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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Ian H. McQUINN

PLOURDE, S., I. McQUINN, 2009. Zones d'importance écologique et biologique dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent : zooplancton et production secondaire ; Ecologically and biologically significant areas in the Gulf of St. Lawrence : zooplankton and secondary production. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2009/104, 31 p .

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This research document presents candidate ecologically and biologically significant areas (SA) for zooplankton (biomass, indices of secondary production) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Areas characterized by greater biomass of three distinct size classes/groups of zooplankton (mesozooplankton <1 mm et > 1 mm, macrozooplankton) and by a high index of secondary production estimated from the egg production of adult females of dominant copepod species have been determined using spatial data collected in 1999-2000 and 2005. Additionally, results from a 3-D coupled biological-physical model of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus ran for the year 1999 and acoustic data collected in 2005 are used to complete the information. Twelve SA have been identified, with the lower estuary, the northern area in the northwest GSL, the Gaspé Current, the coastal area in the southern GSL (including the Baie-des-Chaleurs), the Maximum Turbidity Zone (middle estuary), and the region extending from the tip of the Gaspé Peninsula into the outer Baie-des-Chaleurs being the most important SA. However, recognizing that these SA correspond to regions that have been better sampled, we recommend that this information should be carefully used and provide recommendations for future work.

McQUINN, I.H., 2009. Pelagic fish outburst or suprabenthic habitat occupation : legacy of the Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) collapse in eastern Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 66(12): 2256-2262 .

The use of bottom-trawl research survey data to estimate population trends for small pelagic fishes, despite the extremely low selectivity of this gear for these species, has created the impression of a pelagic fish outburst along eastern Canada in the 1990s as a top-down response resulting from the demise of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and other groundfish. Using Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) population assessments, fisheries statistics, and an acoustic database, as well as grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) diet studies, I demonstrate that contrary to a pelagic outburst, pelagic catches in research bottom trawls increased in several eastern Canadian ecosystems as these species increasingly occupied the suprabenthic habitat vacated by their diminishing groundfish predators. Although several herring populations were actually decreasing in abundance, bottom-trawl indices (BTls) were dramatically increasing as their availability to research bottomtrawl surveys increased. Studies using BTls have systematically underestimated pelagic fish abundances before the cod decline and therefore have dramatically overestimated their importance since, seriously biasing our view of the past and present state of many Canadian east coast ecosystems.©2009 NRC Research Press

MCQUINN, I., S. BRULOTTE, C. CYR, 2008. Évaluations des stocks de mollusques des eaux côtières du Québec en 2005, 17 et 26 janvier 2006, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne ; Stock Assessments on mollusks in Quebec coastal waters in 2005, January 17 and 26, 2006, Maurice Lamontagne Institute. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series, 2008/003, 20 p .

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This document contains the proceedings from the meetings held within the regional assessment process on molluscs in the Quebec coastal waters in Quebec region following the 2005 fishing season. This advisory process was held on January 17 and 26, 2006 at the Maurice-Lamontagne Institute in Mont-Joli. During these meetings, the assembly reviewed the stock status of the molluscs in the Quebec coastal waters exploited by both commercial and recreational fishery as well as certain environmental parameters that prevailed during the last fishing seasons. Therefore, these proceedings contain the essential parts of the presentations and discussions held and relate the main recommendations and conclusions that were presented during the review.

McQUINN, I.H., P. NELLIS, 2007. An acoustic-trawl survey of middle St. Lawrence Estuary demersal fishes to investigate the effects of dredged sediment disposal on atlantic sturgeon and lake sturgeon distribution. Pages 257-271 in J. Munro(ed.), D. Hatin, K. McKown, J. Hightower, K.J. Sulak, A.W. Kahnle & F. Caron(co-ed.). Anadromous sturgeons : habitats, threats, and management. American Fisheries Society (Am. Fish. Soc. Symp., 56) .

Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus and lake sturgeon A. fulvescens in the middle St. Lawrence estuary are under consideration for designation as "endangered" or "vulnerable"” species. A potential threat to these species is the disposal of dredged sediments in an area where young-of-the-year and juvenile Atlantic sturgeon concentrate. The objectives of this study were (1) to study the short-term and cumulative impacts, if any, of the dumped sediments on the abundance, distribution, and movements of the two sturgeon species downstream of the disposal area, and (2) to investigate the usefulness of acoustic surveys for assessing sturgeon density and distribution. A two-phase, combined acoustic-trawl survey was conducted to describe sturgeon distributions and produce concurrent acoustic and trawl estimates of the relative abundance of demersal fish within the area (lake sturgeon and Atlantic sturgeon were presumed to dominate the acoustic echoes). This series of surveys was the first known attempt to quantify sturgeon abundance and distribution with a vertically deployed echo sounder. The results showed good correspondence between the two methods. Replicated sampling also showed the repeatability of the acoustic technique and stability in demersal fish distribution on a scale of days. The acoustic surveys indicated that the spatial distribution of demersal fishes was dependent on substrate, as these fishes avoided areas of dredged sediment dumping and associated sand dunes. Our study showed that under certain conditions, acoustic-trawl surveys can reliably assess sturgeon density and distribution.©2007 American Fisheries Society

CHARRIER, G., S.H. COOMBS, I.H. McQUINN, J. LAROCHE, 2007. Genetic structure of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the northeast Atlantic and adjacent waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 330: 201-211 .

