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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Bernard MORIN

SAVENKOFF, C., L. SAVARD, B. MORIN, D. CHABOT, 2006. Main prey and predators of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence during the mid-1980s, mid-1990s, and early 2000s. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2639, 28 p .

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We used results of mass-balance models to describe the changes in the structure and functioning of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence ecosystem related to northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) for the mid-1980s, the mid-1990s, and the early 2000s. The net decrease in biomass of the large-bodied demersal species and the ensuing drop in predation in the mid-1990s may explain the increase in abundance of the northern shrimp at the end of the 1990s. Shrimp was among the main prey species, and predation was the main cause of shrimp mortality for all time periods. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) progressively replaced cod (Gadus morhua) and redfish (Sebastes spp.) as the main shrimp predators. Since the biomass of Greenland halibut sharply increased since 1995, its effect via predation as well as fishing pressure should be considered in the elaboration of management strategies for shrimp in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence.

SAVENKOFF, C., B. MORIN, D. CHABOT, M. CASTONGUAY, 2006. Main prey and predators of redfish (Sebastes spp.) in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence during the mid-1980s,mid-1990s, and early 2000s. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2648, 23 p .

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We used results of mass-balance models to describe the changes in the structure and functioning of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence ecosystem related to redfish (Sebastes spp.) for the mid-1980s, the mid-1990s, and the early 2000s. The net decrease in biomass of the demersal species in the early 1990s and the ensuing drop in predation led to an ecosystem structure dominated by small-bodied pelagic species and marine mammals. Redfish consumption largely decreased from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s. Large zooplankton, capelin (Mallotus villosus), and small zooplankton were the main prey consumed by redfish for each time period. There was a net decrease in total mortality and predation on redfish from the mid-1980s to early 2000s. Fishing mortality also decreased over the same time period as the redfish fishery in the Gulf has been under moratorium since 1995. Predation was the main cause of redfish mortality for each time period. The main predators of redfish were large cod (Gadus morhua) during the mid-1980s and harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and skates during the mid-1990s and early 2000s. Even though the proportion of redfish in the diet composition of each of these three predators was generally low, their predation could account for high percentages of total mortality on redfish. Cannibalism also appeared to be an important source of redfish mortality (between 10 and 15 % of total mortality)

VALENTIN, A., J.-M. SÉVIGNY, B. MORIN, D. POWER, R.M. BRANTON, 2006. Extensive sampling and concomitant use of meristic characteristics and variation at the MDH-A* locus reveal new information on redfish species distribution and spatial pattern of introgressive hybridization in the Northwest Atlantic. J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci., 36: 65-80 .

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Variability at theMDH-A* locus, of anal fin ray number and extrinsic gasbladder muscle pattern is used to describe the distribution of Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella in the Northwest Atlantic and to define the geographical boundaries of the area of introgressive hybridization between the two species. Sebastes mentella distribution extends from the Gulf of St. Lawrence northward while S. fasciatus is distributed from the southern Grand Banks southward as described in earlier studies. Sebastes fasciatus is also found in the southern Labrador Sea where the species appears to reach its northernmost limit. The distribution of the two species overlaps mainly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Laurentian Channel, around the Grand Banks and on Flemish Cap. This area of sympatry comprises a smaller area where heterozygous individuals at the MDH-A* locus are observed and where introgressive hybridization occurs. This area is mostly restricted to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Laurentian Channel. The west-east gradient in the abundance of introgressed individuals suggests that the Gulf of St. Lawrence is the centre of introgressive hybridization and that larval dispersion or migration of juveniles and adults takes place from the Gulf of St. Lawrence towards south Newfoundland and the Grand Banks. In contrast, the absence of heterozygous individuals at the MDH-A* locus outside the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Laurentian Channel indicates that the dispersion of these individuals is limited for all stages of the life cycle.

MORIN, B., 2004. Sébaste de l’unité 1 – Mise à jour 2003. Rapport sur l'état des stocks, 2004/015, 7 p .

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MORIN, B., R. METHOT, J.-M. SEVIGNY, D. POWER, B. BRANTON, T. McINTYRE, 2004. Review of the structure, the abundance and distribution of Sebastes mentella and S. fasciatus in Atlantic Canada in a species-at-risk context ; Revue de la structure, de l’abondance et de la répartition de Sebastes mentella et S. fasciatus dans le Canada atlantique dans le contexte des espèces en péril. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2004/058, 96 p .

