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PROVENCHER, L., C. NOZÈRES, 2011. Protocole de suivi des communautés benthiques de la zone de protection marine Manicouagan ; Monitoring plan for benthic communities of the Manicouagan Marine Protected Area. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2011/051, 29 p .
The marine area off the Manicouagan Peninsula has been targeted as a future Marine Protected Area (MPA) to conserve and protect this productive and diverse maritime space. The Science Directorate of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada has been requested to provide managers of the MPA (Regional Ecosystems Management Branch) a recommendation for ecological monitoring protocols for this area. The monitoring design was based on first defining the ecological components that should be monitored to ensure that conservation objectives for the MPA have been met. The biological components that were selected for monitoring are those that have been recognized as being important in terms of productivity and biodiversity, and representative of the MPA. One of the components judged to be of great importance is the benthic community, which was targeted because its components are permanent residents of the MPA. As knowledge of these communities was almost nonexistent, sampling campaigns were conducted from 2006 to 2008 to characterize them and determine how they vary spatially within the MPA. The results of these studies delineated four distinct zones serve as the basis of the proposed monitoring protocol. Twenty-five sampling stations are determined, including twenty-one that cover the first two zones – those that are characterized as having the greatest diversity and productivity. These stations will be sampled annually using an IKU benthic grab and using remote imaging (underwater photos and video). Measures of abundance and biomass of species identified at each station will be used to monitor benthic assemblages in the MPA. Abiotic variables are also to be monitored so that performance indicators may be better interpreted.
MARK, S., L. PROVENCHER, E. ALBERT, C. NOZERES, 2010. Cadre de suivi écologique de la zone de protection marine Manicouagan (Québec) : bilan des connaissances et identification des composantes écologiques à suivre. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2914, 135 p .
Le secteur marin au large de la péninsule de Manicouagan a été ciblé comme future zone de protection marine (ZPM) en vue de conserver et protéger cet espace marin productif et diversifié. Dans le cadre du programme Santé des Océans, la Direction régionale des sciences du ministère des Pêches et des Océans doit fournir aux gestionnaires des ZPM (Direction régionale des océans, de lhabitat et des espèces en péril) une recommandation de suivi écologique pour chacune des ZPM. Le développement dun suivi écologique comprend trois étapes : dresser le portrait de la zone, concevoir le suivi et, enfin, le réaliser. Le présent document traite des deux premières étapes en dressant le portrait de lécosystème de la ZPM Manicouagan à partir des connaissances disponibles et en ciblant les composantes écologiques à suivre pour évaluer latteinte des objectifs de conservation de la ZPM. Deux groupes de composantes ont été sélectionnés : 1) celui des composantes dites représentatives de la ZPM qui permettront dévaluer la performance de la ZPM dans latteinte des objectifs de conservation et 2) celui des composantes qui permettront un suivi de létat global de lécosystème de la ZPM et apporteront un support à linterprétation des indicateurs de performance.
MARTEL, M.-C., L. PROVENCHER, C. GRANT, H.-F. ELLEFSEN, S. PEREIRA, 2009. Distribution et description des herbiers de zostère du Québec ; Distribution and description of eelgrass beds in Québec. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2009/050, 45 p .
An advisory process was conducted to determine whether eelgrass (Zostera mariana) meets the criteria pertaining to ecologically significant species and community properties. This document presents information on the distribution of eelgrass beds in the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence in Québec and some elements of two studies about an area of interest, the future Manicouagan marine protection area. In general, eelgrass beds are geographically distributed throughout the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence in the Province of Québec. The largest eelgrass beds are as follow: the bed off Manicouagan, the LIsle-Verte eelgrass bed in the lower estuary, the one off Île Crescent and in Aylmer Sound bay on the north shore Gulf, and the Cascapédia bed in Chaleur Bay. The total surface area occupied by the various eelgrass beds are as follows: in the upper estuary 53 hectares; in the lower estuary 937 hectares along the north shore and 1,340 hectares along the south shore; along the northeastern portion of the Gaspé Peninsula 837 hectares; in Chaleur Bay 3,266 hectares. As for the eelgrass beds along the middle and lower North Shore, the total area occupied is not known, but the beds that are known occupy over 3,000 hectares. The characterisation of the eelgrass beds bordering the Manicouagan peninsula clearly show the importance of eelgrass in terms of abundance and diversity as well as the biomass of organisms inhabiting these beds. Marine fauna sampling led to the identification of 99 taxa representing the epiphytic, benthic, suprabenthic and ichthyan fauna of this bed. The Manicouagan eelgrass bed has spread over the last 20 years and new beds have become established.
