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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Philippe SCHWAB

HEALEY, B.P., K. MAHÉ, G. COSSITT, J.-L. DUFOUR, J. FELIX, H.F. HICKS, C. HISCOCK, P. SCHWAB, 2011. Age determination of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) : results from an otolith exchange between Canada and France ; Détermination de l’âge de la morue (Gadus morhua) : résultats d’un échange d'otolithes entre le Canada et la France. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2011/015, 20 p .

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Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in NAFO subDivision 3Ps are exploited and jointly managed by Canada and France. Assessments of stock status incorporate age determinations from both countries when dis-aggregating total catches into catch-at-age. An otolith exchange was initiated to evaluate the degree of consistency in the age determinations of Canadian and French personnel. Both graphical and statistical analysis clearly indicate differences in interpretation between Canadian and French readers, with ages assigned by Canadian personnel generally being one-year greater than those of participants from France. However, consistency in age determinations was relatively high within Canada and within France.

NOZERES, C., D. ARCHAMBAULT, P.-M. CHOUINARD, J. GAUTHIER, R. MILLER, E. PARENT, P. SCHWAB, L. SAVARD, J.-D. DUTIL, 2010. Guide d'identification des poissons marins de l'estuaire et du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent et protocoles suivis pour leur échantillonnage lors des releves par chalut entre 2004 et 2008 ; Identification guide for marine fishes of the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and sampling protocols used during trawl surveys between 2004 and 2008. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2866, 168 p .

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The annual survey that scientists conduct on large research trawlers is an important source of information on the status of marine resources harvested in the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The main objective of the survey is to estimate the abundance and biomass of five commercially important species, i.e., Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), Acadian (Sebastes fasciatus) and deepwater (Sebastes mentella) redfish, and northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis). For several years, biologists have sought to improve the integration of stock status and ecosystem information, which has required a greater effort to better describe catches of other species of fish and invertebrates. The long-used sampling and observation protocol has evolved into a much more complex, detailed model. However, in implementing this protocol, difficulties have been encountered in accurately identifying ten or so species caught at each trawling station. This report provides a guide to the identification of fish species likely to be caught in surveys in the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. This visual guide is designed as a practical tool for training staff and ensuring the quality of data collected. This report also describes the sampling and examination protocol for fish catches used for surveys conducted aboard the CGSS Teleost between 2004 and 2008 and presents a brief descriptive analysis of fish catches during this period.

WORCESTER, T., J. BRATTEY, G.A. CHOUINARD, D. CLARK, K.J. CLARK, J. DEAULT, M. FOWLER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, B. HEALEY, Y. LAMBERT, D. MADDOCK PARSONS, R. MOHN, M.J. MORGAN, E.F. MURPHY, D. POWER, H. POWLES, P. SCHWAB, D.P. SWAIN, M. TREBLE, 2009. Status of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in 2008 ; État des stocks de morue franche (Gadus morhua) en 2008. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2009/027, 173 p .

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The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) is expected to review the status of all Designatable Units (Dus) of Atlantic cod in 2009. This report was prepared to consolidate Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) information and analyses relevant to the COSEWIC review. Information on cod stock structure, status and trends, area of occupancy, changes in lifehistory characteristics, and threats on each of the Dus (Arctic, Newfoundland and Labrador, Laurentian North, and Maritimes) was presented and discussed at a pre-COSEWIC meeting held 3-5 November 2008 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It was concluded that Atlantic cod populations continue to remain at very low levels, with some stocks in the Maritimes DU (4TVn, 4X5Y) experiencing further decline to their lowest levels on record. Natural mortality is currently high in the Maritimes DU, but it appears to have decreased from highs in other areas (3Pn4RS and 2J3KL). Age at maturity appears to have decreased by 1-2 years from historical values in some stocks. Length-at-age is also at lower than historical values for cod stocks in 3Pn4RS, 4TVn, 4Vn, and 4VsW. While length-at-age has not declined for 4X5Y cod, weight-at-age for the portion found on the Scotian Shelf has declined during 2003-2007. Threats to Atlantic cod vary by area but continue to include fishing mortality, changes in productivity, and natural mortality. Several sources of mortality have not yet been quantified, including some recreational fisheries, commercial by-catch, and the impact of predators such as seals. Further work is required to evaluate the relative impact of unaccounted for sources of mortality on the current status of Atlantic cod and its potential for recovery.

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, Y. LAMBERT, A. Le BRIS, C. TOURNOIS, M. WAY, F. COLLIER, 2009. L’état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2008 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2008. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2009/090, 100 p .

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The commercial landings for the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) reached a maximum of 106,000 tons in 1983 while the spawning biomass reached a maximum of 351,000 tons in 1983. The stock was reduced to a historic minimum mature biomass of 8,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 26,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gillnets and handlines). Despite the low fishing effort and a second moratorium in 2003, the mature biomass of this stock remains low at only 32,000 t in 2009. The stock has thus increased from 1994 to 1996 but since then has remained stable because the fishery takes the total stock production. The limit reference point was recalculated at 140,000 t of spawning stock biomass.

