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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Chris W. McKINDSEY

DROUIN, A., C.W. MCKINDSEY, L.E. JOHNSON, 2012. Detecting the impacts of notorious invaders : experiments versus observations in the invasion of eelgrass meadows by the green seaweed Codium fragile. Oecologia, 168: 491-502 .

Biological invasions can vary in the extent of their effects on indigenous communities but predicting impacts for particular systems remains difficult. In coastal marine ecosystems, the green seaweed Codium fragile ssp. Fragile is a notorious invader with its reputation based on studies conducted largely on rocky shores. The green seaweed has recently invaded soft-bottom eelgrass communities by attaching epiphytically to eelgrass (Zostera marina) rhizomes, thereby creating the potential for disruption of these coastal habitats through competition or disturbance. We investigated the effect of this invader on various aspects of eelgrass performance (shoot density and length, shoot growth, above- and below-ground biomass, carbohydrate storage) using both small-scale manipulative and large-scale observational experiments. Manipulative experiments that varied Codium abundance demonstrated clear negative effects over a 4-month period on shoot density and carbohydrate reserves, but only for high, but realistic, Codium biomass levels. Light levels were much lower under canopies for high and medium density Codium treatments relative to low and control Codium cover treatments, suggesting that shading may influence eelgrass growing under the algal cover. In contrast, these effects were either not detectable or very weak when examined correlatively with field surveys conducted at larger spatial scales, even for sites that had been invaded for over 4 years. It is premature to extend generalizations of Codium’s impact derived from studies in other systems to eelgrass communities; further efforts are required to assess the long-term threats that the alga poses to this ecosystem. This study demonstrates the need to investigate impacts of invasions over multiple scales, especially those that incorporate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the invader’s abundance.©2011 Springer

GAGNON, K., C.W. McKINDSEY, L.E. JOHNSON, 2011. Dispersal potential of invasive algae : the determinants of buoyancy in Codium fragile ssp.fragile. Mar. Biol., 158(11): 2449-2458 .

The capacity for long-distance dispersal is an important factor in determining the spread of invasive species. For algae, positive buoyancy generally is correlated with increased dispersal potential, and the light environment has been previously identified as a possible determinant of buoyancy in several species. We examined the effect of light intensity on the buoyancy of fragments of the invasive Green Alga Codium fragile ssp. fragile. Under natural and controlled conditions, the buoyancy of samples taken from the thallus tip was higher than those from near the holdfast. Both laboratory and field experiments also showed that buoyancy was dynamic and switched from positive to negative under reduced light intensity, but this change required several days. We also observed seasonal changes in buoyancy, presumably due to natural variations in light intensity, with the buoyancy of fragments washed up on the shore highest in mid-summer. These results show that buoyancy is a dynamic property of the C. fragile ssp. fragile thallus and suggest that buoyant fragments contribute to long-range dispersal and accelerated regional spread of this invader. This finding suggests that dispersal is more likely during conditions of high light intensity and illustrates the need to understand how variations in the natural environment can affect the dispersal potential of invasive species.©2011 Springer

OLIVIER, F., C. GRANT, G. SAN MARTIN, P. ARCHAMBAULT, C.W. MCKINDSEY, 2011. Syllidae (Annelida : Polychaeta : Phyllodocida) from the Chausey Archipelago (English Channel, France), with a description of two new species of the Exogoninae Prosphaerosyllis. Marine Biodiversity, art. no D06204, 9 p .

Specimens of Syllidae (Polychaeta) were collected from a coarse sediment habitat in the intertidal zone of the Chausey Archipelago (English Channel, France). Twenty-one species of Syllidae were identified in this zone, including two new species, which are described herein. Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis, n. sp. Is characterized by a distinct digitiform papilla on antennae, tentacular and dorsal cirri, and by the presence of two sizes of dermal papillae without any specific arrangement. Prosphaerosyllis laubieri, n. sp. Is a minute sized species with dorsal cirri similar throughout the body and with small, scattered papillae on the dorsum and ventrum, which are longer and numerous on the palps. One species was reported for the first time in the north-east Atlantic (Parapionosyllis brevicirra) and six were new for both France and the English Channel (Prosphaerosyllis giandoi, Sphaerosyllis glandulata, Sphaerosyllis taylori, Streptosyllis campoyi, Syllis licheri, and Syllis pontxioi).©2011 Springer

DROUIN, A., C.W. MCKINDSEY, L.E. JOHNSON, 2011. Higher abundance and diversity in faunal assemblages with the invasion of Codium fragile ssp. Fragile in eelgrass meadows. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 424: 105-117 .

