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François J. SAUCIER
FAUCHER, M., D. CAYA, F.J. SAUCIER, R. LAPRISE, 2011. Interaction between atmosphere and ocean-ice regional models over the Gulf of St. Lawrence area, Canada. World Meteorological Organization, Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling, TD 1105, Rep. 32: 9-10 .
MAPS, F., B.A. SAKARDJIAN, S. PLOURDE, F.J. SAUCIER, 2011. Modeling the interactions between the seasonal and diel migration behaviors of Calanus finmarchicus and the circulation in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada). J. Mar. Syst., 88(2) 183-202 .
The Gulf of St.-Lawrence (GSL) is a dynamic region supporting a productive pelagic ecosystem. This environment presents unique opportunities to study the interactions between the population dynamics of planktonic species and the variability of physical processes. The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a dominant component of zooplankton biomass and abundance in the GSL. We developed a 3-D coupled physical-biological numerical model in order to study the population dynamics of C. finmarchicus in the GSL for the year 1999. We coupled a life cycle model of C. finmarchicus representing the average properties of the population in terms of egg production, development, migration behavior and mortality to a regional circulation model driven by realistic atmospheric, hydrological and oceanic forcing. The distribution and abundance patterns of C. finmarchicus were sensitive to the migration behavior owing to the strong vertical and horizontal shears in the circulation. Both the timing of seasonal ontogenetic vertical migrations and the diel vertical migrations appeared to be essential to produce simulation results similar to the observations and to ensure the perennial presence of a local population in the GSL. ©2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
SIMONS, R.D., S.G. MONISMITH, L.E. JOHNSON, G. WINKLER, F.J. SAUCIER, 2006. Zooplankton retention in the estuarine transition zone of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Limnol. Oceanogr., 51(6): 2621-2631 .
We used a three-dimensional physicalbiological model consisting of a Eulerian circulation model and a Lagrangian particle-tracking model, which included vertical sinking and swimming, to explore zooplankton retention in the estuarine transition zone of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLETZ). To test the accuracy of the model, the results were temporally and spatially compared to a passive scalar released simultaneously in the circulation model and to field data for zebra mussel veligers. The model was then used to study the effects of baroclinic density-driven flow, vertical sinking and swimming, and tidal vertical migration on retention of simulated zooplankton. Baroclinic flow, created by longitudinal and lateral salinity gradients, was a critical part of retention in the SLETZ. In the presence of baroclinic flow, vertical sinking and swimming speeds of ≥$0.2 mm s-1 had a large effect on the residence time of the simulated zooplankton as a result of gravitational circulation. Tidal vertical migrationa pattern of upward movement on flood and downward movement on ebbwas a viable retention mechanism for the SLETZ, and its effectiveness was amplified by baroclinic flow. As the speed of tidal vertical migration increased, the simulated zooplankton were concentrated in smaller areas of the SLETZ and moved further upstream.
WANG, J., Q. LIU, M. JIN, M. IKEDA, F.J. SAUCIER, 2005. A coupled ice-ocean model in the pan-Arctic and North Atlantic Ocean: simulation of seasonal cycles. J. Oceanogr., 61(2): 213-233 .