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, H. BOURDAGES, C. TOURNOIS, J. SPINGLE, M. WAY, F. COLLIER, 2007. L’état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2006 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2006. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2007/068, 89 p .

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The commercial landings for the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) have reached a maximum of 106,000 tons in 1983 while the spawning biomass has reached a maximum of 378,000 tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a historic minimum mature biomass of 11,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 26,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gillnets and handlines). Despite the low fishing effort and a second moratorium in 2003, the mature biomass of this stock remains low at only 44,000 t in 2007.

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, F. COLLIER, J. SPINGLE, 2006. Marquage de la lompe (Cyclopterus lumpus) dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent de 2004 à 2006 ; Tagging of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence from 2005 to 2006. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2006/084, 15 p .

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FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, L. PAGEAU, C. SAVENKOFF, M. CASTONGUAY, D. CHABOT, C. TOURNOIS, J.-F. LUSSIER, J. SPINGLE, F. COLLIER, 2005. L’état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2004 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2004. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2005/060, 72 p .

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The commercial landings for the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) have reached a maximum of 106,000 tons while the spawning biomass has reached a maximum of 378,000 tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a minimum mature biomass of 9,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 26,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gillnets and handlines). Despite the low fishing effort and a second moratorium in 2003, the mature biomass remains low at 38,000 tons in 2005

FRECHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, H. BOURDAGES, D. CHABOT, F. COLLIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, Y. LAMBERT, G. MOREAULT, L. PAGEAU, J. SPINGLE, 2003. L'état du stock de morue du Nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2002 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2002. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2003/065, 90 p .

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The commercial landings for this stock have reached a maximum of 106,000 tons while the stock had reached its maximum mature biomass of 462,000 tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a minimum mature biomass of 21,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 58,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gill nets and hand lines). Despite the low fishing effort, the mature biomass remains stable at the same low level as when the fishery was reopened in 1997.

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, G. MOREAULT, L. PAGEAU, J. SPINGLE, L. PAGEAU, 2002. L'état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2001. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2002/083, 55 p .

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The commercial landings for this stock have reached a maximum of 106 thousand tons while the stock had reached its maximum mature biomass of 468 thousand tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a minimum mature biomass of 19 thousand tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 53 thousand tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gill nets and hand lines). Despite the low fishing effort, the mature biomass remains stable at the same level as the reopening of the fishery in 1997.

FRÉCHET, A., P. SCHWAB, 1998. Évaluation de la morue du nord du Golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 1997 ; Assessment of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod stock (3Pn,4RS) in 1997. MPO, Secrétariat canadien pour l'évaluation des stocks, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 98/127, 57 p .

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This assessment of the 3Pn, 4RS cod stock is the first since 1994 to include a sequential population analysis. The only index of abundance used then, the Gadus Atlantica survey, were abandoned because of mixing issues between this stock and the adjacent 3Ps cod stock. The short time series of the Alfred Needler and the moratorium rendered any sequential population analysis risky. This assessment is thus based on five new indices of abundance; the Needler, both annual mobile gear sentinel surveys (July and October) and the longtine and gillnet catch rates. Despite this majors change, the historical trends of this stock have not changed significantly. The stock would have reached it's historical low in 1994 and would have slightly increased since. The risk analysis indicates that the adult portion of the stock should increase by 20 % in 1998 in the absence of any fishery whereas it would increase by only 11 % if the quota would be set at 3,000 t. The adult portion of the stock would not increase if the 1998 quota would be set at 6,000 t.

FRÉCHET, A., P. SCHWAB, 1995. Revue de l'état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 1994 ; Review of the status of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod stock (3Pn,4RS) in 1994. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/53, 20 p .

[Abstract only available in French]
L'évaluation de ce stock a été rendue plus difficile cette année par la fermeture de toute pêche dirigée. Les seules données disponibles sur la pêche étaient celles provenant des captures accessoires des pêches à la crevette et au sébaste. Ceci a des répercussions dans presque tous les champs où l'information est utilisée dans le cadre de l'évaluation. Des données sont manquantes (ou déficientes) dans les statistiques de débarquements des prises accidentelles et dans les prises par unité d'effort. De plus, avec la fin du relevé d'hiver du Gadus Atlantica (une série qui a débuté en 1978 et qui constituait jusqu'à l'an dernier le seul indice d'abondance pour ce stock) aucune donnée n'est disponible pour le mois de janvier 1995. Tous ces faits font en sorte que la présente évaluation, comme celles des autres stocks qui sont sous moratoire, repose sur très peu de données. Nous avons essentiellement les résultats du relevé d'été à bord du Alfred Needler en août-septembre 1994 et des résultats initiaux provenant des pêches sentinelles. Les informations disponibles indiquent que ce stock présente une biomasse très faible mais stable, qu'il y a très peu d'adultes et que les seules classes d'âges qui constituent la majeure partie de la population sont celles des cohortes de 1990 et de 1991.