The present study examined how species-specific attributes of the invasive alga Codium fragile ssp. Fragile (hereafter Codium) and eelgrass Zostera marina influenced faunal assemblages associated with eelgrass ecosystems in îles de la Madeleine, eastern Canada. Direct association of species with Codium (<1 m) was evaluated and compared to eelgrass faunal assemblages from invaded beds. Potential neighborhood effects (ca. 10 m) were assessed by comparing invertebrates associated with eelgrass in invaded and non-invaded beds. The influence of Codium on more mobile species was evaluated by comparing fish assemblages associated with macrophytes in invaded and non-invaded beds. In addition, species–area relationships for low mobility species associated with Codium were contrasted between beds where Codium or eelgrass was the dominant structuring macrophyte. Codium had distinct invertebrate species assemblages, as there was a greater abundance and diversity of invertebrates associated with Codium than with eelgrass, and multivariate assemblage structure differed between macrophyte types. In contrast, no neighborhood patterns were observed as invertebrate assemblages associated with eelgrass did not differ between invaded and non-invaded beds, suggesting that the mechanisms that account for differences between the invertebrate assemblages are a function of the macrophyte’s nature and operate at small spatial scales. Fish community structure differed between invaded and non-invaded beds, largely due to a greater abundance of 2 fishes, Apeltes quadracus and Tautogolabrus adspersus, in invaded beds. Epifaunal abundance and species richness were positively correlated with Codium thallus biomass, and the abundance relative to biomass correlation was greatest where Codium was the dominant macrophyte. Experimental manipulation of thallus structure to create straight or branched Codium fronds with similar surface area showed that associated invertebrate and gastropod abundance was not influenced by this factor and indicated that factors other than macrostructure complexity influenced the presence of epifauna on the introduced alga. Overall, the present study suggests that the invasion of eelgrass beds by Codium increases faunal density and diversity. However, longer-term effects of Codium invasion in this and other eelgrass ecosystems require further assessment, as the severity of the invasion effects on faunal communities likely depends on the interaction between Codium and eelgrass.©2011 Inter-Research

MCKINDSEY, C.W., P. ARCHAMBAULT, M.D. CALLIER, F. OLIVIER, 2011. Influence of suspended and off-bottom mussel culture on the sea bottom and benthic habitats : a review. Can. J. Zool., 89(7): 622-646 .

LÉVESQUE, M., P. ARCHAMBAULT, C.W. McKINDSEY, S. VAZ, D. ARCHAMBAULT, 2010. Predictive benthic habitat suitability model for the Estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (2006). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2893, 27 p .

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This study used geostatistical techniques and a generalized linear model (GLM) approach to describe the affinity of macrofaunal communities to environmental parameters in the Estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence using bycatch and environmental data from 2006. The habitat suitability model (HS) derived from those data explained nearly 40 % of the variation in macrofaunal communities, with the significant predictive environmental variables being depth, oxygen saturation, temperature, and bottom current. Results from the prediction model therefore allowed the identification of zones of greater and lesser suitability for specific species community types, higlighted by canonical analysis. This study also assembled a primary database of benthic habitats and physical parameters for the St. Lawrence system. An annual update of this database will thus be possible following the multispecific surveys.

LEGGATT, R.A., P.T. O'REILLY, P.J. BLANCHFIELD, C.W. MCKINDSEY, R.H.DEVLIN, 2010. Pathway of effects of escaped aquaculture organisms or their reproductive material on natural ecosystems in Canada ; Séquence des effets liés aux organismes d’élevage évadés ou à leur matériel de reproduction sur les écosystèmes naturels au Canada. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2010/019, 76 p .

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The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the pathways of effects of escaped aquaculture fish (specifically finfish and bivalves) on natural ecosystems in Canada. Escape, survival, dispersal and reproduction of aquaculture organisms have been noted in many areas in Canada, although the scale of escapes in Canada is not known. In general, escaped fish have poor survival, foraging, and reproductive capacity relative to wild conspecifics. However, substantial evidence indicates escaped Atlantic salmon can affect wild conspecifics through juvenile competition resulting in decreased productivity of wild juveniles, and through hybridization resulting in partial transfer of culture phenotypes to wild populations. However, the potential for escaped fish to affect wild populations through predation, marine competition, reproductive interference, and disease transfer pathways has been poorly studied. As well, a high degree of uncertainty exists for other escape species (e.g., marine finfish, other salmonids) due to insufficient evidence and uncertainty regarding extrapolation of existing information from other species and ecosystems. For shellfish, information from outside of Canada suggests that release of farmed bivalves can cause ecological disruptions where they are non-native. Effects are expected to be very context-specific and can be influenced by health of the receiving environment, geography, species and strain types, climate, life-stages released, among others. Overall, there is significant potential for escaped aquaculture organisms to impact natural ecosystems in Canada and this potential can be influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. However, the effects escaped fish may have on overall community dynamics or ecosystem function are not yet known.

WEISE, A.M., C.J. CROMEY, M.D. CALLIER, P. ARCHAMBAULT, J. CHAMBERLAIN, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2009. Shellfish-DEPOMOD : modelling the biodeposition from suspended shellfish aquaculture and assessing benthic effects. Aquaculture, 288(3-4): 239-253 .