A coupled ice-ocean model is configured for the pan-Arctic and northern North Atlantic Ocean with a 27.5 km resolution. The model is driven by the daily atmospheric climatology averaged from the 40-year NCEP reanalysis (1958-1997). The ocean model is the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), while the sea ice model is based on a full thermodynamical and dynamical model with plastic-viscous rheology. A sea ice model with multiple categories of thickness is utilized. A systematic model-data comparison was conducted. This model reasonably reproduces seasonal cycles of both the sea ice and the ocean. Climatological sea ice areas derived from historical data are used to validate the ice model performance. The simulated sea ice cover reaches a maximum of 14 × 106 km2 in winter and a minimum of 6.7 × 106 km2 in summer. This is close to the 95-year climatology with a maximum of 13.3 × 106 km2 in winter and a minimum of 7 × 106 km2 in summer. The simulated general circulation in the Arctic Ocean, the GIN (Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian) seas, and northern North Atlantic Ocean are qualitatively consistent with historical mapping. It is found that the low winter salinity or freshwater in the Canada Basin tends to converge due to the strong anticyclonic atmospheric circulation that drives the anticyclonic ocean surface current, while low summer salinity or freshwater tends to spread inside the Arctic and exports out of the Arctic due to the relaxing wind field. It is also found that the warm, saline Atlantic Water has little seasonal variation, based on both simulation and observations. Seasonal cycles of temperature and salinity at several representative locations reveals regional features that characterize different water mass properties.©2005 The Oceanographic Society of Japan
PELLERIN, P., H. RITCHIE, F.J. SAUCIER, F. ROY, S. DESJARDINS, M. VALIN, V. LEE, 2004. Impact of a two-way coupling between an atmospheric and an ocean-ice model over the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Monthly Weather Rev., 132(6): 1379-1398 .
The purpose of this study is to present the impacts of a fully interactive coupling between an atmospheric and a sea ice model over the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. The impacts are assessed in terms of the atmospheric and sea ice forecasts produced by the coupled numerical system. The ocean-ice model has been developed at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute, where it runs operationally at a horizontal resolution of 5 km and is driven (one-way coupling) by atmospheric model forecasts provided by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC). In this paper the importance of two-way coupling is assessed by comparing the one-way coupled version with a two-way coupled version in which the atmospheric model interacts with the sea ice model during the simulation. The impacts are examined for a case in which the sea ice conditions are changing rapidly. Two atmospheric model configurations have been studied. The first one has a horizontal grid spacing of 24 km, which is the operational configuration used at the Canadian Meteorological Centre. The second one is a high-resolution configuration with a 4-km horizontal grid spacing. A 48-h forecast has been validated using satellite images for the ice and the clouds, and also using the air temperature and precipitation observations. It is shown that the two-way coupled system improves the atmospheric forecast and has a direct impact on the sea ice forecast. It is also found that forecasts are improved with a fine resolution that better resolves the physical events, fluxes, and forcing. The coupling technique is also briefly described and discussed.©2004 American Meteorological Society
SAUCIER, F.J., S. SENNEVILLE, S. PRINSENBERG, F. ROY, G. SMITH, P. GACHON, D. CAYA, R. LAPRISE, 2004. Modelling the sea ice-ocean seasonal cycle in Hudson Bay, Foxe Basin and Hudson Strait, Canada. Climate Dynamics, 23 (3-4), Pages 303-326 .
The seasonal cycle of water masses and sea ice in the Hudson Bay marine system is examined using a three-dimensional coastal ice-ocean model, with 10 km horizontal resolution and realistic tidal, atmospheric, hydrologic and oceanic forcing. The model includes a level 2.5 turbulent kinetic energy equation, multi-category elastic-viscous-plastic sea-ice rheology, and two layer sea ice with a single snow layer. Results from a two-year long model simulation between August 1996 and July 1998 are analyzed and compared with various observations. The results demonstrate a consistent seasonal cycle in atmosphere-ocean exchanges and the formation and circulation of water masses and sea ice. The model reproduces the summer and winter surface mixed layers, the general cyclonic circulation including the strong coastal current in eastern Hudson Bay, and the inflow of oceanic waters into Hudson Bay. The maximum sea-ice growth rates are found in western Foxe Basin, and in a relatively large and persistent polynya in northwestern Hudson Bay. Sea-ice advection and ridging are more important than local thermodynamic growth in the regions of maximum sea-ice cover concentration and thickness that are found in eastern Foxe Basin and southern Hudson Bay. The estimate of freshwater transport to the Labrador Sea confirms a broad maximum during wintertime that is associated with the previous summers freshwater moving through Hudson Strait from southern Hudson Bay. Tidally driven mixing is shown to have a strong effect on the modeled ice-ocean circulation.©2004 Springer- Verlag
FAUCHER, M., D. CAYA, F.J. SAUCIER, R. LAPRISE, 2004. Sensitivity of the CRCM atmospheric and the gulf of St. Lawrence ocean-ice models to each other. Atmos.-Ocean, 42: 85-100 .