Accurate identification of stock boundaries is essential for efficient fisheries management; hence, the present study focused on the genetic structure of whiting. To this aim, 488 individuals collected from the southern Bay of Biscay to the southern Norwegian coast were genotyped using 7 microsatellites. A low level of genetic structuring was detected in Atlantic waters; only the Bay of Biscay differentiated from more northern samples. The lack of genetic structure along the western margin of the British Isles is consistent with a high level of passive transport of pelagic eggs and larvae due to the combined influence of the North Atlantic Current and the Shelf Edge Current. High levels of dispersal could also occur between the western British Isles and the North Sea through both the branching of the North Atlantic Current into the northern North Sea and the residual current flowing from the English Channel to the Southern Bight. In contrast, a significant genetic structure was identified within the North Sea, and this may be associated with the complex oceanography of this basin and retention systems reducing larval dispersal. In addition, considering also genetic, phenotypic and tag-recapture data collected on whiting, a learned homing behaviour of adults toward spawning areas may be hypothesised. ©2007 Inter-Research

McQUINN, I.H., D. REID, L. BERGER, N. DINER, D. HEATLEY, I. HIGGINBOTTOM, L.N. ANDERSEN, O. LANGELAND, J.P. LAPIERRE, 2005. Description of the ICES HAC standard data exchange format, version 1.60. ICES Coop. Res. Rep., 278: 86 p .

The HAC standard format for the exchange of fisheries acoustics raw and edited data was adopted by the ICES-Fisheries Acoustics Science and Technology Working Group (WGFAST) in 1999. Since 2000, the ICES HAC Planning Group (PGHAC) has overseen modifications and additions to the format so that it would evolve to meet the needs of the international fisheries acoustics community. The present report is based on the original adopted version and consolidates into one document the various additions, modification, corrections and clarifications which have been vetted and accepted by the PGHAC in the intervening years and published in the ICES Annual Reports of the Planning Group on the HAC data exchange format. Through the work of the PGHAC, many improvements have been made to the format, including the correction of errors and imprecisions in previously described tuples, the clarification of rules and definitions for tuple syntax, for allocating tuple numbers and for software compliance and compatibility, the addition of new tuples containing information for a new generation of echosounders, for additional auxiliary sensors and for the complete series of generic tuples for data exchange. The work of the PGHAC and the evolution of the HAC standard format will continue after the publication of this document and future modifications will continue to be published in the HAC Planning Group Annual Reports.©2005 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

McQUINN, I.H., Y. SIMARD, T.W.F. STROUD, J.-L. BEAULIEU, S.J. WALSH, 2005. An adaptive, integrated "acoustic-trawl" survey design for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) with estimation of the acoustic and trawl dead zones. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 62(1): 93-106 .

The objectives of this study were to design an operationally efficient groundfish survey integrating both acoustic and trawl methodologies, to measure the changing vertical availability of cod to each method over 24 h and to compare cod-biomass estimates from the two methods within two experimental sub-regions. The two-phased sampling design involved (i) conducting an initial systematic acoustic survey to locate an area of high cod concentrations, (ii) using the acoustic-backscatter information to stratify the sub-regions into density strata for the allocation of trawl hauls, and (iii) conducting a second systematic acoustic survey at the same time as a random-stratified trawl survey. This protocol permitted the optimization of trawl sampling according to population density and the realization of simultaneous trawl and acoustic estimates for direct comparison. These cod showed extensive diel vertical migrations, which affected their availability to the trawl gear at night and the acoustic beam by day. An acoustic dead-zone correction was applied to the acoustic estimates, averaging 4-15 % of the biomass for the night-time transects and 11-36 % for the daytime transects. The detailed temporal acoustic monitoring of the vertical migrations permitted the quantification of the change in cod availability to the trawl gear. From 6 % to 47 % of cod were above the effective trawl height at night, while 0-10 % of cod were in the "trawl dead zone" by day. Estimated cod densities were very similar between the two methods on a haul-by-haul basis after correcting each method for their respective inherent sampling biases. The total biomass estimates were also comparable between the two methods for one sub-region, although significantly higher from the trawl data for the other. The discrepancies were most likely a result of differences in the sampling density of the two methods.©2004 Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

McQUINN, I.H., D. CARRIER, 2005. Far-field measurements of seismic airgun array pulses in the Nova Scotia Gully Marine Protected Area. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2615, 24 p .