By predicting the dispersal of particulate aquaculture wastes around farm sites, numerical modelling can provide an effective tool to assess the spatial extent of environmental effects. The present paper describes how the aquaculture waste model DEPOMOD (Cromey, C.J., Nickell, T.D., Black, K.D. 2002a. DEPOMOD – modelling the deposition and biological effects of waste solids from marine cage farms. Aquaculture 214, 211-239.), originally developed for finfish aquaculture sites, was adapted and validated for suspended shellfish aquaculture. Field data were collected for species-specific model input parameters (mussel biodeposition rates and particle settling velocities) and several finfish model parameters (farm representation and calculation of aquaculture wastes) were adjusted for the shellfish scenario. Shellfish-DEPOMOD was tested at three coastal mussel Mytilus edulis farms with differing hydrodynamic regimes in Quebec, Canada. For each site, model predictions were compared to observed deposition measured in situ with sediment traps. Sedimentation rates under the three mussel culture sites were ca. Two to five times those observed at corresponding reference sites. Mussel biodeposits were predicted to accumulate within 30 m of the farms in the shallow depositional sites while being dispersed more than 90 m in the deeper dispersive site. At the farm site in Great-Entry Lagoon, model predictions agreed well with field data for the 0+ and 1+ mussel cohorts when the maximum biodeposit production parameter was used. At the farm site in House-Harbour Lagoon, model predictions did not agree with observed sedimentation rates, due most likely to the resuspension and advection of non farm-derived material and complex hydrodynamics. The model correctly predicted the pattern of waste dispersal at the third farm site in Cascapedia Bay, although it underestimated biodeposition. Predicted fluxes may have been underestimated at this site because biodeposits from biofouling communities were not included in the calculation of aquaculture wastes. The relationship between modelled long-term biodeposition and benthic descriptors was assessed for the three farms. Alterations to the benthic community were observed at high biodeposition rates (>15 g m-2d-1). At the most disturbed site, predicted fluxes were best correlated with the Infaunal Trophic Index (ITI) (R=-0.79, P<0.001), followed by AZTI's marine disturbance index (AMBI) (R=0.64, Pb0.001). The potential application of Shellfish-DEPOMOD in terms of the management of shellfish aquaculture sites is discussed.©2008 Elsevier B.V.

CALLIER, M.D., M. RICHARD, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2009. Responses of benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical fluxes to various levels of mussel biodeposition : an in situ "benthocosm" experiment. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 58(10): 1544-1553 .

An in situ experiment was done to evaluate the dose-dependent response of mussel biodeposition on benthic communities and biogeochemical fluxes. Natural benthic communities were exposed to 7 different levels of mussel biodeposition (equivalent to that produced by 0–764 mussels m-2) over 50 days. Benthic communities responded as predicted from the Pearson, T.H., Rosenberg, R., 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 16, 229–311 model of organic enrichment. Total abundance and species richness decreased with increasing biodeposition. The abundance and biomass of opportunistic species (Capitella spp.) increased in the mesocosms subject to the greatest biodeposition. Sensitive species Tellina agilis and Pherusa plumosa tended to decrease in abundance and biomass with increasing biodeposition. The biotic index M-AMBI responded clearly to increased biodeposition and may be a useful tool for assessing the effect of mussel biodeposition on the benthic environment. These results are important for the construction of predictive models for determining environmental carrying capacity for bivalve aquaculture. Crown Copyright ©2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

McKINDSEY, C.W., M. LECUONA, M. HUOT, A.M. WEISE, 2009. Biodeposit production and benthic loading by farmed mussels and associated tunicate epifauna in Prince Edward Island. Aquaculture, 295(1-2): 44-51 .

An experimental study was done to evaluate the biodeposition dynamics associated with mussels and two fouling tunicates, Ciona intestinalis and Styela clava, in mussel aquaculture in Prince Edward Island (PEI), eastern Canada. The presence of C. intestinalis on small constructed mussel socks increased biodeposition by a factor of about 2 relative to mussel socks without tunicates. S. clava were small and had a negligible effect on total biodeposition from mussel socks although they increased sedimentation rates relative to that of abiotic control socks. Sinking rates of faecal pellets from large C. intestinalis varied between 1.39 and 6.54 cm s- 1 (LSMean = 2.35 cm s- 1). Using biodeposit production and sinking rates and hydrological data obtained in the present study, footprints of benthic loading due to mussel and tunicate biodeposition for a typical mussel farm in PEI were modelled using Shellfish-DEPOMOD. The results show benthic loading below longlines with C. intestinalis to be ca. 2 times greater than those from lines with only mussels with rates of up to 15.2 g m- 2 d- 1. However, given the greater settling rate of C. intestinalis biodeposits relative to mussel biodeposits, the extent of the footprint (≥ 1 g m- 2 d- 1) is similar or even more restrained. Crown Copyright ©2009 Elsevier B.V.

SMITH, G.K., F. GUICHARD, F. PETROVIC, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2009. Using spatial statistics to infer scales of demographic connectivity between populations of the blue mussel, Mytilus spp.. Limnol. Oceanogr., 54(3): 970-977 .