The sensitivity of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), developed at the Université du Québec à Montréal, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence Ocean Model (GOM), developed at the Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, to each other is tested with an ensemble of simulations over eastern Canada from 1 November 1989 to 31 March 1990. The goal of this study is to investigate the interaction of the CRCM and GOM with respect to each others forcing fields. In the first part of the experiment, a series of simulations were performed using an iterative strategy, where both models run separately and alternately, using variables from the other model to supply the needed forcing fields for the computation of surface fluxes. The runs are iterated several times over the same period from the output of the previous run to allow the atmosphere and the ocean to interact several times with each other and to study the evolution of the solutions from one iteration to the next. In the second part of the experiment, a two-way coupled simulation is performed over the same period. The results indicate that on a monthly or longer timescale, the CRCM is not very sensitive to the details of the oceanic fields from GOM, except locally over the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL). However, GOM is quite sensitive to the differences in atmospheric fields from the CRCM. The results of several iterations converge to a unique solution, suggesting that the CRCM and GOM reachequilibrium with respect to each others forcing fields. Furthermore, the results of the coupled run also converge to this same solution.©2004 Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
LE CLAINCHE, Y., M. LEVASSEUR, A. VÉZINA, J.W.H. DACEY, F.J. SAUCIER, 2004. Behaviour of the ocean DMS(P) pools in the Sargasso Sea viewed in a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 61: 788-803 .
The dimethylsulfide (DMS) production model NODEM (Northern Oceans DMS Emission Model) was coupled with the water column ocean model GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence Model) that includes a two-equation κ-ε turbulence scheme. This coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model represents a significant improvement over the previous uncoupled version of NODEM that was driven by a diagnostic vertical mixing scheme. Using the same set of biogeochemical parameters, the coupled model is used to simulate the annual cycles of 1992 and 1993 at Hydrostation S in the Sargasso Sea. The better reproduction of the turbulent mixing environment corrects some deficiencies in nitrogen cycling, especially in the seasonal evolution of the nutrient concentrations. Hence, the coupled model captures the late-winter chlorophyll- and DMS(P)-rich blooms. It is also more adept at reproducing the vertical distribution of chlorophyll and DMS(P) in summer. Moreover, the DMS pool becomes less dependent on parameters controlling the nitrogen cycle and relatively more sensitive to parameters related to the sulfur cycle. Finally, the coupled model reproduces some of the observed differences in DMS(P) pools between 1992 and 1993, the latter being an independent data set not used in calibrating the initial version of NODEM.©2004 NRC Canada
LE FOUEST, V., M. CHIFFLET, M. STARR, B. ZAKARDJIAN, F. SAUCIER, 2003. Toward Prediction of the Ecosystem: 3D Simulations of the Coupled Biological Production and Hydrodynamics in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 3: 37-41 .
[Abstract only available in French]
Les variations spatio-temporelles dans la dynamique du plancton sont une caractéristique importante des écosystèmes marins et elles ontété liées aux variations dans le recrutement des espèces exploitables. Nous présentons ici les premiers essais dutilisation dun modèle tridimentionnel couplé physique-biologique pour simuler la variabilité observée dans lestuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent à laide des données générées par le Programme de Monitorage de la Zone Atlantique (PMZA). Ces résultats préliminaires indiquent que le modèle peut reproduire les cycles spatio-temporels moyens dans la production primaire, incluant les cycles diurnes, les effets des marées, des vents, du cycle saisonnier dans la circulation et la transformation des masses deau et des glaces de mer, et finalement des mélanges turbulents associés à ces cycles. Les données du PMZA constituent une ressource irremplaçable pour le développement et lamélioration des modèles biologiques et pour augmenter notre capacité à prédire les impacts des changements et des variations climatiques sur les écosystèmes marins.
