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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Randall R. REEVES

REEVES, R.R., E.G. ATKINSON, J. BOULVA, A. GASTON, J. GREEN, P. LAROUCHE, D. MUDRY, J. PERCY, T.G. SMITH, 1990. Report of marine birds and mammals working group. Pages 33-38 in J.A. Percy (ed.). Proceedings of a workshop : Marine Ecosystem Studies in Hudson Strait, November 9-10, 1989, Montréal, Québec. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1770) .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1990. Status of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in Ungava Bay and eastern Hudson Bay. Can. Field-Nat., 103: 220-239 .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1990. Right whales, not humpbacks, taken in Cintra Bay. Amer. Neptune, 50: 119-126 .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1990. Bowhead whales in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin : a review. Naturaliste can., 117: 25-43 .

REEVES, R.R., R.L. BROWNELL, 1989. Susu Platanista gangetica (Roxburgh, 1801) and Platanista minor Owen, 1853. Pages 69-99 in S.H. Ridgway & R. Harrison (ed.). Handbook of marine mammals. Volume 4, River dolphins and the larger toothed whales. Academic Press, London .

REEVES, R.R., E.D. MITCHELL, 1988. Distribution and seasonality of killer whales in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Rit Fiskideildar, 11: 136-160 .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1988. Current status of the grey whale, Eschrichtius robustus. Can. Field-Nat., 102: 369-390 .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1988. Distribution and migration, exploitation, and former abundance of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Baffin Bay and adjacent waters. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 99, 34 p .

Recent surveys have revealed large concentrations of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in parts of the Lancaster Sound Region and off West Greenland. We examined unpublished historical sources, along with published literature, to evaluate early abundance, distribution, and migrations of white whales in Baffin Bay and adjacent waters. Principal sources were trading post journals in the Hudson's Bay Company Archives, Royal Canadian Mounted Police game reports, International Whaling Statistics, logbooks and journals of Scottish whaling voyages, and the professional papers of Thomas Southwell. The pattern of white whale migration appears to remain essentially unchanged from what it was in the nineteenth century. After their arrival along the floe edges of Jones Sound, Lancaster Sound, and Pond Inlet in June, the whales penetrate westward into Lancaster Sound as soon as ice conditions permit. By mid-July white whales are generally absent from Pond Inlet and Lancaster Sound, except in certain bays along the south coast of Devon Island. In July and August large concentrations occur in Barrow Strait, Prince Regent Inlet, and Peel Sound. The autumn eastward migration in September takes place mainly along the south coast of Devon Island. Large numbers entre Jones Sound, but white thales are rarely found in Admiralty Inlet, Navy Board Inlet, or Pond Inlet. An apparent hiatus in distribution exists along the northeast coast of Baffin Island, and the stock of white whales summering in the Lancaster Sound Region is considered separate from that summering in Cumberland Sound. Most circumstantial evidence supports the hypothesis that the Lancaster Sound population winter primarily off West Greenland. A drive fishery centered in Elwin Bay, Prince Regent Inlet, was conducted by Scottish whalers during the late nineteenth century. This fishery accounted for a minimum of 10 985 white whales caught between 1874 and 1898, including 8 617 during the peak decade 1886-95. There is no evidence that this kill resulted in long-term depletion of the population. We calculate that there was a minimum of 9 000 white whales in the Prince Regent Inlet summer population in 1886. If the documented kill of white whales by West Greenland hunters during the same decade is added to the Prince Regent Inlet total, then a population substantially larger than 12 000 in 1886 is indicated. Although documented catches in the Lancaster Sound Region have been relatively low since 1898 (ca less than 200 per year), exploitation by Greenlanders has continued at a high level. More than 9 000 white whales were killed off West Greenland as recently as 1966-75. Judging by available evidence on past and present abundance and distribution in the Lancaster Sound Region, it is not possible to amke a judgment about this whale population's conservation status. However, it it winters mainly in West Greenalnd and thus has been subject to a high catch there over many years, there is reason to suspect that the present-day aggregate population is substantially smaller than the population was prior to commercial exploitation. Research designed to provide direct evidence of movement between the Lancaster Sound Region (specifically Prince Regent Inlet) and West Greenland shoul be a high priority for management.

MITCHELL, E.D., R.R. REEVES, 1988. Records of killer whales in the western North Atlantic, with emphasis on eastern Canadian waters. Rit Fiskideildar, 11: 161-193 .

REEVES, R.R., E.D. MITCHELL, 1988. Killer whale sightings and takes by American pelagic whalers in the North Atlantic. Rit Fiskideildar, 11: 7-23 .

REEVES, R.R., E.D. MITCHELL, 1988. History of whaling in and near North Carolina. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS, 65, 28 p .