MUNRO, J. (PRÉSIDENT), S. MARK, L. PROVENCHER, E. ALBERT, 2008. Compte rendu des ateliers sur lélaboration du cadre de suivi écologique de la future zone de protection marine Manicouagan, Québec, le 15 décembre 2006, le 24 janvier 2007, le 7 mars 2007, Mont-Joli ; Proceedings of the workshops held for preparing the ecological monitoring framework of the future Manicouagan Marine Protected Area, Quebec, December 15, 2006, January 24, 2007, March 7, 2007, Mont-Joli. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series, 2008/023, 112 p .
The Manicouagan Marine Protected Area is about to be created under the Oceans Act. Following the designation of the MPA, monitoring must be undertaken to determine whether the areas conservation objectives are being met. The Manicouagan MPA objectives aim to maintain biological productivity and diversity and to ensure sustainable exploitation of the resources. The development of a monitoring plan was initiated by drafting an ecological monitoring framework, presenting the ecological information on the area and identifying the existing and potential monitoring programs, as well as the information that needs to be obtained. In order to complete and improve the monitoring framework, three workshops that focussed on 1) exploited resources, 2) productivity and oceanography, and 3) biological diversity in the region including and immediately surrounding the MPA were held at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute in the winter of 2006-07. Most of the participants are affiliated with the DFO Regional Science Branch. Workshop 1: Using the available information on the principal exploited biological resources in the MPA, the specialists proposed to monitor the whelk and softshell clam populations. Several indicators were recommended for these species. The current monitoring of snow crab should suffice to monitor its population status in the MPA. Workshop 2: Knowledge on the biological oceanography for the entire St. Lawrence Estuary, as presented by the experts, was used to express hypotheses about the water dynamics in the MPA. Freshwater flows from rivers, wind and cold water upwellings were identified as determining processes in the area. The vast foreshore, the underwater bay and the coastal slope are likely to be significant productivity sectors. It was assessed that phytoplankton (especially toxic algae), filter-feeding shellfish near the estuaries, eelgrass beds, salt marshes and juvenile fish noticeably contribute to the regions productivity. Experts recommend to monitor the organisms that are produced in the area, particularly sedentary organisms, constantly subjected to the MPA conditions. The environmental pressures affecting key components were considered and a need to know and monitor sediment contamination levels was identified. Workshop 3: Available information on the biological diversity in the MPA was presented. Eelgrass beds, salt marshes and mollusc-dominated communities seem important for the diversity of the coastal area. The groundfish diversity appears to be high in the MPA. For the entire MPA, several epibenthos assemblages were mapped. Data from deeper waters are limited, but experts estimate that endobenthos and suprabenthos are important groups. Snow crab, occurring almost throughout the MPA, can act as a structuring predator in benthic communities. The sectors geology and bank erosion were the topic of a presentation, as well as the possible use of biomarkers and genetics in monitoring. Overall, an ecosystemic monitoring focusing on the systems key components is accepted by the peers, but the distribution and intensity of the environmental pressures must also be taken into account in the overall approach. For future indicator species, species with direct development and of low mobility should be preferred.
SAVARIA, J.-Y., G. CANTIN, L. BOSSÉ, R. BAILEY, L. PROVENCHER, F. PROUST, 2008. Proceedings from a scientific workshop on marine mammals, their habitats and food resources, held in Mont-Joli (Quebec) from April 3 to 7, 2000, within the context of the St. Lawrence Estuary Marine Protected Area project. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2647, 124 p .