WANG, J., M. IKEDA, J.F. SAUCIER, 2003. A theoretical, two-layer, reduced-gravity model for descending dense water flow on continental shelves/slopes. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 108(C5): 3161-3179 .
GACHON, P., J.F. SAUCIER, 2003. Modélisation du climat dans les mers intérieures du Canada: baie d'Hudson et golfe du Saint-Laurent. Naturaliste Can., 127(2): 117-122 .
SAUCIER, F.J., R. ROY, D. GILBERT, P. PELLERIN, H. RITCHIE, 2003. Modeling the formation and circulation processes of water masses and sea ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 108(C8): 3269-3289 .
WANG, J., R. KWOK, J.F. SAUCIER, J. HUTCHINGS, M.IKEDA, W. HIBLER III, J. HAAPALA, D.COON, H.E.M. MEIER, H. EICKEN, N. TANAKA, D. PRENTKI, W. JOHNSON, 2003. Working toward improved small-scale sea ice-ocean modeling in the Arctic Seas. EOS, 84(34): 325-336 .
SIMARD, Y., D. LAVOIE, F.J. SAUCIER, 2002. Channel head dynamics : capelin (Mallotus villosus) aggregation in the tidally driven upwelling system of the Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park's whale feeding ground. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 59: 197-210 .
Capelin (Mallotus villosus) tridimensional distribution at the head of the Laurentian Channel in the St. Lawrence estuary was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz acoustic surveys in the summers of 1994, 1995, 1997, and 1998. The results are interpreted with the help of a high-resolution tridimensional tidal circulation model. Total biomasses were small (93-4583 t) and showed rapid fluctuations, whereas mesoscale distribution was more constant. Capelin tended to occupy the very end of the channel head, especially the slopes and shallows surrounding the basins. This pattern did not coincide with the krill distribution, but the two total biomass series were significantly correlated. Capelin tidal dynamics is characterized by herding of capelin against the channel head slopes by the starting flooding currents, followed by an upwelling over the sills and shallows during maximum flood currents, and a return to the channel by the surface outflow during ebb. Each side of the channel head has a distinct capelin retention tidal cycle involving passive advection, swimming, and the two-layer estuarine circulation. This capelin distribution and tidal dynamics closely match the local fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) distributions observed from the whale-watching fleet and typical tidal feeding strategies at the channel head.
OLSON, D.W., W.D. LIDDLE, R.L. DOESCHER, L.M. BEHRENDS, T.D. SILAKOWSKI, J.F. SAUCIER, 2002. Perfect tide, ideal moon: An unappreciated aspect of Wolfe's generalship at Québec, 1759. William Mary Quart. 59(4): 957-974 .
WEISE, A.M., M. LEVASSEUR, F.J. SAUCIER, S. SENNEVILLE, E. BONNEAU, S. ROY, G. SAUVÉ, S. MICHAUD, J. FAUCHOT, 2002. The link between precipitation, river runoff, and blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in the St. Lawrence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 59: 464-473 .
Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning, are annually recurrent events in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada. The analysis of abundance data for this algal species between 1989 and 1998 at Sept-Iles, a presumed initiation site in the north-western Gulf of St. Lawrence, revealed yearly fluctuations in the onset, duration, and magnitude of toxic A. tamarense blooms. Hydrological and meteorological data for the region indicate that rainfall, Moisie River runoff, and wind are highly related to the pattern of bloom development each year. Results from the 10-year data set reveal that in this system: 1) high Moisie River runoff from a prolonged spring freshet or from heavy rainfall events in the summer and fall can initiate A. tamarense blooms; 2) high Moisie River runoff combined with prolonged periods of weak winds (< 4 m times s-1) favour the continued development of blooms; and 3) winds > 8 m times s-1 disrupt blooms. Salinity, which reflects the general state of the water column in terms of freshwater input and stability, had a strong negative correlation with the probability of observing A. tamarense cells at this station and could thus be used as a predictive tool for the presence of cells in this system.