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Plans for conducting a 3-D seismic exploration adjacent to the Sable Island Gully Marine Protected Area (MPA) prompted concerns over the potential for stress or physiological harm to the endangered northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) from the increased noise levels. A study of the far-field measurement of seismic pulses throughout the Gully MPA and specifically the Gully Whale Sanctuary was therefore initiated to directly measure noise levels produced by the seismic pulses and to validate the accuracy of sound propagation predictions published in the environmental assessment (EA). Our results showed that the noise levels predicted in the EA were on average underestimated by 8 dB. This finding is significant since the results of sound propagation models are used by regulators to define the safety radius for marine mammals around seismic arrays, i.e., < 180 dB. The highest average sound pressure level (RMS) measured in the Gully MPA during the present study was 145 dB re 1µPa at 90 m depth, 50 km from the seismic array. This sound level was measured within the Gully Whale Sanctuary while the seismic vessel was surveying the western portion of the exploration block. It was estimated that sound levels in the Whale Sanctuary would have been between approximately 153 and 157 dB when the vessel was at its closest approach to the Gully in the eastern portion of the survey block. The "worst case" sound level at the Gully MPA boundary, i.e., 0.8 km from the source, extrapolated from near-field measurements would have been approximately 178 dB, 14 dB higher than originally predicted in the EA and close to the 180 dB safety criteria. Measured sound levels were also significantly higher than the model predictions at several other stations and showed significant variability around the mean values. This demonstrates the importance of using accurate model input data, of using field validation to verify the model predictions and of the need to measure the variability around the mean sound level estimates

LAWSON, J., I. McQUINN, 2004. Review of the potential hydrophysical-related issues in Canada, risks to marine mammals, and monitoring and mitigation strategies for seismic activities ; Revue des problématiques potentielles liées à l’hydrophysique au Canada, leurs risques pour les mammifères marins, et des stratégies de monitorage et d’atténuation dans le contexte d’activités sismiques. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2004/121, 57 p .

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To outline the elements of the physical environment that will effect seismic sound propagation, we subdivided Canadian waters into five hydrophysical areas based on a number of broadly-defined physical features such as depth, bottom type, weather patterns, and surrounding land masses: Enclosed Continental Shelf, Narrow and Broad Continental Shelves, Arctic Shelf, and Coastal Canyons. These characteristics overlap among the areas, and the characteristics effect underwater acoustic environments. The prediction of underwater acoustic propagation is a critical parameter in determining the detection range of acoustic signals by marine mammal receivers. There are few studies of (1) marine mammal hearing sensitivity (especially for baleen whales), (2) physical structure and underwater sound propagation characteristics of many marine areas in Canada, and (3) the effects of seismic sounds on marine mammal hearing sensitivity or behaviour, both on an individual and population level. How reliably these effects occur, the magnitude of these effects, the range of “recovery times” after effects are detected, and the factors which seem to influence probability, magnitude, and time course of effects are all types of data that remain limited for almost all marine mammals. Marine mammal reactions to seismic sounds are variable, and fixed exposure criteria for behaviour may be impractical given these variable reactions and the variable nature of sound propagation. Study of issues related to potential impacts of seismic sound on marine mammals are needed: (1) What are the best sound propagation models for areas likely to host seismic exploration? (2) There is a need for better and more accurate information on naturally-occurring and man-made noise in the ocean. (3) There is a need for significantly more information regarding the reactions of marine mammals (and their prey) to underwater sound from seismic arrays. (4) Is ramp-up an effective mitigation method? (5) Is passive and/or active acoustic monitoring of marine mammals from the source vessel an effective monitoring and/or mitigation strategy? (6) The spatio-temporal distribution, and physiological needs of marine mammal populations. We have underlined the complexities involved in developing protocols and standards for seismic exploration among the diverse physical environments making up the Canadian marine environment. However, ultimately the Department wants to understand the effects of seismic exploration on individuals and populations of living organisms that exploit these hydrophysical regions so as to find ways to minimise the impacts of this sound source. Due to the complex patterns of sound propagation in these diverse regions, some marine mammals may not necessarily encounter the average sound exposure conditions predicted for a seismic survey. Therefore we must determine and be sensitive to the worst-case conditions that can be encountered to ensure that we do not underestimate the impact upon a particular segment of a marine mammal population. Especially when dealing with SARA-listed species, detrimental effects suffered by one individual can translate into detrimental effects on the population; in critical situations (e.g., the northern right whale and blue whale), the reduced fitness or loss of a single individual becomes a concern for the health and productivity of the population. The onus falls on DFO to provide the necessary precautionary regulations and mitigation measures to ensure that no additional pressure is exerted on populations already at risk. This may entail extraordinary measures when endangered species are involved in critical behaviours (e.g., calving, feeding, and migration), which might include areas and seasons closed to seismic, or operational shut downs when detection probabilities fall below certain standards due to sub-optimal observation conditions. The validity of any assessment regarding potentially harmful impacts of seismic sound on marine mammals will depend crucially on the accuracy and applicability of acoustic propagation models and the data used in this process. DFO will have to regulate within a precautionary framework as it is unlikely there will ever be direct hearing sensitivity measures for the large whales, and marine mammals’ behavioural reactions to seismic sounds will always be variable.