This study aims to reconstruct the history of shore whaling in the southeastern United States, emphasizing statistics on the catch of right whales, Eubaloena glacialis, the preferred targets. The earliest record of whaling in North Carolina is of a proposed voyage from New York in 1667. Early settlers on the Outer Banks utilized whale strandings by trying out the blubber of carcasses that came ashore, and some whale oil was exported from the 1660s onward. New England whalemen whaled along the North Carolina coast during the 1720s, and possibly earlier. As some of the whalemen from the northern colonies moved to North Carolina, a shore–based whale fishery developed. This activity apparently continued without interruption until the War of Independence in 1776, and continued or was reestahlished after the war. The methods and techniques of the North Carolina shore whalers changed slowly as late as the 1890s they used a drogue at the end of the harpoon line and refrained from staying fast to the harpooned whale, they seldom employed harpoon guns, and then only during the waning years of the fishery. The whaling season extended from late December to May, most successfully between February and May. Whalers believed they were intercepting whales migrating north along the coast. Although some whaling occurred as far north as Cape Hatteras, it centered on the outer coasts of Core, Shackleford, and Bogue banks, particularly near Cape Lookout. The capture of whales other than right whales was a rare event. The number of boat crews probably remained fairly stable during much of the 19th century, with some increase in effort in the late 1870s and early 1880s when numbers of boat crews reached 12 to 18. Then by the late 1880s and 1890s only about 6 crews were active. North Carolina whalling become desultory by the early 1900s, and ended completely in 1917. Judging by export and tax records, some ocean-going vessels made good catches off this coast in about 1715–30, including an estimated 13 whales in 1719, 15 in one year during the early 1720s, 5&ndsh;6 in a three-year period of the mid to late I72Os, 8 by one ship's crew In 1727, 17 by one group of whalers in 1728–29, and 8&ndsh;9 by two boats working from Ocracoke prior to 1730. It is impossible to know how representative these fragmentary records are for the period as a whole. The Carolina coast declined in importance as a cruising ground for pelagic whalers by the 1740s or 1750s. Thereafter, shore whaling probably accounted for most of the (poorly documented) catch. Lifetime catches by individual whalemen on Shackleford Banks suggest that the average annual catch was at least one to two whales during 1830–80, perhaps about four during the late 1870s and early 1880s, and declining to about one by the late 1880s. Data are insufficient to estimate the hunting loss rate in the Outer Banks whale fishery. North Carolina is the only state south of New Jersey known to have had a long and well established shore whaling industry. Some whaling took place in Chesapeake Bay and along the coast of Virginia during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, but it is poorly documented. Most of the right whales taken off Soulh Carolina, Georgia, and northern Florida during the 19th century were killed by pelagic whalers. Florida is the only southeastern state with evidence of an aboriginal (pre–contact) whale fishery. Right whale calves may have been among the aboriginal whalers' principal targets.©1988 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

REEVES, R.R., E.D. MITCHELL, 1987. The Long Island, New York, right whale fishery : 1650-1924. Pages 201-220 in R.L. Brownell, P.B. Best & J.H. Prescott (ed.). Right whales : past and present status : proceedings of the Workshop on the Status of Right Whales (Rep. Int. Whaling Comm. Spec. Issue, 10) .

REEVES, R.R., E.D. MITCHELL, 1987. American pelagic whaling for right whales in the North Atlantic. Pages 221-254 in R.L. Brownell, P.B. Best & J.H. Prescott (ed.). Right whales : past and present status : proceedings of the Workshop on the Status of Right Whales (Rep. Int. Whaling Comm. Spec. Issue, 10) .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1987. Les cétacés du Canada. Ministère des pêches et des océans (Le monde sous-marin, 59), 30 p .

MITCHELL, E.D., V.M. KOZICKI, R.R. REEVES, 1987. Sightings of right whales, Eubalaena glacialis, on the Scotian Shelf, 1966-1972. Pages 83-107 in R.L. Brownell, P.B. Best & J.H. Prescott (ed.). Right whales : past and present status : proceedings of the Workshop on the Status of Right Whales (Rep. Int. Whaling Comm. Spec. Issue, 10) .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1987. Cetaceans of Canada. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Underwater world, 59), 28 p .

REEVES, R., E. MITCHELL, 1987. Hunting whales in the St. Lawrence. Beaver, 67(4): 35-40 .

REEVES, R.R., E.D. MITCHELL, 1987. History of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exploitation in eastern Hudson Bay and James Bay. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 95, 45 p .

REEVES, R.R., E. MITCHELL, 1987. Catch history, former abundance, and distribution of white whales in Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay. Naturaliste can., 114: 1-65 .

MITCHELL, E., R.R. REEVES, 1986. Current status of the Bering Sea stock of bowhead whales. Musk-Ox, 34: 57-76 .

MITCHELL, E.D., R.R. REEVES, A. EVELY, 1986. Bibliography of whale killing techniques. International Whaling Commission, Cambridge (Rep. Int. Whaling Comm. Spec. Issue, 7), 160 p .

REEVES, R.R., K.J. FINLEY, E. MITCHELL, J. MACDONALD, 1986. Strandings of sperm whales, Physeter catodon, in Ungava Bay, Northern Québec. Can. Field-Nat., 100: 174-179 .