We conducted a large-scale survey of blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) populations and recruitment along 100 km of the Southern shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. By taking advantage of the residual downstream current of our study system, we used cross-covariance analysis to test the hypothesis that postrecruitment and larval supply processes result in a positive relationship between local adult abundance and recruitment. We found no evidence of within-site correlation between adults and recruits. Alternatively, we hypothesized that demographic connectivity between populations would result in a positive covariance between adult abundance and recruitment at downstream sites separated by the average dispersal distance. We observed significant positive cross-covariance between sites separated by 12–18 km and 24–30 km. These results provide the first direct quantification of demographic connectivity between adult production and larval recruitment of Mytilus using simple survey data. The approach developed here measures connectivity over ecological time scales, and thus may be used to monitor temporal fluctuations in dispersal patterns.©2009 American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

CALLIER, M.D., C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2008. Evaluation of indicators used to detect mussel farm influence on the benthos : two case studies in the Magdalen Islands, Eastern Canada. Aquaculture, 278(1-4): 77-88 .

The aim of this study was to identify appropriate indicators to determine the influence of mussel aquaculture on the benthic environment. Both sediment [particle size, sediment profile imaging (SPI), % OM] and benthic community (abundance, biomass, number of species, Margalef’s species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity, Pielou’s eveness, individual body mass, trophic group, a biotic index — AMBI, and community structure) characteristics were evaluated at two mussel farms in Great-Entry (GE) and Havre-aux-Maisons (HAM) lagoons in the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada). Sampling stations were positioned directly beneath the outer-most mussel lines (0 m) and at distances of 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 m and at a control site (at either 300 or 500 m) along a transect leading from each farm. Contrasting patterns were observed. At GE, sediment characteristics and benthic communities did not vary among stations and were characterized by low diversity, abundance and biomass. At HAM, % OM decreased and macrofaunal diversity and abundance increased with increasing distance from the farm. Biomass was low under the mussel line, increased between 3 and 30 m and was low again at 300 m. This was explained by the abundance of the polychaete Pectinaria granulata, which seems to have benefited from a moderate organic loading associated with the mussel farm. The mean individual biomass of the second-order opportunistic deposit feeders P. granulata and Heteromastus filiformis decreased with distance from the farm, whereas that of the pollution-sensitive suspension feeder Ensis directus and deposit feeder Tellina agilis increased with increasing distance from the farm. At HAM, the effects of mussel farming were restricted to the vicinity of the farm, while at GE the pattern was less clear. The GE mussel farm had either little effect on the local environment or else larger-scale but diffuse effects. The study showed that the a priori choice of the sampling stations and indicators may influence the interpretation of the results. Community structure and SPI were the most efficient indices for detecting both small- and broader-scale influences at both studied mussel farms.©2008 Elsevier B.V.

THERRIAULT, T.W., L.-M. HERBORG, A. LOCKE, C.W. MCKINDSEY, 2008. Risk Assessment for European green crab (Carcinus maenas) in Canadian Waters ; Évaluation des risques représentés par le crabe européen (Carcinus maenas) dans les eaux canadiennes. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2008/042, 44 p .

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Non-indigenous species continue to be dispersed to new environments and it is important for managers to understand the potential risk posed by these species. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) has a rather extensive invasion history dating back over a century in North America. In order to determine the potential risk posed by this non-indigenous crab species to Canadian waters, including both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, a formal risk assessment was undertaken. Most global introductions of crabs have been attributed to commercial shipping activities. European green crab already exists in Canadian waters on both coasts with both attributed to human-mediated activities. Based on impacts of green crab elsewhere owing to their extensive invasion history, there is considerable concern about the potential ecological (biological, habitat) and genetic impacts if green crab spread in Canada. Life history characteristics of green crab enhance long-distance natural dispersal. Further dispersal via ballast water is probable but a number of other anthropogenic dispersal vectors exist. Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted a national risk assessment to determine the potential risk posed by European green crab in Canada. This assessment included evaluating the probability of arrival, survival, reproduction and spread and potential consequences to determine a risk level. In addition, the potential risk posed by pathogens, parasites or fellow travelers (e.g. other invasive species) also was determined. These components were assessed in an expert, peer-review workshop held during February 2008 using the best available information on their biology, potential vectors of introduction, and impacts in both native and introduced ranges. The assessment concluded that European green crab generally posed a moderate to high risk on both coasts depending on the ecological endpoint assessed. For pathogens, parasites or fellow travelers the risks were deemed low. However, as little is known about many potential pathogens, parasites and fellow travelers of this crab species there was considerable uncertainty.

THERRIAULT, T.W., L.-M. HERBORG, A. LOCKE, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2008. Risk Assessment for Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in Canadian Waters ; Évaluation du risque posé par le crabe chinois à mitaine (Eriocheir sinensis) dans les eaux canadiennes. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2008/041, 37 p .