McQUINN, I.H., P.D. WINGER, 2003. Tilt angle and target strength : target tracking of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) during trawling. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 60(3): 575-583 .

HAY, D.E., R. TORESEN, R. STEPHENSON, M. THOMPSON, R. CLAYTON, F. FUNK, E. IVSHINA, J. JAKOBSSON, T. KOBAYASHI, I. McQUINN, G. MELVIN, J. MOLLOY, N. NAUMENKO, K.T. ODA, R. PARMANNE, M. POWER, V. RADCHENKO, J. SCWEIGERT, J. SIMMONDS, B. SJOSTRAND, AL, 2001. Taking stock: an inventory and review of world herring stocks in 2000. Pages 381-454 in Herring. Expectations for a New Millennium. Lowell Wakefield Fish. Symp. Ser., 18 .

SIMARD, Y., I. McQUINN, M. MONTMINY, C. LANG, C. STEVENS, F. GOULET, J.-P. LAPIERRE, J.-L. BEAULIEU, J. LANDRY, Y. SAMSON, M. GAGNÉ, 2000. CH2 : Canadian Hydroacoustic data analysis tool 2 user's manual (version 2.0). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2332, 123 p .

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CH2 is the acronym for Canadian Hydroacoustic data analysis tool 2. It is a Windows 95 Multiple Document Interface (MDI) C++ application, developed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans within the framework of the Data Analysis Tools (DAT) project of its National Hydroacoustic Program (NHP). It is dedicated to the display and processing of the standard HAC (Simard et al. 1997) multi-channel (multiple frequencies or beams) multi-echosounder acoustic data produced by the CH1 acquisition and real-time monitoring module (Simard et al. 1998). Data can originate from various analog or digital echosounders (e.g. Biosonics 102 type, Simrad EK500, or EY500). CH2 version 2.0 includes several editing TOOLS, to edit, eliminate, ignore, threshold, filter, or correct the raw HAC data, without erasing any original information. It also incorporates multi-channel classification tools, to partition the acoustic data into echo categories according to user decisions, and multi-channel echointegration capabilities for each echo category. The user can always track the various processing steps that have been applied to the original raw data. CH2 holds full undo and redo facilities for the various operations applied to the raw data. Edited files can be saved under the standard HAC format and contain the raw data plus the parameters of the editing/classification operations. The echointegration data are exported in ASCII text files that are directly usable by common data analysis or visualisation packages such as worksheets, statistical packages, and 2-D and 3-D mapping packages.

McQUINN, I., 2000. West coast of Newfoundland Atlantic herring (Division 4R). Science, Stock Status Report, B4-01, 10 p .

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McQUINN, I., 2000. L'approche de précaution appliquée à l'évaluation des stocks. Naturaliste can., 124(1): 66-67 .

SIMARD, Y., J.K. HORNE, D. LAVOIE, I. McQUINN, 2000. Capelin TS: Effect of individual fish variability. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 108(5) pt. 2, p. 2458 .

McQUINN, I.H., Y. SIMARD, T.W.F. STROUD, J.-L. BEAULIEU, B. McCALLUM, S. WALSH, 1999. An adaptive integrated acoustic-trawl survey on Atlantic cod. ICES C.M., 1999/J:11, 22 p .

McQUINN, I., 1999. Hareng de la côte ouest de Terre-Neuve (Division 4R). Rapport sur l'état des stocks, B4-01, 11 p .

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McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1999. An evaluation of the western Newfoundland herring acoustic abundance index from 1989-1997. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 99/120, 20 p .

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A hydroacoustic survey was conducted aboard the F.G. Creed in the fall of 1997 as part of a fishery-independent abundance index for the west coast of Newfoundland herring stocks. Systematic-parallel transects were chosen along the coast and were surveyed during night-time hours. Biological sampling was accomplished in collaboration with the western Newfoundland large purse seine fleet, which also took temperature, salinity and depth (STD) profiles. Raw volume backscatter data (Sv) were collected from a 38 kHz transducer, as well as split-beam phase data. This survey revealed that herring concentrations were more schooled than in 1995, closer to shore, more in the upper layers, and displaced towards the north and the south where warmer waters were available at all depths. The vast majority of herring echoes (80 %) were recorded north of New Ferrole (stratum 10) and along the coast towards the Strait of Belle Isle. The total combined spring and autumn stock size in 1997 (88,000 t) was relatively stable compared to the 1995 estimate (89,500 t), although the spring-spawning stock decreased by 37 % and the autumn-spawning stock increased by 20 % over the past two years.

McQUINN, I., 1999. West Coast of Newfoundland Atlantic Herring (Division R). Science, Stock Status Report, B4-01, 10 p .

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McQUINN, I.H., HAMMILL, M., L. LEFEBVRE, 1999. An assessment and risk projections of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herrring stocks (1965 to 2000). DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 99/119, 94 p .

