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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Claude ROULEAU

DIONNE, S., J.A. GAGNÉ, D. GILBERT, C. ROULEAU, 2011. Processus consultatif scientifique régional sur l’examen du plan de suivi écologique de la zone de protection marine Estuaire du Saint-Laurent, 3-5 Mai 2011, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont-Joli, Qc ; Regional Science Advisory Process on the Review of the St. Lawrence Estuary Marine Protected Area Ecological Monitoring Plan, Mai 3-5, 2011, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Qc. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series, 2011/037, 18 p .

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PINHO, G.L.L., A. BIANCHINI, C. ROULEAU, 2011. Whole-body autoradiography : an efficient technique to study copper accumulation and body distribution in small organisms. Chemosphere, 85: 1-6 .

Copepods have been widely used to evaluate toxicity of metals present in marine environments. However, a technical difficulty is to understand the possible routes of metal uptake and to identify in which tissues or organs metals are being accumulated. Traditional techniques are hard to be employed once each organ has to be analyzed separately. Autoradiography is an alternative technique to circumvent this limitation, since metal distribution in tissues can be visualized and quantified, even in small organisms like copepods. In the present study, accumulation and distribution of 64Cu in the copepod Calanus hyperboreus was studied using autoradiography. Copepods were exposed for 2 h to copper (2.3 mg L-1; 1.08 MBq 64Cu mg-1 Cu) and then allowed to depurate for 2 h in clean seawater. Total 64Cu was determined by gamma-spectrometry after a metal exposure and a depuration period. 64Cu distribution was determined based on images generated by autoradiography. Metal accumulation was observed on all external surfaces of the copepods, being accumulated mostly on the ventral region, followed by dorsal, urossoma and internal regions. After depuration, radioactivity levels had a decrease in the sum of external body surface. Our results show that copper uptake by C. hyperboreus is fast and that a non-negligible proportion of the accumulated metal can reach internal tissues, which may lead to detrimental physiological effects. Moreover, whole-body autoradiography was demonstrated to be an efficient technique to study copper accumulation and body distribution in a very small organism such as the copepod C. hyperboreus.©2011 Elsevier Ltd.

VALDEZ DOMINGOS, F.X., C.A. OLIVEIRA RIBEIRO, É PELLETIER, C. ROULEAU, 2011. Tissue distribution and depuration kinetics of waterborne 14C-labeled light PAHs in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Environ. Sci. Technol., 45(7): 2684-2690 .

Light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of petrogenic origin are commonly found in estuaries and coastal areas. Though they are known to be toxic to fish, little is known about their uptake and tissue distribution. This paper reports on the results of a study on uptake, elimination, and tissue distribution of three waterborne 14C-labeled PAHs in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, using whole-body autoradiography. After a 24 h exposure to 1 μCi•3 L–1 of 14C-naphthalene, 14C-1-naphthol, and 14C-phenanthrene, fish were transferred to clean water and tissue distribution examined after 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of depuration. All compounds were readily accumulated by fish and were also rapidly eliminated (t0.5 range = 1.1 to 3.0 days). Most of the radioactivity in naphthalene- and phenanthrene-treated fish was found in gall bladder >> liver > intestinal lumen. In naphthol-exposed fish, an important labeling of some brain areas was observed. Brain of naphthalene-exposed fish was also labeled after 24 h depuration, indicating that exposure to naphthalene may result in metabolite accumulation in the brain. This is the first study showing that naphthalene, naphthol, and/or unidentified metabolite(s) can accumulate in brain tissues, which may impair normal brain function.©2011 American Chemical Society

AL-SID-CHEIKH, M., É. PELLETIER, C. ROULEAU, 2011. Synthesis and characterization of [110mAg]-nanoparticles with application to whole-body autoradiography of aquatic. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 69(10): 1415-1421 .

Silver nanoparticles (AgNp) were synthesized using aqueous solution of silver nitrate ([110mAg]NO3) with poly(allylamine) as a reducing agent and a stabilizer of the AgNp suspension. Nanoparticles were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, particle size analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Different size nanoparticles (10–30 nm and 70–90 nm) were obtained by varying the polymer concentration and reaction time. The application of [110mAg]AgNP to environmental studies, using nuclear techniques such as in vivo gamma counting and whole-body autoradiography, is demonstrated and discussed.©2011 Elsevier Ltd.

LACOUE-LABARTHE, T., R. VILLANUEVA, C. ROULEAU, F. OBERHÄNSLI, J.-L. TEYSSIÉ, R. JEFFREE, P. BUSTAMANTE, 2011. Radioisotopes demonstrate the contrasting bioaccumulation capacities of heavey metals in embryonic stages of cephalopod species. PLoS ONE, 6(11): 1-5 art no e27653 .

Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic food webs and also constitute alternative fishery resources in the context of the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Most coastal cephalopod species of commercial importance migrate into shallow waters during the breeding season to lay their eggs, and are consequently subjected to coastal contamination. Eggs of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, European squid Loligo vulgaris, common octopus Octopus vulgaris and the sepiolid Rossia macrosoma were exposed during embryonic development to dissolved 110mAg, 109Cd, 60Co, 54Mn and 65Zn in order to determine their metal accumulation efficiencies and distribution among different egg compartments. Cuttlefish eggs, in which hard shells enclose the embryos, showed the lowest concentration factor (CF) values despite a longer duration of exposure. In contrast, octopus eggs, which are only protected by the chorionic membrane, accumulated the most metal. Uptake appears to be linked to the selective retention properties of the egg envelopes with respect to each element. The study also demonstrated that the octopus embryo accumulated 110mAg directly from the dissolved phase and also indirectly through assimilation of the contaminated yolk. These results raise questions regarding the potential contrasting vulnerability of early life stages of cephalopods to the metallic contamination of coastal waters.©2011 PLoS ONE

BEACH, D.G., M.A. QUILLIAM, C. ROULEAU, R.P. CROLL, J. HELLOU, 2010. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene by the Marine Whelk Buccinum undatum. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 29(4): 779-788 .

The fates of a phenolic contaminant and its hydrocarbon precursor have rarely been compared, especially in an invertebrate species. Two groups of i>Buccinum undatum were exposed to equimolar amounts of pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene over 15 d through their diets. Tissue extracts from the muscle and visceral mass were analyzed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. Nine biotransformation products were detected in animals from both exposures. These included 1-hydroxypyrene, pyrene-1-sulfate, pyrene-1-glucuronide, pyrene glucose sulfate, two isomers each of pyrenediol sulfate and pyrenediol disulfate, and one isomer of pyrenediol glucuronide sulfate. These compounds represent a more complex metabolic pathway for pyrene than is typically reported. Diconjugated metabolites were as important in animals exposed to pyrene as in those exposed to 1-hydroxypyrene. Biotransformation products represented >90 % of the material detected in the animals and highlight the importance of analyzing metabolites when assessing exposure. A mean of only 2 to 3 % of the body burden was present in muscle compared with the visceral mass of both groups. The analytical methods were sufficiently sensitive to detect biotransformation products both in laboratory control whelks and in those sampled offshore. The tissue distribution of [14C]pyrene was also studied by autoradiography. Radioactivity was present primarily in the digestive and excretory system of the whelks and not in the gonads or muscle tissue.©2009 SETAC

ZUYKOV, M., E. PELLETIER, C. ROULEAU, L. POPOV, S.W. FOWLER, M. ORLOVA, 2009. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of 241Am in the shell of the freshwater Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Microchim. Acta, 167(3-4): 173-178 .

Autoradiography was used to identify α-track distributions in a series of shell sections from live mussels Dreissena polymorpha Pallas and dissected shells of dead mussels obtained from laboratory experiments using relatively high concentrations of 241Am in the exposure media, a required condition for successful use of this autoradiographic technique. A comparable distribution of α-tracks was recorded on autoradiographs from both live and dead shells suggesting that metabolism does not lead to any sizable changes in the process of 241Am adsorption (present in the extrapallial fluid) onto the inner surface of shell. Autoradiographs showed a preferential accumulation of 241Am in the organic periostracum, whereas the outer and inner shell layers were characterized by a relatively low α-tracks density. No α-tracks were observed in the central part of the shell in any of the samples. These observations will be useful for the development of a general model to explain bioaccumulation and biosorption processes of radionuclides into mollusk shells.©2009 Elsevier B.V.

LACOUE-LABARTHE, T., M. WARNAU, M. METIAN, F. OBERHÄNSLI, C. ROULEAU, P. BUSTAMANTE, 2009. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the Common Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis : radiotracer experiments. Sci. Total Environ., 407(24): 6188-6195 .

Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved 203Hg and 210Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50d at 17 °C). 203Hg and 210Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467 ± 43 and 1301 ± 126 g, respectively. During the first month, most of the 203Hg and 210Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, 203Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas 210Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place.©2009 Elsevier B.V.

FROUIN, H., J. PELLERIN, M. FOURNIER, E. PELLETIER, P. RICHARD, N. PICHAUD, C. ROULEAU, F. GARNEROT, 2007. Physiological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soft-shell clam Mya arenaria. Aquat. Toxicol., 82(2): 120-134 .