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Non-indigenous species continue to be dispersed to new environments and in recent decades the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) continues to be introduced to new environments, including the east coast of North America. A risk assessment was undertaken In order to determine the potential risk posed by Chinese mitten crab to Canadian waters, including both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts (and adjacent inland waters). Most global introductions of mitten crabs either have been attributed to commercial shipping activities or intentional introductions (e.g., as a food source). Chinese mitten crab has been reported from several locations in eastern Canada but the extent of the invasion is not well known. Based on impacts of Chinese mitten crab elsewhere and non-indigenous species in general, there is considerable concern about the potential biological, habitat, and genetic impacts if this species becomes established and spreads in Canada. Life history characteristics of Chinese mitten crab could enhance long-distance natural dispersal and further dispersal via ballast water is probable, but a number of other potential vectors exist. Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted a national risk assessment to determine the potential risk posed by this non-indigenous crab in Canada. This assessment included evaluating the probability of arrival, survival, reproduction and spread and associated consequences as a measure of risk. In addition, the risk posed by potential pathogens, parasites or fellow travelers (e.g. other invasive species) was evaluated should Chinese mitten crab be introduced. These components were assessed in an expert peer-review workshop held in February 2008 using the best available information on biology, potential vectors of introduction, and impacts in both native and introduced ranges of Chinese mitten crab. The assessment concluded that Chinese mitten crab generally posed a moderate risk on both coasts although habitat impacts such as riverbank erosion were deemed higher risk. For pathogens, parasites or fellow travelers the risks also were moderate. However, as little is known about many potential pathogens, parasites and fellow travelers of this crab species, with the exception of a lung fluke that could infect humans, there was considerable uncertainty about potential hitchhiking organisms.

D'AMOURS, O., P. ARCHAMBAULT, C.W. McKINDSEY, L.E. JOHNSON, 2008. Local enhancement of epibenthic macrofauna by aquaculture activities. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 371: 73-84 .

Bivalve aquaculture can influence coastal marine ecosystems by increasing organic material deposition, which, in turn, can have multiple direct and indirect effects on the surrounding benthic community. We assessed the influence of blue mussel Mytilus edulis aquaculture on the epibenthic macrofauna at 4 sites in Prince Edward Island, eastern Canada. The abundance of macroinvertebrates and benthic fishes (>2 cm) was evaluated by visual counts using SCUBA within 4 mussel aquaculture facilities (‘farms’) and at locations at distances of 50, 100, 500 and 2000 m outside of them in June, August and November 2005. Benthic assemblages were dominated by seastars Asterias sp. (79 %), rock crabs Cancer irroratus (8 %), mud crabs Neopanope sayi (6 %), moon snails Lunatia heros (2 %), winter flounders Pleuronectes americanus (2 %), American lobsters Homarus americanus (1 %) and hermit crabs Pagarus sp. (1 %). Although there was great variability among sites and sampling dates, mussel aquaculture had a clear effect on total abundance, which was generally greater within farms than at distances outside of them. These increases in abundance were mainly associated with increased numbers of seastars and rock crabs. Taxonomic richness and evenness differed among some mussel farms and distances outside of mussel farms, but there were no clear trends that suggested a negative influence of mussel aquaculture. Multivariate analyses indicated that communities within mussel farms differed from those at corresponding communities at distances outside of farms, but that the taxa that contributed to these differences varied among farms. Taxonomic assemblages for a specific farm and date were generally similar among distances outside of farms and increases in the abundance of epibenthic macrofauna appeared to be largely restricted to the immediate vicinity of mussel farms, i.e. <50 m. This increase in abundance probably reflected the attraction of mobile fauna due to increased food supply and possibly to the creation of a more heterogeneous habitat. These results suggest that large macroinvertebrates and benthic fishes, including ecologically and commercially important species, seem to respond positively to the presence of suspended mussel culture.©2008 Inter-Research

CLYNICK, B.G., C.W. McKINDSEY, P. ARCHAMBAULT, 2008. Distribution and productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates in mussel aquaculture sites in the Magdalen islands (Que´bec, Canada). Aquaculture, 283: 203-210 .

Aquaculture structures may function in a manner analogous to artificial reefs, in that they provide a complex three-dimensional habitat for marine organisms and/or modify the surrounding environment. Further, aquaculture structures may increase the productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates similarly to natural complex habitats, such as seagrass beds. This research tested the general hypothesis that suspended bivalve culture increases the abundance and productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates. The study was done at two mussel farms in the Magdalen Islands, eastern Canada. Fish and macroinvertebrates were sampled in different areas within farms sites and in adjacent natural vegetated and unvegetated habitats. The instantaneous growth rates of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and the rock crab (Cancer irroratus) were estimated using physiological indicators (RNA/DNA ratios). The results demonstrated that mussel sites are not equivalent to natural structurally complex seagrass beds with respect to fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Several species were abundant in mussel farms, including winter flounder and rock crab. This work, however, provided little evidence to suggest that there was greater productivity of these fish and macroinvertebrates at mussel farms, as growth rates were usually equivalent in different habitats. This study, to our knowledge, is the first attempt to determine changes in productivity brought about by aquaculture. As future development of mussel aquaculture increases in many regions around the world, the methods presented here will provide baseline information on the abundance and productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates associated with aquaculture sites.©2008 Elsevier B.V.

D'AMOURS, O., P. ARCHAMBAULT, C.W. MCKINDSEY, L. ROBICHAUD, 2008. The influence of bivalve aquaculture on ecosystem productivity. World Aquacult., 39(3) : 26-31 .

DROUIN, A., C.W. McKINDSEY, 2007. QBRAT v2 assessment : Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in the Gulf of St. Lawrence as a case study ; Evaluation de QBRAT v2 : etude de cas pour Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2007/007, 28 p .