GALBRAITH, P.S., F.J. SAUCIER, N. MICHAUD, D. LEFAIVRE, R. CORRIVEAU, F. ROY, R. PIGEON, S. CANTIN, 2002. Shipborne monitoring of near-surface temperature and salinity in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 2: 26-30 .
[Abstract only available in French]
Une collaboration entre le Service Météorologique du Canada, le Ministère des Pêches et des Océans et des armateurs a permis l'installation de thermosalinographes (TSG) à bord de trois navires commerciaux et d'un navire de la Garde Côtière naviguant sur le Saint-Laurent. Ces instruments permettent le suivi en temps réel de la température des eaux près de la surface via le Système Global de Télécommunication d'Environnement Canada et l'Observatoire du Saint-Laurent. Ces données sont ensuite assimilées dans des modèles de circulation océanique permettant de prévoir l'évolution de la couverture hivernale de la glace de mer et des conditions océanographiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent. L'installation typique d'un appareil est illustrée de même que des exemples de diffusion des données. Après seulement quelques années de fonctionnement, les appareils déployés sur les navires commerciaux font déjà découvrir de nouveaux aspects de l'océanographie du Saint-Laurent.
SENNEVILLE, S., F.J. SAUCIER, P. GACHON, R. LAPRISE, D. CAYA, 2002. Development of a Coupled Ice-Ocean Model of Hudson Bay. World Meteorological Organization, Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling, TD 1105, Rep. 32: 23-24 .
CABANA, A., F.J. SAUCIER (ed.), 2002. L'environnement nordique : 36e congres de la SCMO, Rimouski 2002, 22-25 mai, 2002 : Programme et resumes = The northern environment : 36th CMOS congress, Rimouski 2002, May 22-25, 2002 : program and abstracts. 186 p .
GACHON, P., R. LAPRISE, P. ZWACK, SAUCIER, J.F., 2002. The effects of interactions between surface forcings in the development of a model-simulated polar low in Hudson Bay. Tellus, 55A: 61-87 .
LACOSTE, K.N., J. MUNRO, M. CASTONGUAY, F.J. SAUCIER, J.A. GAGNÉ, 2001. The influence of tidal streams on the pre-spawning movements of Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., in the St. Lawrence estuary. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 58: 1286-1298 .
GACHON, P., F.J. SAUCIER, R. LAPRISE, 2001. Evaluation of summer-time near-surface temperature and wind fields over Hudson Bay in a regional atmospheric model. World Meteorological Organization, Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling, TD 1105, Rep. 32: 13-14 .
LEVASSEUR, M., A. WEISE, F. SAUCIER, 2001. Potential sensitivity of harmful algal blooms to climate changes. Pages 15-16 in Report of the ICES/IOC Working Group on Harmful Algal Bloom Dynamics. Dublin, Ireland, 12-16 March 2001 (ICES C.M., 2001/C:04) .
GAUCHON, P., J.F. SAUCIER, M. FAUCHER, R. LAPRISE, 2001. Development of an atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled regional model in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. in H. Richie (ed.). Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling, WMO-TD .
BOURGAULT, D., F.J. SAUCIER, C.A. LIN, 2001. Shear instability in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada : a comparison of fine-scale observations and estuarine circulation model results. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 106(C5): 9393-9409 .
LAVOIE, D., Y. SIMARD, F.J. SAUCIER, 2000. Aggregation and dispersion of krill at channel heads and shelf edges : the dynamics in the Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 57: 1853-1869 .