FRÉCHET, A., P. SCHWAB, Y. LAMBERT, D. CHABOT, D. DECKER, G. ROWE, P. NADEAU, F. COLLIER, 1995. Les pêches sentinelles du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 1994 ; The sentinel fisheries of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod stock (3Pn, 4RS) in 1994. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/54, 30 p .

The sentinel fisheries have been put in place for the first time in the fall of 1994. The main objective of these projects was to put a limited number of fishermen back in a fishing situation in order to have a follow up of the cod population while the commercial fishery is closed. Some 76 fishermen have done 185 fishing trips using fixed gear and 5 otter trawlers have conducted a stratified random groundfish survey in 4R and 3Pn. The catch rates of the fixed gear varied geographically, very low catch rates were observed along the Quebec Lower North-Shore and on the west coast of Newfoundland from the strait of Belle-Isle to the Port au Port peninsula. Good catch rates were observed in the southern part of 4R and 3Pn. These catch rates reflect the migratory behaviour of cod during that period. The estimation of the minimum trawlable biomass for cod from 4R and 3Pn from the December survey involving 5 otter-trawlers is 14,000 t. This value is very close to the biomass estimates derived during the January 1994 and August-September 1994 groundfish surveys conducted aboard the Gadus Atlantica and Alfred Needler respectively. The sentinel fisheries have also provided precious information on the condition of the seals caught accidently. Cod specimens were brought back for laboratory studies on feeding and condition (the relationship between the length and the weight of the fish). The diet was dominated with invertebrates whereas the diet during that period is generally dominated by fish. Samples from other sentinel fisheries should place these results into perspective. Finaly the condition of the cod have increased substantially compared with other samples collected previously on groundfish surveys conducted in January. The sentinel fisheries can thus be used in the follow up of populations of cod while under a moratorium and thus allow the fishermen to involve themselves directly in the stock assessment process.

FRÉCHET, A., Y. GAGNON, P. SCHWAB, D. D'AMOURS, J.-D. DUTIL, Y. LAMBERT, L. BOURASSA, C. ROLLET, 1994. Revue de l'état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 1993 ; Review of the status of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod stock (3Pn, 4RS) in 1993. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research document, 94/29, 50 p .

The 1993 fishing season was conducted with many problems. The fishing season started late because of problems linked with enforcement, the fisheries were stopped many times because of small fish. The initial TAC for 1993 of 31,000 t was reduced at the end of August to 18,000 t on the recommendation of the FRCC. This TAC was based on results of last year's assessment and corresponds to a fishery at the F0.1 reference level. Landings for 1993 were of 18,171 t. There are no directed nor sport fisheries on the 3Pn, 4Rs cod stock in 1994. All available indices indicate a large decline in the last year. The mobile gear catch rates drop by 37 % between 1992 and 1993. The population estimates derived from the 1994 January groundfish research vessel survey represent only 51 % of those estimated in 1993. The population estimates from the summer groundfish survey dropped by 65 %. Catch rates from the Index Fishermen declined in certain cases and maintained themselves in others. For the first time, a calibration of SPA was attempted incorporating results from both the summer and winter surveys. The summer survey series is now long enough to be of interest (4 years) and the winter series will be discontinued in 1995. The 3+ population numbers would have gone from 546 million individuals in 1980 to as low as 95 million individuals in 1993 and the biomass of mature fish (7+) in 1993 could be as low as 10,000 t. Because of problems linked with the quality of the research vessel survey information, the calibration with ADAPT produces anomalously high fishing mortalities. The analysis is thus presented for illustrative purposes only and no projections were done. Biomass is expected to be very low.

FRÉCHET, A., P. SCHWAB, 1992. Évaluation du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn-4RS) en 1991 ; Assessment of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod stock (3Pn, 4RS) in 1991. CAFSAC Res. Doc. ; CSCPCA doc. rech., 92/77, 50 p .

FRÉCHET, A., P. SCHWAB, P. GAGNON, 1991. Évaluation du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (divisions de l'OPANO 3Pn, 4R et 4S) en 1990. CSCPCA doc. rech., 91/43, 55 p .

FRÉCHET, A., P. SCHWAB, 1990. La pêche à la morue dans le nord-ouest du golfe du St-Laurent en 1989 (3Pn, 4RS) : l'analyse des prises, de l'effort de pêche et l'estimation de la biomasse. CSCPCA doc. rech., 90/60, 53 p .

FRÉCHET, A., P. SCHWAB, 1989. Évaluation du stock de morue de 3Pn-4RS en 1988. CSCPCA doc. rech., 89/55, 62 p .