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The green macroalgae Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (herafter, Codium) is native to Japan and has invaded water in eastern Canada. This study evaluated the risk associated with the spread of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Several specific objectives were thus addressed: 1) to review and synthesize the available literature on the ecology and impacts of Codium; 2) to seek the judgement of Codium experts with respect to dispersal vectors, critical habitat attributes, and probabilities and magnitudes of environmental, economic and social impacts related to the establishment of Codium by soliciting participation using a survey; 3) to evaluate the use of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to interpret the expert judgements; 4) to do a risk assessment of Codium in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; and 5) to evaluate the utility of using the Quantitative Risk Assessment Tool (QBRAT v2) framework and software by using the Codium risk assessment as a case study. Qualitative analysis of the literature review and the survey results suggest that Codium is quite likely to continue its expansion in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and is likely to cause damage to various components. Spread by plants or plant fragments were considered the greatest single vector for the spread of Codium. With respect to natural processes, spread by propagules was considered to be much less important. Expert judgements suggest that the most important anthropogenic vector for Codium spread is the translocation of infested objects. The presence of artificial structures and biofouling on ships were considered the next most important anthropogenic vectors whereas recreational and commercial boating and ballast water were considered to be less important. The most important criteria for habitat suitability were factors associated with substrate quality (wave exposure, area of available habitat, and substrate type) and mean water temperature. Expert judgements suggest that two of the four environmental criteria (biodiversity and trophic interactions) are considered at high risk from Codium invasion. Economic criteria were judged to be at moderate risk and social criteria at moderate or negligible risk. The AHP was quite efficient for summarizing the expert judgements and describing the error associated with the judgements for each criterion and was thus good for organizing qualitative data quantitatively. The risk assessment using the QBRAT framework showed that the Gulf of St. Lawrence is at high risk from Codium and that most of that risk was associated with further spread of the alga within the area. Future runs of QBRAT for Codium should be done for ecological, economic and social criteria separately to provide the most precise information for management purposes. The use of QBRAT v2 allowed novice users to focus their research to research to acquire all the information needed to run the risk assessment and made choices more objective. The use of the AHP combined with QBRAT v2 gave the user the ability to well define values for different criteria as well as their associated error structure. Several specific recommendations about QBRAT are made.

SIMARD, N., N. PAILLE, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2007. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides : revue de litterature et situation aux Iles-de-la-Madeleine. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2786, 40 p .

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This document presents a review of the characteristics and the biology of this alga related to the east coast of North America and southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. A review of the ecological and economic impacts observed in other areas of the world and control methods is also presented. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides was first observed in the Magdelen Islands in 2003. A sampling program was conducted in this area in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the current status of this species. Results showed that C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides is established in Great Entry harbour, particularly in Old Harry Bay and the mouth of Grosse Île Bay where important densities were observed. Environmental conditions in the Magdelen Islands may be favorable for an invasion by this alga. Ecological impacts on native communities following the arrival of C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides in the Magdelen Islands are unknown. Better control of potential vectors for introduction and dispersal and the development of monitoring and research programmes are needed to limit the spread of this species and better understand its ecological and economic impacts.

RICHARD, M., P. ARCHAMBAULT, G. THOUZEAU, C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2007. Influence of suspended scallop cages and mussel lines on pelagic and benthic biogeochemical fluxes in Havre-aux-Maisons Lagoon, I^les-de-la- Madeleine (Quebec, Canada). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 64: 1491-1505 .

An in situ experiment was done in July 2004 to test and compare the influence of suspended bivalve cultures (1- and 2-year-old blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus)) on biogeochemical fluxes in the water column and at the benthic interface in Havre-aux-Maisons Lagoon (Quebec, Canada). Aquaculture structures increased the pelagic macrofaunal biomass (PMB) and acted as an oxygen sink and nutrient source in the water column under dark conditions. Although PMB was lower in scallop culture, the influence of scallop cages on pelagic fluxes was similar to or greater (nitrate and nitrite) than that of mussel lines. Sediments were organically enriched, and benthic macrofaunal abundances were decreased in mussel culture zones relative to the control zone, but such an effect was not observed in the scallop zone. Nevertheless, benthic oxygen demand did not vary among culture types and control zones. Benthic nutrient fluxes were greatest beneath aquaculture structures. Both pelagic and benthic interfaces may modify oxygen and nutrient pools in culture zones in Havre-aux-Maisons Lagoon. The contribution of aquaculture structures to oxygen, ammonium, and phosphate pools may be a function of PMB and type. While aquaculture structures had an important role on nitrate and nitrite cycling, silicate turnover was mainly driven by benthic mineralization of biodeposits.©2007 NRC Canada

McKINDSEY, C.W., T. LANDRY, F.X. O'BEIRN, I.M. DAVIES, 2007. Bivalve aquaculture and exotic species : a review of ecological considerations and management issues. J. Shellfish Res., 26(2): 281-294 .