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the physiological status of the bivalve Mya arenaria. Specimens were exposed to four different sources of PAHs: aluminium smelter soot, sediment from an industrial discharge pound, charcoal fine particles and dietary PAHs assessed by feeding clams with phytoplankton freshly impregnated with dissolved PAHs. The exposure period lasted 30 days and bivalves were let to recover for an additional 20 days. At days 8, 15, 30 and 50, immune parameters (phagocytic activity and efficiency) were monitored in haemocytes. Oxidative stress measures such as catalase and lipid peroxidation were quantified in digestive gland as well as concentrations of bioaccumulated PAHs. In a second experiment, clams were exposed to [14C]-pyrene via the phytoplankton, and the tissue distribution of radiolabelled compound was studied. Glycogen levels in gonad and digestive gland were also measured and gametogenesis stages were investigated. Results showed a high bioaccumulation in clams exposed to dietary PAHs and contaminated sediments. Tissue distribution of [14C]-pyrene revealed that the radiolabelled compound persisted mainly in the gonad during 14 days. A decrease of phagocytosis was observed in contaminated male clams. The lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) was found to increase in the digestive gland tissues of clams exposed to dietary PAHs, smelter soot and discharge, but no differences were observed in the catalase activity. A delay in gametogenesis occurred in all exposed males and in females contaminated with coke dust and dietary PAHs. Males were more sensitive than females to PAH exposure. A dysfunction in steroid synthesis is suspected to occur due to the exposure to all sources of PAHs. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

EDGINTON, A.N., C. ROULEAU, G.R. STEPHENSON, H.J. BOERMANS, 2007. 2,4-D butoxyethyl ester kinetics in embryos of Xenopus laevis: the role of the embryonic jelly coat in reducing chemical absorption. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 52: 113-120 .

The role of the jelly coat in providing a protective barrier to chemical absorption was studied using the embryos of the amphibian, <iXenopus laevis. Embryos with or without a jelly coat were water exposed to the butoxyethyl ester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D BEE) and the rates of uptake, metabolism, distribution, and excretion were determined. The water uptake clearance rates were slower for embryos with a jelly coat (1.5-4.5 mlwater·g embryo -1 ·h-1 or 0.040-0.022 mlwater·h-1 per embryo) in comparison to dejellied embryos (14-21 mlwater·g embryo -1 ·h-1 0.0066-0.021 mlwater·hwater·h-1 per embryo). This accounted for the much lower residues in embryos with a jelly coat than in dejellied embryos during 8 h of exposure. Despite quantitative differences in uptake, once 2,4-D BEE had entered the embryos, metabolism and distribution were similar between the two test groups. 2,4-D BEE was metabolized to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with half-lives ranging from 35 to 42 minutes. The radioactive residues, as determined by whole body autoradiography, appeared throughout the embryo with a slight accumulation in the blastocoel. Furthermore, 35 % of the radioactive residues were located in the jelly coat and 65 % in the developing embryo. Based on a slower 2,4-D elimination in embryos with a jelly coat, the diffusive properties that decreased 2,4-D BEE uptake appeared to similarly decrease elimination of its metabolite. The common practice of removing jelly coats prior to embryonic amphibian toxicity studies, as in the widely used Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus</> (FETAX), is discouraged based on the kinetic differences observed in this study.© 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

ROULEAU, C., C. GOBEIL, H. TJÄLVE, 2006. Cadmium accumulation in coastal demersal fish. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 311: 131-143 .

The hepatic Cd burden, measured on 291 individuals of 4 species of demersal fish (Gadus morhua, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Hippoglossoides platessoides, and Raja radiata), is 2 to 5 times higher in fish from the open Gulf of St. Lawrence than in fish from the St. Lawrence Estuary, 600 km landward. The higher Cd burden in the open Gulf is not related to the input of anthropogenic Cd, nor can it be attributed to differences in size, sex, sampling season, or state of health. Rather, the Cd burden in demersal fish may be related to sediment diagenesis, since the concentration of authigenic Cd (i.e. Cd minerals formed in the sediments) is higher in the Gulf than in the Estuary, which may lead in turn to Cd-enrichment in sediment-dwelling organisms. Measured Cd burdens in the liver agree with predictions made with a simple biokinetic model that uses realistic estimates of the Cd content of benthic invertebrates in combination with kinetic parameters determined in H. platessoides with in vivo gamma counting. These results strongly suggest that the Cd content of the diet, rather than of the water phase, determines the hepatic Cd burden in these demersal fish species.©2006 Inter-Research

EDGINTON, A.N., C. ROULEAU, 2005. Toxicokinetics of(14)C-atrazine and its metabolites in stage-66 Xenopus laevis. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39(20): 8083-8089 .

FOWLER, S.W., J.L. TEYSSIÉ, O. COTRET, B. DANIS, C. ROULEAU, M. WARNAU, 2004. Applied radiotracer techniques for studying pollutant bioaccumulation in selected marine organisms (jellyfish, crabs and sea stars). Nukleonika, 49(3): 97-100 .