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Both spring- and autumn-spawning herring are found along the west coast of Newfoundland (4R). The 1999 assessment indicates that the status of the spring-spawning stock is in danger of collapse. The autumn spawning stock is declining gradually while the exploitation rate has been slowly increasing. Apart from the 1990 year-class, recruitment to the spring-spawning stock has been below average (1965-1996) since the 1987 year-class. The spring-spawner spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has declined to an historical low of 14,000 t in 1999. If the spring-spawner F 0.1 catch of 2,300 t is caught in 1999, the risk that the SSB would not increase by even 20 % by the year 2000 would be about 40 %, and the minimum SSB target of 38,000 cannot be achieved even without fishing. Recruitment to the autumn-spawning stock has been above average (1973-1996) since the large 1979 year-class, which has kept this stock at an intermediate level. The autumn-spawner SSB has been declining slowly, from 80,000 t in 1984 to 42,000 t in 1998. An autumn-spawner F0.1 yield for 1999 would be approximately 9,000 t and would result in a 90 % risk that the SSB will decrease by 10 %, although there is a 70 % probability that the SSB will not decline below 35,000 t. It is essential that fishing effort be reduced and be shifted to the north as much as possible to avoid directed fishing on the spring-spawning stock

SIMARD, Y., I. McQUINN, M. MONTMINY, Y. SAMSON, C. LANG, C. STEVENS, D. MILLER, 1998. CH1, Canadian Hydroacoustic Data Analysis Tool 1, user's manual (version 2.0). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2256, 100 p .

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CH1 is the acronym for Canadian Hydroacoustic data analysis tool 1. It is a Windows 95 Multiple Document Interface (MDI) C++ application, developed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans within the framework of the Data Analysis Tools (DAT) project of its National Hydroacoustic Program (NHP). It is a versatile tool designed to acquire hydroacoustic data produced by analog or, digital multi-channel (multiple frequencies or beams) echosounders under a standard, upgradable, and versatile data format, called HAC format (Simard et al. 1997). Both analog echosounders (e.g. Biosonics 102 types) and digital echosounders (e.g. Simrad EK500 or EY500) are considered by CH1, which is able to acquire data from many echosounders simultaneously. It incorporates variable threshold functions (TVT, Time Varied Threshold) which can adapt to ambient noise. Data from analog echosounders are collected via Bridgenorth Inc. 16-bit A/D converters and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), coupled to a signal conditioning box to which the analog outputs of the detected echosounder channels are connected. Data from the Simard EK500 digital echosounder are acquired via an Ethernet port. CH1 can configure the EK500 by sending its parameters through a serial port. The NMEA-183 GPS position is read from a serial port. This manual is a guide to the use of CH1. Some of the information presented is also available from the CH1 on-line help. Other tools of the NHP-DAT project are designed to read, display or, translate *.HAC files to or from other formats. These tools are known as CH2 and HAC-trafic.

McQUINN, I., 1997. Hareng de la côte ouest de Terre-Neuve (Division 4R). Rapport sur l'état des stocks, B4-01, 10 p .

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McQUINN, I., 1997. West coast of Newfoundland atlantic herring (Division 4R). Science, Stock Status Report, B4-01, 10 p .

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McQUINN, I.H., 1997. Metapopulations and the Atlantic herring. Rev. Fish. Biol. Fish., 7: 297-329 .

SIMARD, Y., I. McQUINN, M. MONTMINY, C. LANG, D. MILLER, C. STEVENS, D. WIGGINS, C. MARCHALOT, 1997. Description of the HAC standard format for raw and edited hydroacoustic data, version 1.0. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2174, 65 p .

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The international scientific community has recently stressed the need for a standard format to facilitate the exchange of fisheries acoustic data and/or their processing tools. This report presents a versatile standard format for raw and edited hydroacoustic data. This format resulted from a workshop held by DFO and from discussions with various users and echosounder manufacturers around the world. It is called the HAC format.

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1997. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring stocks (1973 to 1996). DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 97/116, 43 p .

McQUINN, I.H., 1997. Year-class twinning in sympatric seasonal spawning populations of Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus. Fish. Bull., 95: 126-136 .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1996. An evaluation of the acoustic backscatter of western Newfoundland herring with a comparison of classical statistics and geostatistics for the estimation of variance. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 96/58, 24 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1996. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery between 1973 and 1995. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 96/57, 46 p .

McQUINN, I., 1996. Le hareng Atlantique dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Rapport sur l'état des stocks, 96/39, 13 p .

McQUINN, I., 1996. Atlantic herring in the northern Gulf of Saint-Lawrence (4R). DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Stock Status Report, 96/39, 12 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1995. A review of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery data (1973 to 1994). DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/56, 40 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1995. Distribution, movements and size composition of spring-spawning herring in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/57, 31 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1995. Acoustic backscatter of herring along the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) in November from 1989 to 1993. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/58, 34 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1994. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring resource up to 1993. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 94/43, 65 p .

