. The efficacy of the removal of organisms varied among BWE methods, plankton communities (microplankton and zooplankton) and taxonomic groups. BWE efficacy was greater for zooplankton (72–90%) than microplankton (49–80%). When the fairly high natural mortality observed in control tanks was considered in the calculation of BWE efficacy (net BWE efficacy), much lower efficacy was observed (microplankton: 29–40%; zooplankton: 23–54%). The 300% flow-through method (FT) is the most effective BWE method (net efficacy) for removing initial microplankton taxa (1999 and 2000), whereas the FT was either similarly (1999) or less than (2000) effective compared with the procedure normally carried out on board this vessel (NORM method) for the zooplankton community. However, BWE was more efficient in removing microplankton than zooplankton in 1999 while the opposite pattern occurred in 2000. The seasonal timing of voyages and the BWE site influenced the density and composition of species introduced to tanks during BWE.©2011 Oxford University Press.

COUTURE, J.-Y., N. SIMARD, 2007. Évaluation préliminaire des risques potentiels d'introduction d'espèces non indigènes dans les eaux de la côte est canadienne par l'intermédiaire des caissons de prise d'eau des navires. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2824, 25 p .

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Between October 2005 and February 2006, the sea chests and strainers of 15 ships visiting Eastern Canadian ports were sampled to evaluate if they can be vectors for the introduction of nonindigenous species in Canadian waters. A total of 43 marine species were collected, of which one species was already known to be exotic and present in Canadian waters (Membranipora membranacea), 38 were native and 4 were nonindigenous species (Sargasum natans, Sargassum fluitans, Lepas pectinata and Stereotheca elongata). Although the risks of survival of these species in Canadian waters seem to be relatively low because of cold waters; these observations suggest that nonindigenous species can be transported be sea chests and potentially discharged in these waters. M. Membranacea is currently expanding its range in Eastern Canadian waters and shipping traffic may contribute to this through sea chest transport.

SIMARD, N., N. PAILLE, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2007. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides : revue de litterature et situation aux Iles-de-la-Madeleine. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2786, 40 p .

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This document presents a review of the characteristics and the biology of this alga related to the east coast of North America and southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. A review of the ecological and economic impacts observed in other areas of the world and control methods is also presented. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides was first observed in the Magdelen Islands in 2003. A sampling program was conducted in this area in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the current status of this species. Results showed that C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides is established in Great Entry harbour, particularly in Old Harry Bay and the mouth of Grosse Île Bay where important densities were observed. Environmental conditions in the Magdelen Islands may be favorable for an invasion by this alga. Ecological impacts on native communities following the arrival of C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides in the Magdelen Islands are unknown. Better control of potential vectors for introduction and dispersal and the development of monitoring and research programmes are needed to limit the spread of this species and better understand its ecological and economic impacts.

PAILLE, N., J. LAMBERT, N. SIMARD, S. PEREIRA, 2006. Le crabe vert (Carcinus maenas) : revue de littérature et situation aux Îles-de-la-Madeleine. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 276, 36 p .

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The green crab (Carcinus maenas) was identified in the Magdalen Islands for the first time in 2004. Seven crabs were observed by an eel fisherman near the Great Entry harbour, two of which were brought to the local Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) office. Intensive sampling campaigns were undertaken in the summers of 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the regional status of this species. Two further crabs were caught by DFO during the 2004 campaign and none were captured in 2005. The geographic location and environmental conditions in the Magdalen Islands make the area at risk to invasion and monitoring should be continued. The potential ecological impacts of a C. maenas population becoming established in the Magdalen Islands are unknown. Monitoring of potential vectors of introduction, annual surveys, and the development of a rapid response plan are measures that must be put into place in order to limit the risks of introduction and subsequent impacts of a green crab invasion. The present document outlines the biology, ecology, and risks associated with the establishment of a green crab population. Specific recommendations with respect to control options for this species in the Magdalen Islands are also presented.

SIMARD, N., C.W. McKINDSEY, P. ARCHAMBAULT, C. CYR, 2005. Découverte d'espèces marines envahissantes aux îles de la Madeleine. Naturaliste can., 129(2): 62-64 .

SIMARD, N., M. HARDY, 2004. The Laurentian Channel as an alternative ballast water exchange zone : risks, analysis and recommendations ; Le chenal Laurentien comme zone auxiliaire d’échange des eaux de lest : risques, analyse et recommandations. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2004/120, 77 p .

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The present report aims to provide an assessment of the risks that the use of the Laurentian Channel as an Alternative Ballast Water Exchange Zone (ABWEZ) may pose to fisheries and to the marine ecosystem of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic waters. These risks were evaluated by analysing: 1) the importance of foreign origin vessel traffic that used or can potentially use the Laurentian Channel for exchange; 2) the biodiversity and species richness of organisms found in ballast water and sediments of incoming foreign vessels; 3) environmental conditions of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL); and 4) the dispersion patterns of organisms inoculated in this area with ballast water discharges. Although the shipping industry does not appear to use the Laurentian Channel extensively as an ABWEZ, analyzed data indicated that a high number of vessels (1948), transporting 12.2 Mt of ballast waters, could have transited in this area in 2000 and potentially use it to perform ballast water exchanges. The majority of ballast waters from all vessels originated from FAO Region B where environmental conditions can be similar to those found in the GSL, particularly during the summer for the North and Baltic Seas. However, the vessels which have declared to have used the Laurentian Channel as ABWEZ originated principally from FAO Region A; the duration of trips from this region is generally shorter than for other FAO regions. Several studies showed that a diverse assemblage of live organisms (including non-indigenous taxa, toxic/harmful taxa and potential risk taxa) from all around the world are present in the ballast tanks of foreign vessels entering the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Simulations of the discharge of organisms in the Laurentian Channel showed that inoculated plankton is retained within the Gulf (higher retention of phytoplankton occurred in spring and late summer) and transported towards coastal areas. The model identified a few areas that are particularly at risk, depending on the season: the Magdalen Islands, southwestern Newfoundland, northern Cape Breton Island and southern Anticosti Island. The present risk assessment identified the ABWEZ southeast of Anticosti Island as a potentially vulnerable area for ballast water-mediated introduction of non-indigenous species into the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and Atlantic provinces. This risk is considered to be generally lower in winter because of cold conditions that prevail throughout the Gulf during that time of the year. However, although the survival rate would be low, there are always a few highly opportunistic forms which can manage to adapt to cold conditions. On the other hand, many taxa may survive during the summer months but their long-term prognosis may be limited. Given the high potential risk of aquatic invasive species (AIS) introduced through ballast water to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, River and Estuary, where local ecological conditions have proven conducive to the establishment of many types of AIS, the use of the Laurentian Channel as an ABWEZ should be minimized as much as possible. Under extraordinary circumstances, it is recommended that ballast water exchange be allowed if the ship is transiting the Laurentian Channel between December 1 and May 1 or if the ship is carrying freshwater ballast. A decision-support system would be needed to control ballast water exchange between the months of May and December.