This manuscript reports on a scientific workshop on the marine mammals of the St. Lawrence Estuary held at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute in April 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to make a scientific assessment of the need for a marine protected area (MPA) in the St. Lawrence Estuary to protect marine mammals, their habitats and their food resources. Present and potential problems faced by marine mammals, arising essentially from human activities in the vicinity, were debated. The participants were then able to prioritize these various problems and weigh the adequacy of the MPA proposed boundaries. Disturbance, contamination and lack of knowledge were identified as the key problems. Finally, the participants determined that given the magnitude of the problems encountered by marine mammals, the establishment of the MPA was justified and indeed essential to the protection of these animals and their habitats.
GRANT, C., L. PROVENCHER, 2007. Caractérisation de l'habitat et de la faune des herbiers de Zostera marina (L.) de la péninsule de Manicouagan (Québec). Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2772, 65 p .
Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) beds from the Manicouagan peninsula have been described in two ways: a habitat characterization and a study of the faunal composition. Environmental conditions (salinity, temperature and sediments) in this area appeared to be appropriate to eelgrass settlement. In the three studied locations (Pointe-aux-Outardes, Baie St-Ludger and Pointe-Manicouagan), the overall eelgrass distribution is dense and continuous except along the edges. The eelgrass bed is typical of those found in shallow waters where physical disturbance is important (dessication, waves, ice cover). It was established that the epiphyte, benthos, suprabenthos and fish fauna is globally composed of 99 taxa. In all fauna groups, a high proportion of juvenile has been recovered supporting, as previously documented, the nursery role of eelgrass. Compared to a nonvegetated area (clam bed) close to the eelgrass bed, the benthic community is more diverse and its biomass is three times higher.
SAVARIA, J.-Y., G. CANTIN, L. BOSSE, R. BAILEY, L. PROVENCHER, F. PROUST, 2003. Compte rendu d'un atelier scientifique sur les mammifères marins, leurs habitats et leurs ressources alimentaires, tenu à Mont-Joli (Québec) du 3 au 7 avril 2000 ( ). Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2647, 127 p .
This manuscript is the product of a scientific workshop held at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute in April 2000 on the marine mammals of the St. Lawrence estuary. The purpose of the workshop was to make a scientific assessment of the need for a marine protected area (MPA) in the St. Lawrence estuary to protect marine mammals, their habitat and their food resources. Present and potential problems faced by marine mammals, arising essentially from human activities in the vicinity, were debated, and participants were thus able to prioritize these various problems and weigh the adequacy of the proposed boundaries of the MPA. Disturbance, contamination and lack of knowledge were identified as the key problems. In conclusion, the participants determined that given the scale of the problems encountered by marine mammals, establishment of the MPA was justified, indeed was essential to the protection of these creatures and their habitats.
MARK, S., L. PROVENCHER, J. MUNRO, 2003. Approche pour l'évaluation et le suivi de la santé de l'écosystème, avec application à la communauté à Mya-Macoma. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2491, 85 p .
This report develops a framework for monitoring and assessing marine ecosystem healt at the level of biological communities in the littoral zone. We initially present the concept of ecosystem health. Thereafter we describe the methodology to reach a set of indicators in four major steps. First, we identify the major issues affecting a specific community. Secondly, we identify the ecological properties likely to be affected at the different ecosystem levels. Thirdly, we suggest possible indicators of these properties for the Mya-Macoma community. Fourthly, we explore the establishment of objectives and benchmarks necessary for an assessment. Throughout these steps, relevant definitions and concepts are presented. After this process, we evaluate the indicators suggested for the Mya-Macoma community according to a set of criteria and propose a series of indicators in view of each major issue affecting this community (fisheries, contamination, habitat change, and climate change). The process emphasises the need for a prioritisation at every step, consequently limiting the number of parameters needed for surveying important ecosystem components and their functions. The work presented in this report focuses on the Mya-Macoma community, but the approach proposed can also be applied to other communities or to another level of the ecosystem.
CHEVARIE, L. B. MYRAND, F. BOURQUE, M. GIGUÈRE, L. PROVENCHER, P. ARCHAMBAULT, R. TREMBLAY, J. PARIZEAU, G. DESROSIERS, 2003. "Programme MIM":A new program to develop soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) culture in Îles-de-la-Madeleine (Gulf of St. Lawrence). AAC Spec. Publ., 6: 49-52 .