GUÉNETTE, S., Y. MAILHOT, I. McQUINN, P. LAMOUREUX, R. FORTIN, 1994. Paramètres biologiques, exploitation commerciale et modélisation de la population de perchaude (Perca flavescens) du lac Saint-Pierre. Ministère de l'environnement et de la faune, Direction régionale Mauricie-Bois-Francs et Université du Québec à Montréal, Département des sciences biologiques, 110 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1993. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R) herring resource up to 1992. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 93/53, 48 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, A. KONAN, 1992. A review of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery data up to 1991. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 92/70, 27p .

Herring stocks are exploited in NAFO Division 4R from April to December, by both fixed and mobile gears. Landings reached only 19,400 t in 1991, despite a TAC of 35,000 t, mainly due to poor market and late-fall weather conditions. A limited market demand for gillnetted herring has reduced the fixed gear landings to < 20 % of the total since 1985. The traditional U.S. barrelled-product market has been slowly replaced by over-the-side sales to the Russians, and frozen-round products for the Japanese. Spring spawners have been prevalent in the annual catches since 1973. Historically, this spawning group has been dominated by the 1968 and 1974 year-classes. Since 1985, the 1980 and 1982 year-classes have comprised > 68 % of the catch in numbers. The fall spawners had been dominated by the 11+ age group until 1983, when the 1979 year-class became the single most important cohort in the catch. The spring index-fishermen gillnet catch-rate series showed a significant increase from 1984 to 1987, a subsequent decreasing trend to 1990 and an increase in 1991. The fall-spawner series showed an increase to 1985, followed by a declining trend between 1987 and 1990, increasing again in 1991. Cohort analysis were not attempted as the population numbers were unconverged in the last analytical assessment. However, the 1987 spring-spawner year-class, and 1986 fall-spawner cohort, have appeared in the purse seine catches in numbers not seen since the 1980 cohort recruited to the fishery. This is a promising sign for the continued good health of these stocks.

McQUINN, I.H., 1992. Determination of seasonal spawning type in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) via the effects of juvenile growth. Pages 125-126 in Y. De Lafontaine, T. Lambert, G.R. Lilly, W.D. McKone & R.J. Miller (ed.). Juvenile stages : the missing link in fisheries research : report of a workshop. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1890) .

McQUINN, I.H., J. LAMBERT, 1991. A review of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery data up to 1990. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 91/65, 28 p .

Herring stocks are exploited in NAFO Division 4R from April to December, by both fixed and mobile gears. Landings reached only 17,000 t in 1990, despite a tAC of 35,000 t, mainly due to poor market and late-fall weather conditions. A limited market demand for gill netted herring has reduced the fixed gear landing to less than 20 % of the total since 1985. The traditional U.S. barrelled-product market has been slowly replaced by over-the-side sales to the Soviet Union, and frozen-round products for the Japanese. Spring spawners have been prevalent in the annual catch since 1973. Historically, this spawning group has been dominated by the 1968 and 1974 year-classes. Since 1985, the 1980 and 1982 year-classes have comprised greater than 68 % of the catch in numbers. The fall spawners had been dominated by the 11+ age group until 1983, when the 1979 year-class became the single most important cohort in the catch. The spring index-fishermen gillnet catch-rate series showed a significant increase from 1984 to 1986, and a subsequent decreasing trend to 1988 and stability to 1990. The fall-spawner series showed a major increase to 1986, and has followed a declining trend to 1990. Cohort analysis were not attempted as the population numbers were unconverged in last years assessment. However, the 1987 spring-spawner year-class, and 1986 fall-spawner cohort, have appeared in the fall purse seine catches in numbers not seen since the 1980 cohort recruited to the fishery. This is a promising sign for the continued good health of these stocks.

ENNIS, J., K. DRINKWATER, P. OUELLET, P. BRUNEL, M. FRÉCHETTE, D. GAUTHIER, L. GENDRON, J. HIMMELMAN, C. HUDON, I. McQUINN, L. SAVARD, J. WORMS, 1991. Rapport de l'atelier de travail sur les invertébrés. Pages 47-54 in J.-C. Therriault (éd.). Le golfe du Saint-Laurent : petit océan ou grand estuaire? Ministère des pêches et des océans (Publ. spéc. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 113) .

SAVARD, L., I.H. McQUINN, D.G. PARSONS, 1991. Investigating the potential of sequential population analysis for northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in division 0A. NAFO SCR Doc., 91/71, 12 p .

ENNIS, J., K. DRINKWATER, P. OUELLET, P. BRUNEL, M. FRÉCHETTE, D. GAUTHIER, L. GENDRON, J. HIMMELMAN, C. HUDON, I. McQUINN, L. SAVARD, J. WORMS, 1991. Report of the Workshop on Invertebrates. Pages 47-54 in J.-C. Therriault (ed.). The Gulf of St. Lawrence : small ocean or big estuary ? Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 113) .

McQUINN, I.H., L. CLEARY, R.N. O'BOYLE, 1990. La relation stock-recrue. Pages 587-609 in J.-C. Brêthes & R.N. O'Boyle (éd.). Méthodes d'évaluation des stocks halieutiques. Centre international d'exploitation des océans, Halifax, Nouvelle-Écosse .