The spatial organization of the euphausiid (Thyanoessa raschi and Meganyctiphanes norvegica) aggregation at the head of the Laurentian Channel is examined using 120-kHz echointegration data from eight surveys in the summers of 1994 and 1995 and currents obtained from a high-resolution three-dimensional circulation model. Circulation is the main factor controlling the abundance and distribution of krill. The main aggregation pattern is U-shaped and includes an entrance corridor along the northern edge of the channel, a major accumulation zone off Les Escoumins, and an exit corridor along the southern edge. However, this mesoscale aggregation exhibits rapid fluctuations in spatial pattern and global abundance, due to the redistribution of krill within and out of the study area. The local accumulations are controlled by the interactions between the semidiurnal tidal currents, the topography, and the negative phototactism of krill. The strong vertical currents found along the channel slopes upstream of Les Escoumins and at the sills act to concentrate and pile up krill. The aggregation and dispersion mechanisms are strongly influenced by the deepwater blocking process taking place at the sills. The fortnightly tidal cycle and freshwater runoff modulate the blocking intensity. This krill aggregation dynamic is of primary importance for the trophic link with the baleen whales and fish in the Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park.
SAUCIER, F.J., J. CHASSE, 2000. Tidal circulation and buoyancy effects in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Atmos.-Ocean, 38: 505-556 .
SAUCIER, F.J., J. CHASSÉ, M. COUTURE, R. DORAIS, A. D'ASTOUS, D. LEFAIVRE, A. GOSSELIN, 1999. The making of a surface current atlas of the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada, Fourth international conference on computer modelling of seas and coastal regions. Pages 87-97 in C. A. Brebbia & P. Anagnostopoulos (ed.). Coastal engineering and marina developments : Proceedings of the 4th international conference on computer modelling of seas and coastal regions. Lemnos, May 1999. .
SAUCIER, F.J., J. DIONNE, 1998. A 3-D coupled ice-ocean model applied to Hudson Bay, Canada : the seasonal cycle and time-dependent climate response to atmospheric forcing and runoff. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 103(C12): 27689-27705 .
LEFAIVRE, D., J.F. SAUCIER, J. CHASSÉ, A. GOSSELIN, 1997. Forecasting trajectory of would-be and actual oilspills during the 1996 Irving Whale Barge Salvage in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Bulletin SCMO 25(3): 68-71 .
TESSIER, B., P.-A. BOLDUC, F. SAUCIER, 1996. Gestion intégrée de la zone côtière du fleuve Saint-Laurent et les exigences imposées au nouveau réseau permanent des niveaux d'eau. Page 182 in Zone côtière Canada '96 : conférence internationale Les zones côtières : gestion intégrée et développement durable : résumés .
PELTZER, G., F. SAUCIER, 1996. Present-day kinematics of Asia derived from geologic fault rates. J. Geophys. Res., 101(B12): 27943-27956 .
SAUCIER, F., 1995. L'influence de nos rivières sur les changements climatiques. Naturaliste can., 119(1): 49-50 .
LUNDGREN, P., F.J. SAUCIER, R. PALMER, M. LANGON, 1995. Alaska crustal deformation : finite element modeling constrained by geologic and very long baseline interferometry data. J. Geophys. Res. (B Solid Earth)), 100(B11): 22033-22045 .
SAUCIER, F.J., 1994. L'océanographie physique du Saint-Laurent et de la baie d'Hudson simulée par ordinateur. L'Euskarien, 16(1): 37-41 .
Ten moorings (28 current-meters, 4 tide guages and 4 thermistor chains) were deployed between August 1992 and September 1993 in the four straits bounding northern Hudson Bay. The objective was to measure the annual cycle in mass, heat, and salt exchange between Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin. Validated hourly data are presented. The means and standard deviations of temperature, salinity, density and velocity data are also presented, along with the main tidal constituent analyses of the current stream and tide guage records.
SCHOLZ, C.H., F.J. SAUCIER, 1993. What do Cajon Pass stress measurements say about San Andreas fault stress?. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 98: 17867-17869 .
SAUCIER, F., E. HUMPHREYS, 1993. Horizontal crustal deformation in Southern California from joint models of geological and very long baseline interferometry measurements. Pages 139-176 in D. Smith & D. Turcotte (ed.). Contributions of space geodesy to geodynamics : crustal dynamics. American Geophysical Union (Geodynamics, 23) .
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