MARK, S., L. PROVENCHER, J. MUNRO, 2003. Approach for the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystem health with application to the Mya-Macoma community. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2491, 78 p .
This report develops a framework for monitoring and assessing marine ecosystem healt at the level of biological communities in the littoral zone. We initially present the concept of ecosystem health. Thereafter we describe the methodology to reach a set of indicators in four major steps. First, we identify the major issues affecting a specific community. Secondly, we identify the ecological properties likely to be affected at the different ecosystem levels. Thirdly, we suggest possible indicators of these properties for the Mya-Macoma community. Fourthly, we explore the establishment of objectives and benchmarks necessary for an assessment. Throughout these steps, relevant definitions and concepts are presented. After this process, we evaluate the indicators suggested for the Mya-Macoma communauty according to a set of criteria and propose a series of indicators in view of each major issue affecting this community (fisheries, contamination, habitat change, and climate change). The process emphasises the need for a prioritisation at every step, consequently limiting the number of parameters needed for surveying important ecosystem components and their functions. The work presented in this report focuses on the Mya-Macoma communauty, but the approach proposed can also be applied to other communities or to another level of the ecosystem.
PROVENCHER, L. (éd.), 2003. Compte-rendu d'un atelier sur la recherche appliquée aux communautés à Mya-Macoma, dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent, tenu le 28 mars 2002. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2657, 30 p .
Fisheries and Oceans Canada and the Société de Développement de l' Industrie maricole hosted a workshop on 28 march 2002 at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute, dealing with applied research on Mya-Macoma communities. Two main thermes were covered: the impact of manual or mechanised harvest of the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria) and the development of marine aquaculture. These themes were addressed through presentations and a discussion period.
PROVENCHER, L., M. GIGUÈRE, P. GAGNON, 1997. Caractérisation du substrat entre les isobathes de 10 et 50 mètres autour des Îles-de-la-Madeleine par balayage hydroacoustique et échantillonnages sédimentologiques : évaluation du système de traitement des échos USP RoxAnn. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2156, 49 p .
Acoustic measurements collected in 1991 and 1992, using the RoxAnn seabed discrimination system USP, have provided a description of the seabed around the Magdalen Islands between the 10 and 50 meter isobaths. Sediments sampled at 163 stations scattered on the acoustic path allowed the validation of the RoxAnn technology. Five types of seabed have been classified and mapped : very fine sand, fine sand, gravel, and rock. Empirical classification of seabed type from the RoxAnn system has been compared to that obtained using discriminant analysis of hydroacoustic data. Although the RoxAnn classification is satisfactory, discriminant analysis was more useful in defining the different types of seabed. Proper empirical calibration of the system is necessary to achieve reliable results. Recommendations on how this may be conducted are presented.
PROVENCHER, L., P. BRYL, A. GENDRON, F. ROY, J. BOYER, 1995. Essais d'alimentation de la morue franche (Gadus morhua). Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 228, 29 p .
As a means of increasing the weight of cod caught and obtaining a better sale price, some members of the fishing industry in Québec and Newfoundland attempted to grow out cod in floating cages. These cod were caught in traps at the beginning of the season and sold in late fall. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of feeds prepared from raw materials easily available in maritime regions to grow out farmed cod. Two types of feed were prepared : a capelin-based meal and a cod-residue silage-type meal. Cod, varying in size from 35 to 55 cm and caught in the St. Lawrence Estuary, were fed these two types of meal for 73 days while being held in a tank. The performances of these two feeds were compared to that of a whole-capelin diet. The two meal-based do not perform as well as whole-capelin diet. Average growth values, after 73 days of grow-out, are 65 % for the capelin diet, 45 % for the capelin-based meal, and 25 % for the cod-residue silage-type meal. The whole-capelin-fed cod consumed the equivalent of 3,3% of their body weight per day compared to 1,2 % and 1,0 % for cod that were fed the capelin-based meal and cod-residue silage-type meal. The feed conversion values based on weight on the wet weight of feed ingested are 4,7 for the whole capelin diet, 2,3 for the capelin-based meal and 3,25 for the cod-residue silage-type meal. The cod that were fed whole capelin consumed 14,1 kJ of energy for each gram of weight gain compared to 19,1 kJ and 27,2 kJ of energy per gram of weight gain for the cod that were fed the capelin-based meal and the cod-residue silage-type meal. Therefore, whole capelin is better assimilated by cod. Based on these results, to obtain better performances, we recommended future growers give preference to wild prey to feed their cod. However, the cod-residue silate-type meal is not recommended.