McQUINN, I.H., L. CLEARY, B. O'BOYLE, 1990. Estimation de la mortalité naturelle. Pages 441-464 in J.-C. Brêthes & R.N. O'Boyle (éd.). Méthodes d'évaluation des stocks halieutiques. Centre international d'exploitation des océans, Halifax, Nouvelle-Écosse .

McQUINN, I.H., J. LAMBERT, 1990. A review of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery and biological trends in 1989. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 90/76, 20 p .

Concentrations of herring are exploited in NAFO Division 4R from April to December, by both fixed and mobile gears. Landings reached only 17,700 t in 1989, despite a TAC of 37,000 t, mainly due to poor market and weather conditions. A limited market demand for gillnetted herring has reduced the fixed gear landings to less than 20 % of the total since 1985. The traditional barrelled-product market has been slowly replaced by over-the-side sales to the Soviet Union, and frozen-round products for the Japanese. Spring spawners have dominated the annual catch since 1973. Historically, this spawning group has been dominated by the 1968 and 1974 year-classes. Since 1985, the 1980 and 1982 year-classes have comprised greater than 68 % of the catch in numbers. The fall spawners had been dominated by the 11+ age group until 1983, when the 1979 year-class became the single most important cohort in the catch. Abundance indices were estimated, for both spring and fall spawners, from commercial gillnet catch and effort data, and indexed gillnet fishermen logbooks. The spring catch-rate series showed a significant increase from 1981 to 1986-1987, and a subsequent decreasing trend to 1989. The fall-spawner series showed a major increase to 1986, followed by a decline to 1989. Population estimates from the cohort analysis were considered unreliable due to the unconverged population numbers and high values in the correlation matrices. However, it is notable that the mean age for these stocks is now 8 years old, suggesting that recent catch levels have not been detrimental to these populations. Also, it is implicit from the non-converged population estimates that fishing mortalities have been low in recent years.

McQUINN, I.H., 1989. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring resource in 1988. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 89/67, 37 p .

McQUINN, I.H., 1989. The identification of spring and autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) using maturity stages assigned by a gonadosomatic index model. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 46: 969-980 .

LANDRY, J., I.H. McQUINN, 1988. Guide d'identification microscopique et macroscopique des stades de maturité sexuelle du hareng de l'Atlantique (Clupea harengus harengus L.). Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1655, 71 p .

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Precise histological identification criteria associated with each of the eight macroscopic sexual maturity stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus) from the Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee (CAFSAC) classification key are described. The histological study also permitted a more detailed subdivision of the gonadal development cycle of herring (11 stages for males, 12 for females), and enabled the incorporation of several improvements to the macroscopic staging key. Notably, gonad corlour should only be used, even with fresh samples, to separate the beginning of stage VIII from stage II (the wine red tint being more pronounced in stage VIII). For females, the distinction between stages VIII and III must be made foremost from the visibility of the eggs with the naked eye in stage III. Gonad length relative to that of the coelomic cavity was added (or corrected in the case of stage IV) to the existing descritions. The priority accorded to each criteria was more clearly established, maturity stage identification most often resting principally on the relative width and length of the gonads. However, the establishment of criteria priorities does not generally diminish the imprecisions of the macroscopic key, but rather offers the possiblility of standardizing its utilization.

LANDRY, J., I.H. McQUINN, 1988. Guide to microscopic and macroscopic identification of the sexual maturity stages of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1655, 71 p .

Click to see all the text

Precise histological identification criteria associated with each of the eight macroscopic sexual maturity stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus) from the Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee (CAFSAC) classification key are described. The histological study also permitted a more detailed subdivision of the gonadal development cycle of herring (11 stages for males, 12 for females), and enabled the incorporation of several improvements to the macroscopic staging key. Notably, gonad corlour should only be used, even with fresh samples, to separate the beginning of stage VIII from stage II (the wine red tint being more pronounced in stage VIII). For females, the distinction between stages VIII and III must be made foremost from the visibility of the eggs with the naked eye in stage III. Gonad length relative to that of the coelomic cavity was added (or corrected in the case of stage IV) to the existing descritions. The priority accorded to each criteria was more clearly established, maturity stage identification most often resting principally on the relative width and length of the gonads. However, the establishment of criteria priorities does not generally diminish the imprecisions of the macroscopic key, but rather offers the possiblility of standardizing its utilization.

McQUINN, I.H., L. GENDRON, J.H. HIMMELMAN, 1988. Area of attraction and effective area fished by a whelk (Buccinum undatum) trap under variable conditions. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 45: 2054-2060 .

McQUINN, I.H., 1988. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring resource in 1987. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 88/52, 40 p .

McQUINN, I.H., 1987. Revisions to the 4R herring catch-at-age matrices. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 87/68, 24 p .