Bivalves have been grown and transported for culture for hundreds of years and the introduction of some species outside of their native range for aquaculture has been suggested to be one of the greatest modes of introduction of exotic marine species. However, there has yet to be a thorough assessment of the importance of aquaculture and bivalve culture in particular, to the introduction and spread of exotic species. This paper reviews some of the environmental and ecological implications of the relationship between bivalve aquaculture and the introduction and spread of exotic species, management implications and mitigation strategies. Two broad classes of introductions of exotic species may result from activities associated with bivalve aquaculture. First, the intentional introduction of exotic species into an area for aquaculture purposes, i.e. the "target" species. These are typically foundation or engineering species and may have a considerable influence on receiving ecosystems. Second, the introduction of species that are either associated with introduced bivalves or facilitated by aquaculture activities (i.e. structures or husbandry practices). These may include both "hitchhiking" species (organisms that grow in association with or may be transferred with cultured bivalves) and disease causing organisms. Management options should include the use of risk assessments prior to transfers and quarantines. Various types of mitigation for exotic species have been evaluated but are generally not very successful. Because the risk of exotic species to ecosystems and the bivalve farming industry itself may be great, effort should be directed to better predict and halt introductions of potentially harmful species.© 2007 National Shellfisheries Association

CALLIER, M.D., C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2007. Multi-scale spatial variations in benthic sediment geochemistry and macrofaunal communities under a suspended mussel culture. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 348: 103-115 .

The chemical and biological effects of biodeposition from a mussel culture were evaluated at multiple spatial scales during the summer of 2003 in Great-Entry Lagoon, eastern Canada. Sediment samples were collected directly under and between mussel lines (positions 10 m apart: 10 m scale) from multiple sites (located ca. 100 m apart: 100 m scale) in each of 3 zones: reference ®, 0+ and 1+ mussel cohort zones (located at least 500 m apart: km scale). In general, redox potential decreased and sulphide concentration increased with sediment depth but did not differ among zones or positions. A clear difference in macrofaunal community structure was observed among R, 0+ and 1+ zones, as well as between the positions directly under mussel lines in 1+ sites (1+ under) and those between 1+ mussel lines (1+between). The benthic community at 1+under positions was dominated by an opportunistic species (Capitella capitata) and had the lowest diversity and biomass. 0+ sites were characterised by the greatest number of species and biomass, suggesting that some species have benefited from a moderate organic loading from the 0+ mussels. Historical data indicate that the deeper part of the lagoon was a naturally enriched environment. The mussel farm probably contributes to local organic enrichment. Comparison of benthic communities from the present study (>20 yr after the initiation of mussel aquaculture) in the site to similar historical data from 3 periods (1975 and 1978, before mussel farming; 1982, at the start of farming activities; and 2004, after the 1+ mussel harvest) showed that community structure differed largely because of the greater abundance of deposit feeders in 2003. However, among these 3 periods the differences in benthic community structure were no greater than differences observed between years within the periods.©2007 Inter-Research

McKINDSEY, C.W., H. THETMEYER, T. LANDRY, W. SILVERT, 2006. Review of recent carrying capacity models for bivalve culture and recommendations for research and management. Aquaculture, 261: 451-462 .

Models and tools for assessing the carrying capacity of an area of interest for bivalve culture can be classified according to their level of complexity and scope. In this report, we discuss and outline four hierarchical categories of carrying capacity studies: physical, production, ecological, and social carrying capacity. The assessment of carrying capacity for progressively higher categories of models is based on a sound understanding of preceding categories. We discuss each in brief and the third in more detail as this is the level at which knowledge is the most lacking and for which science may make the most advances. (1) Physical carrying capacity may be assessed by a combination of hydrodynamic models and physical information, ideally presented and analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Most scientific effort to date has been directed towards modelling production carrying capacity and some of the resulting models have been used successfully to this end. Further development of these models should pay attention to (i) better modelling of feedback mechanisms between bivalve culture and the environment, (ii) a consideration of all steps in the culture process (seed collection, ongrowing, harvesting, and processing), and (iii) culture technique. (3) The modelling of <i<ecological carrying capacity is still in its infancy. The shortcomings mentioned for models for production carrying capacity estimates are even greater for ecological carrying capacity models. GIS may be employed to consider interactions between culture activities and sensitive habitats. (4) It is recommended that social carrying capacity be evaluated only after the preceding levels have been completed so that an unbiased assessment is obtained. This however does not exclude direction from managers for scientists as to which factors (such as water clarity, specific habitats, etc.) should be evaluated. The use of expert systems to aid in management decisions is briefly discussed with a suggested application of a fuzzy expert system to this end.© 2006 Elsevier B.V.

CALLIER, M.D., A.M. WEISE, C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2006. Sedimentation rates in a suspended mussel farm (Great-Entry Lagoon, Canada): biodeposit production and dispersion. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 322: 129-141 .