These stocking experiments allowed the development of a new type of holding cage for snow crab. The survival rate was 95 % after nine weeks and decreased more rapidly thereafter, probably due to the effect of prolonged starvation. The optimal crab stocking density was not determined, but no problem was encountered at the density of 37 kg/m2 used.
DORION, D., L. PROVENCHER, 1995. Etude de marché sur le crabe des neiges en stabulation au Québec. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 229, 62 p .
This market analysis was carried out for the Québec sea food buyers in order to respond to snow crab promoters interested in establishing a stable market for their product. Its principal objectives are : to describe the present situation of the snow crab market in Québec, to assess the possibility of marketing the product outside the fishing season, to place this new activity within the context of the snow crab fishing industry and to propose a strategy to introduce this activity in the province of Quebec. This study shows a potential market in Québec for the crab sold outside the fishing season, particularly for live snow crab in eastern Québec. However, the profitability of this project depends on the buying and selling prices, which have been fluctuating significantly for the last few years.
Fishing season for snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) is short. This results in an overabundance of fresh crab in spring. Snow crab is rarely available off season and in major cities markets. Holding live unfed snow crab would extend the period of availability beyond the fishing season. This report reviews our knowledge of the biological requirements of snow crabs and suggests handling and transport procedures as well as live-holding techniques. Snow crab survival in holding facilities depends on careful handling on boats and during transportation. Crabs should never be exposed to water temperatures over 10 °C or to salinities below 22 ppt. Live-holding can be carried out at sea using modified fishing gears, higher survival rates being obtained in deep cold water with high salinity. In land-based facilities, excellent results have been obtained for a 3,5 month period at 0 °C. Under these conditions, quality of flesh is high and mortality rates are low. There is a need for information on optimal holding densities and on tolerance to metabolic wastes and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. To make for this lack of knowledge, we review current practices in lobster holding facilities.
DORION, D., L. PROVENCHER, 1994. Étude de faisabilité financière de la stabulation du crabe des neiges au Québec. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 226, 66 p .
The purpose of this study was to analyse the financial feasability of holding live unfed snow crab either in land-based facilities or at sea. In tanks, three production volumes were analyzed using Chionoecetes opilio initial quantities of crab subjected to two different water treatments and no food. These production volumes were initiated at 20,000 lb, 50,000 lb and 100,000 lb of snow crab. For each volume, two types of sea water supply were used : a 100 % sea water flow-through system and a 80 % recirculated water system. The holding period was three months for the lowest production level and six months for the other two. For those six scenarios, only one initial supply of crabs was planned. However, an additional supply could be possible later in the season either from the Atlantic provinces fishery or from part of the local harvest postponed to the fall. In this manner, three more treatments of similar duration were examined in which the production was doubled by a second arrival at mid-period. At sea, two production volumes were analyzed initiated at 20,000 and 50,000 lb over a three months and six months period respectively. Among all treatments examined, only three showed financial profitability : the two treatments of holding crab at sea and the land-based facility with 200,000 lb volume and a second supply of crab. Holding crab at sea shows interesting prospects for a fisherman who already owns the basic equipment (boat, winch, etc,). He could expect an additional income of between $10,659 and $22,390 according to the production level.
DUTIL, J.-D., J. MUNRO, R. DUFOUR, Y. GAUTHIER, F. HAZEL, B. SAINTE-MARIE, L. PROVENCHER, J. BOYER, D. HARDY, 1993. L'élevage du crabe des neiges : bilan des travaux de recherche. Ministère des pêches et des océans, Programme fédéral de développement des pêches du Québec, 12 p .
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