HARVEY, M., J.-C. THERRIAULT, N. SIMARD, 2001. Hydrodynamic control of late summer species composition and abundance of zooplankton in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (Canada). J. Plankton Res., 23(5): 481-496 .

SIMARD, N. (ed.), 1999. The St. Lawrence marine environment : knowledge and action : 1993-1998. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9(Suppl.1): 181-187 .

[Abstract only available in French]
Cette publication s'adresse au grand public comme aux gestionnaires de l'environnement ou à toute autre personne intéressée par un aspect ou l'autre du milieu marin. Elle propose un portrait global de la contribution du MPO aux principaux résultats des programmes environnementaux liés au Saint-Laurent marin de 1993 à 1998. On y trouvera également de l'information sur l'orientation future des programmes du MPO, particulièrement dans le cadre de la Loi sur les océans et de la participation du ministère à la phase III du Plan d'action Saint-Laurent Vision 2000.

SIMARD, N. (éd.), 1999. Le Saint-Laurent marin : connaissances et interventions environnementales : 1993-1998. Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont-Joli, Québec, 70 p .

[Abstract only available in French]
Cette publication s'adresse au grand public comme aux gestionnaires de l'environnement ou à toute autre personne intéressée par un aspect ou l'autre du milieu marin. Elle propose un portrait global de la contribution du MPO aux principaux résultats des programmes environnementaux liés au Saint-Laurent marin de 1993 à 1998. On y trouvera également de l'information sur l'orientation future des programmes du MPO, particulièrement dans le cadre de la Loi sur les océans et de la participation du ministère à la phase III du Plan d'action Saint-Laurent Vision 2000.

HARVEY, M., J.-C. THERRIAULT, N. SIMARD, 1997. Late-summer distribution of phytoplankton in relation to water mass characteristics in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (Canada). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54: 1937-1952 .

Descriptive and multivariate analytical methods were used to analyze the early September (1993) abundance and species composition of phytoplankton in relation to water mass characteristics in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. Four groups of stations distributed along well-defined environmental gradients characterizing the distribution of physical and chemical variables were identified. The first group, located in the most southern region of Hudson Bay, was strongly influenced by freshwater runoffs from James Bay and from the other major rivers around the bay and was characterized by a relatively phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a (Chl a > 1.0 µg.L-1 in the near-surface waters and by a phytoplankton assemblage equally dominated by small flagellates and dinoflagellates. The second group, located in an area northwest of the Belcher and Sleeper islands, was characterized by relatively well-mixed conditions where small diatoms composed about 50 % of the phytoplankton assemblage. The third group occupied the upper part of the bay and the entrance of the strait and was characterized by the lowest surface nutrient concentrations encounterd. A clear subsurface chlorophyll maximum dominated by small flagellates (>55 % of the assemblage) was observed in this region. The fourth group was located in the central part of the strait where the highest surface nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass values Chl a > 2.0 µg.L-1 were observed. The phytoplankton assemblage there was clearly dominated by small diatoms (<80 %). These conditions are related to the presence of more intense tidal mixing in this region. The phytoplankton standing crop within this area was comparable with that observed during an autumn bloom situation in the most temperate regions of the world's oceans.

GOSSELIN, M., M. LEVASSEUR, N. SIMARD, S. MICHAUD, S. SHARMA, P. BRICKELL, T. BATES, 1996. Contribution of planktonic and ice algae to dimethylsulfide production across the Arctic ocean in Summer. Pages 42-44 in W. Tucker, D. Cate & V. Keating (ed.). The 1994 Arctic Ocean Section : the first major scientific crossing of the Arctic Ocean. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, N.H. (Special report, 96-23) .

SIMARD, N., J.-C. THERRIAULT, P. LAROUCHE, A. VÉZINA, J. PLOURDE, J. PERCY, D.A. STEEL, 1996. Données d'océanographie physique et biologique recueillies dans l'est et le nord de la baie d'Hudson et dans le détroit d'Hudson en août et septembre 1993. Rapp. stat. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 978, 199 p .

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This report presents physical and biological oceanograpahic data of the eastern and northern parts of Hudson Basin that were obtained during a sampling mission of 84 stations conducted between 22 August and l5 September l993. A summary table identifies variables measured at each station. The vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, in situ fluorescence, chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, and nutrients are presented as well as phytoplankton and zooplankton counts and zooplankton biomass determination. Photosynthetic parameters calculated from P-l curves and estimates of total primary production at the surface are also provided. (DBO).