Experimental and field studies were carried out to characterise biodeposit dynamics in a suspended mussel Mytilus edulis L. farm in Great-Entry Lagoon, eastern Canada. We assessed: (1) the quantity and quality of biodeposits produced by different age classes of mussels, (2) the size-dependent sinking velocity of faeces and (3) the variation in sedimentation rates at different spatial and temporal scales. Individual 0+ mussels produced on average only 63 % of the mass of biodeposits (32.4 mg dry wt d-1 ind.-1 that 1+ mussels did (51.5 mg dry wt d-1 ind.-1. In contrast, the amount of biodeposits produced per unit body weight (dry weight of soft tissue) was greater for 0+ than for 1+ mussels. Faecal pellet sinking velocity ranged from 0.27 to 1.81 cm s-1 for mussels ranging in size from 3 to 7 cm, and was best correlated with faecal pellet width. Sedimentation rates were greater within the farm than at reference sites, supporting the hypothesis that mussel farming increases sedimentation rates. Variations in sedimentation were also observed at small spatial scales and through time. Prior to the harvesting of 1+ mussels, sedimentation rates directly under the 1+ mussel lines were about twice those 10 m distant, between the lines, and in other zones (reference sites and sites in the lease with 0+ mussels). These observations and sedimentation patterns along transects leading away from the mussel farm suggest that biodeposits from the farm are not dispersed broadly. The estimated initial dispersal of faecal pellets ranges from 0-7.4 m (1+ mussels) to 7-24.4 m (0+ mussels).©2006 Inter-Research

LANDRY T., M. SKINNER, A. LEBLANC, D. BOURQUE, C.W. McKINDSEY, R. TREMBLAY, P. ARCHAMBAULT, L. COMEAU, S. COURTENAY, F. HARTOG, M. OUELLETTE, J.-M. SÉVIGNY, 2006. A scientific review of bivalve aquaculture : interaction between wild and cultured species. Pages 80-138 in A scientific review of the potential environmental effects of aquaculture in aquatic ecosystems. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2450(5)) .

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This paper reviews the present state of knowledge on interactions between wild and cultured species within the context of bivalve mariculture in Canada. It also identifies critical knowledge gaps and recommends research to address these gaps. The literature reviewed includes national and international information covering bivalve aquaculture, bivalve restoration, coastal community and ecology. This review is focused on changes affecting the pelagic community, benthic communities, predator species, genetic structures, and the risk of introducing invasive species.

ANDERSON, M.R., P.J. CRANFORD, C.W. McKINDSEY, P. STRAIN, B.T. HARGRAVE, W.K.W. LI, W.G. HARRISON, 2006. Cumulative and far-field fish habitat effects ; Effets cumulatifs et a tres grande distance sur l'habitat du poisson. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2006/037, 30 p .

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McKINDSEY, C.W., M.R. ANDERSON, P. BARNES, S. COURTENAY, T. LANDRY, M. SKINNER, 2006. Effects of shellfish aquaculture on fish habitat ; Effets de la conchyliculture sur l'habitat du poisson. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2006/011, 92 p .

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McKINDSEY, C.W., 2006. La mariculture peut-elle augmenter la productivité des écosystèmes ?. Naturaliste can., 130(1): 69-73 .

SIMARD, N., C.W. McKINDSEY, P. ARCHAMBAULT, C. CYR, 2005. Découverte d'espèces marines envahissantes aux îles de la Madeleine. Naturaliste can., 129(2): 62-64 .

McKINDSEY, C., 2004. Aquaculture et l'habitat du poisson: impacts négatifs ou positifs d'un point de vue de l'écosystème. Vect. Environ., 37(6): 26-27 .

GENDRON, L., A.M. WEISE, M. FRECHETTE, P. OUELLET, C.W. McKINDSEY, L. GIRARD, 2003. Evaluation of the potential of cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) to ingest state I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae. Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 274, 20 p .

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In Quebec, mussel aquaculture is expanding rapidly and is being developed in areas where lobster is present and where lobster larvae are likely to be found. Lobster fishermen are concerned that mussel aquaculture could pose a threat to lobster larvae. They believe that cultured mussels may ingest or otherwise kill lobster larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) to ingest stage I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae and, if this does occur, determine whether this ingestion kills or other wise harms the larvae.

GENDRON, L., A.M. WEISE, M. FRECHETTE, P. OUELLET, C.W. McKINDSEY, L. GIRARD, 2003. Évaluation du potentiel des moules d’élevage (Mytilus edulis) à ingérer des larves de homard (Homarus americanus) de stade I. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 274, 20 p .

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In Quebec, mussel aquaculture is expanding rapidly and is being developed in areas where lobster is present and where lobster larvae are likely to be found. Lobster fishermen are concerned that mussel aquaculture could pose a threat to lobster larvae. They believe that cultured mussels may ingest or otherwise kill lobster larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) to ingest stage I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae and, if this does occur, determine whether this ingestion kills or other wise harms the larvae.

McKINDSEY, C.W., E. BOURGET, 2001. Body size and spatial variation of community structure in subarctic intertidal boulder fields. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 216: 17-30 .

McKINDSEY C.W., E. BOURGET, 2001. Diversity of a northern rocky intertidal community : the influence of body size and succession. Ecology, 82(12): 3462-3478 .

McKINDSEY, C.W., E. BOURGET, 2000. Explaining mesoscale variation in interdidal mussel community structure. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 205 : 155-170 .