Obtaining specific information on contaminant biokinetics in marine biota is often necessary for properly interpreting monitoring data on trace contaminant levels in bioindicator species living under varying environmental conditions. Radiotracers have been employed in laboratory experiments to assess the uptake, distribution and retention of selected heavy metals and PCB congeners in three potential marine bioindicators occupying different ecological niches in the coastal zone. Pelagic and benthic jellyfish readily accumulated Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, 137>/sup>Cs and 241Am from both water and food and retained them with biological half-lives (T) ranging from a few days to several weeks. Zinc and silver were accumulated to the greatest degree (CF ˜ 4 x 102), with benthic jellyfish having a greater affinity for metals than the pelagic species. Results from light-dark experiments indicate that the enhanced metal uptake in the benthic jellyfish is due to the presence of endosymbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae situated in the arms of organisms. Shore crabs ingesting Ag, a sewage-related contaminant, readily accumulated the metal with male crabs assimilating some 71 % and female crabs 51 % of the Ag from their food. Moreover, the assimilated fraction of Ag remained virtually immobile in their tissues as evidenced by an extremely long T; for depuration of 7.3 years. Sea stars exposed to 14C-labelled PCB congener #153 in sea water accumulated the congener mainly in the body wall and podia reaching lipid weight CFs that ranged between approximately 2 x 105 to 4 x 105. In contrast, following exposure in radio-labelled sediments, the corresponding PCB transfer factors in the same tissues were much lower, viz., 3 x 102 to 5 x 102. Nevertheless, regardless of the exposure mode, CFs of PCB in the other tissues (digestive system, gonads, pyloric and rectal caeca) were consistently one to two orders of magnitude lower, an observation which suggests that sea star body wall and podia could serve as target tissues in biomonitoring studies assessing these toxic compounds.

SCOTT, G.R., K.A. SLOMAN, C. ROULEAU, C.M. WOOD, 2003. Cadmium disrupts behavioural and physiological responses to alarm substance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J. Exp. Biol., 206: 1779-1790 .

PERSSON, E., J. HENDRIKSSON, J. TALLKVIST, C. ROULEAU, H. TJÄLVE, 2003. Transport and subcellular distribution of intranasally administred zinc in the olfactory system of rats and pikes. Toxicology, 191(2-3): 97-108 .

ROULEAU, C., Z.-H. XIONG, G. PACEPAVICIUS, G.-L. HUANG, 2003. Uptake of Waterborne Tributyltin in the Brain of Fish : Axomal Transport as a Proposed Mechanism. Pages 3298-3302 in C. Rouleau, Z.-H. Xiong, G. Pacepavicius & G.-L. Huang. Uptake of Waterborne Tributyltin in the Brain of Fish: Axonal Transport as a Proposed Mechanism (Environ. Sci. Tech., 37: 3298-3302 .

SLOMAN, K.A., G.R. SCOTT, Z. DIAO, C. ROULEAU, C.M. WOOD, D.G. McDONALD, 2003. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquat. Toxicol., 65: 171-185 .

OLIVEIRA RIBEIRO, C.A., E. PELLETIER, W.C. PFEIFFER, C. ROULEAU, 2000. Comparative uptake, bioaccumulation, and gill damages of inorganic mercury in tropical and Nordic freshwater fish. Environ. Res. , 83(3): 286-292 .

ROULEAU, C., C. GOBEIL, H. TJALVE, 2000. Accumulation of silver from the diet in two marine Benthic predators : the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) and american plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 19(3): 631-637 .

ROULEAU, C., K. BORG-NECZAK, J. GOTTOFREY, H. TJÄLVE, 1999. Accumulation of waterborne mercury (II) in specific areas of fish brain. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33: 3384-3389 .

OLIVEIRA RIBEIRO, C.A., C. ROULEAU, É. PELLETIER, C. AUDET, H. TJALVE, 1999. Distribution kinetics of dietary methylmercury in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Environ. Sci. Technol., 33: 902-907 .

ROULEAU, C., M. BLOCK, H. TJÄLVE, 1998. Kinetics and body distribution of waterborne 65Zn(II), 109Cd(II), 203Hg(II), and CH 3 203Hg(II) in phantom midge larvae (Chaoborus americanus) and effects of complexing agents. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32: 1230-1236 .

ROULEAU, C., 1998. Synthesis of radioactive tributyl[ sup>113]tin of high specific activity for use in environmental fate studies. Appl. Organomet. Chem., 12: 435-438 .

ROULEAU, C., C. GOBEIL, H. TJÄLVE, 1998. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of dietary tributyltin compared to those of methylmercury in the American plaice Hippoglossoides platessoides. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 171: 275-284 .