The NAFO division 4R herring catch-at-age matrices have been recalculated for spring and fall spawners using a spawning group determination method based on the gonadosomatic index. In addition to changes in the spawnig group assignments, the purse seine landings from 1982 to 1986 have also been revised, using additional landings provided by industry. The methodology used to calculate the gear-specific as well as the annual catch-at-age matrice is described. Comparisons made between the revised catch-at-age and the previous catch-at-age showed some substantial differences due to both the more precise and objective method employed for the separation of the spawning groups and the inclusion of the previously unreported purse seine landings.

McQUINN, I.H., 1987. New maturity cycle charts for the herring stocks along the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R) and the North Shore of Quebec (NAFO Division 4S). CAFSAC Res. Doc., 87/66, 11 p .

A study was conducted to describe the annual evolution of the gonadal development of west coast of Newfoundland and Quebec north shore herring in order to add precision to the maturity cycle chart used to separate the spring and autumn spawners in these stocks. A separate maturity cycle chart was produced for both males and females in NAFO Divisions 4R and 4S which classified individual fish as a spring or autumn spawner from its maturity stage, calculated from the gonadosomatic index, and the month of capture. The results showed the annual maturity cycles of these stocks differed substantially from the chart presently used by CAFSAC. The new maturity cycle charts should enable more accurate spawning type determinations from the historical as well as from future sampling data.

McQUINN, I.H., 1987. A re-evaluation of the west coast of Newfoundland herring resource (NAFO Div. 4R). CAFSAC Res. Doc., 87/67, 37 p .

Several major changes have been made to the NAFO Division 4R herring database for this years assessment, including revised catch-at-age-matrices, revisions to the catch rate indices, and the inclusion of previously unreported catches. Herring landings in 1986 reached 21,400 t, from a TAC of 17,000 t. Spring spawners have generally dominated the annual catch since 1966. Historically, this spawning group has been dominated by the 1968 and 1974 year-classes. However in 1986, the 1980 year-class represented 51 % of the catch in numbers. The fall spawners had been dominated by the 11+ age group until 1983. In 1986, the 1979 year-class made up 50 % of the catch in numbers. Cohort analyses showed that the spring spawner 4+ biomass doubled to 88,000 t in 1986 from 40,000 t in 1983. The fall spawner 4+ biomass that increased to 73,000 t in 1986 from 22,000 t in 1981. The strong recruitment of the 1979, 1980 and 1982 year-classes has resulted in a significant increase in abundance of these two stocks. Projections using a terminal F of 0.3 in 1987 would result in a catch of 16,500 t of spring spawners and a decrease in population biomass from 81,300 t in 1987 to 66,900 t in 1988. The 1988 F0.1 catch would be 13,200 t. An F0.1 fall spawner catch of 14,100 t would result in a drop in the population biomass from 69,800 t in 1987 to 56,000 t in 1988. The 1988 F0.1 catch would then be 10,900 t.

McQUINN, I.H., 1986. Assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland herring stocks in 1985. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 86/68, 41 p .

Herring landings in NAFO Division 4R in 1985 were approximately 9,100 t, from a TAC of 10,000 t. Spring spawner gillnet catch rates generally declined from 1978 to 1983 and then increased from 1984 to 1985. The fall spawner CPUE decreased from 1977 to 1982, increased in 1983 and has been relatively stable to the present. Spring spawners have generally dominated the annual catch since 1966. Historically, this spawning group has been dominated by the 1968 and 1974 year-classes. In 1985, the 1980 year-class represented 62 % of the catch in numbers. The fall spawners had been dominated by the 11+ age group until 1983. In 1985, the 1979 year-class made up 63% of the catch in numbers. Cohort analyses showed that the spring spawner population biomass has decreased from 192,000 t in 1972 to 45,000 t in 1985. The fall spawner population biomass in 1985 stands at approximately 12,000 t, 12 % of the historical high in 1966. Poor recruitment has been the major reason for the decline of these two stocks. Projections using the expected 1986 catch of 10,000 t of spring spawners would result in Ft=0.3 and a slight decrease in population biomass from 44,700 t in 1986 to 41,100 t in 1987. The 1987 F0.1 catch would be 8,800 t. The expected 1986 fall spawner catch of 7,000 t would result in an Ft=0.95 and a drop in the 4+ biomass from 15,900 t in 1986 to 9,400 t in 1987. The 1987 F0.1 catch would be 1,600 t.

TRUDEAU, C., I.H. McQUINN, 1986. Fishery and biological characteristics of the 4S herring stocks in 1985. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 86/77, 23 p .

Herring landings in NAFO division 4S totaled 520 t in 1985, declining from 960 t landed in 1984. The late retreat of the spring ice and poor market conditions accounted for most of the reduction in catches in 1985. Gillnet catch rates for eastern 4S, where the majority of the landings have historically been reported, indicated a steady increase in abundance since 1982 for spring spawners and since 1981 for fall spawners. Age compositions of both spawning groups, calculated from commercial and research samples, showed strong similarities between the western 4S stocks and those in 4T, and between the eastern 4S stocks and those in 4R. However, research samples from southeast of Anticosti Island showed a different age composition pattern, indicating either an intermixing of various stocks or the presence of a separate population. Future research in 4S should be directed towards stock identification and delineation.