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This document presents the information reviewed and analyzed by Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) that could be used by the Committee on Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) in assessing status and extinction risk of the two main species of redfish (Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella) in the Northwest Atlantic. Redfish population structure was evaluated in the context of “evolutionarily significant units”. The review did not provide evidence to indicate the existence of ESUs within current management units, therefore all the analyses were realized on the current unit stocks. Methods have been developed to separate redfish by genotype and applied to the research vessel (RV) survey data to obtain abundance indices. Three distribution indices were calculated: the area of occupancy, the minimum area occupied by 95 % of the stock, and the Gini index of aggregation. No general pattern or trend in geographic distribution was evident. One stock experienced a substantial decline and had not recovered (Unit 1). One stock experienced declines but has shown some recovery (NAFO divisions 2GHJ 3K). The remaining management units have not shown a decline or the information available may not reflect the abundance. Fishery exploitation and the lack of recruitment were considered the main causes of abundance decline for two stocks (Unit 1 and 2GHJ 3K), although environmental changes and elevated natural mortality were identified as possible factors. Mature population abundance indices of all redfish stocks in Atlantic Canada are at least two orders of magnitude greater than the COSEWIC threshold of 10 000 mature individuals.

MORIN, B., 2004. Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) Greenland Halibut in 2003. Science, Stock Status Report, 2004/014, 10 p .

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MORIN, B., 2004. Unit 1 Redfish – 2003 Update. Science, Stock Status Report, 2004/015, 6 p .

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MÉTHOT, R., B. MORIN, D. POWER, 2004. Description of the methods used for estimating the abundance of Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella in Units 1 and 2 ; Description des méthodes utilisées pour estimer l’abondance de Sebastes fasciatus et de S. mentella dans les unités 1 et 2. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2004/092, 53 p .

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Efforts have been made to assess the situation of Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella in Units 1 and 2. Because no visual distinction is possible between those two redfish species, methods have been developed to estimate indices of abundance of each species from the historic databases. The discrimination criteria used, coming mainly from the Redfish Multidisciplinary Research program 1995-99, were anal fin ray counts (AFC) and the analysis of the malate dehydrogenase (MDH). These characters have been used to split the redfish sp. into species or genotypes. The main method use AFC to evaluate the number of each species caught by tow. A correction was calculated at different depth intervals to reflect the difference in depth distribution for the two species. Proportions of species abundance by depth zone have been calculated from MDH analysis and applied for sets when no discrimination criterion had been recorded. Another method using AFC-length keys subsequently converted into species using MDH was also elaborated. Those methods have been used to analyze different surveys in Units 1 and 2. The estimates of S. fasciatus abundance can be different depending of the method used. These gaps are more important for years when no discrimination character were recorded. In Unit 1, S. fasciatus was dominant at lower depth zone and S. mentella in deep water, the mixing zone being mainly between 183-274 m. Each species showed different length frequencies, S. fasciatus is generally smaller then S. mentella. Because of this, the AFC-length key method was found appropriate to separate species. In Unit 1, the Cod Sentinel summer survey, the GEAC survey and the survey in 4T showed decreasing trends in the last years or low historic abundance for both species. Only the Cod Sentinel fall survey showed stable but low level indices of abundance from 1995 to 2002. In Unit 2, little information was available. Like in Unit 1, S. fasciatus dominates in shallow areas (less than 366 m). Moreover, a survey covering only division 4V showed indices of abundance at a low level in the last years. The discrimination by AFC recorded at each tow and corrected to genotype is simple to perform and could give good estimates of species composition. In years with no criteria of separation recorded, genotype proportions by depth or AFC-length keys could give acceptable estimates of the two species, but should be interpreted with caution because fluctuations of abundance due to mortality, recruitment and/or switch in depth preference could have affected the results of these methods. However, abundance of S. fasciatus evaluated by whatever methods show the same trend, so both methods were found useful to get general trends of the redfish species.

BOURDAGES, H., D. ARCHAMBAULT, B. MORIN, A. FRÉCHET, L. SAVARD, F. GRÉGOIRE, R. DUFOUR, 2004. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d'août 2004 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey from August 2004 in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2004/112, 40 p .

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As a result of the delays in putting the CCGS Alfred Needler into operation, the August 2004 multidisciplinary groundfish and shrimp survey in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted aboard the CCGS Teleost, which itself suffered major damage, delaying the start of the mission. The survey was conducted between August 15 and September 2, corresponding to a period that was just over half of the time initially planned. A total of 130 tows were made throughout the area, 95 % of which were successful. Summary findings for catch rates, catch rate distributions and size frequency distributions are presented for 14 species, including the 4 species targeted by the survey (cod, Greenland halibut, redfish and Northern shrimp). However, the 2004 findings are preliminary and must be considered as such until laboratory analyses and data validation have been completed. With the exception of data on the spatial distribution of catches, data obtained during this survey cannot be compared with data obtained during previous missions aboard the CCGS Alfred Needler until conversion indices for each species will be calculated using data obtained during comparative missions. Data gathered in 2004 on the catch distribution of the various species indicate a pattern similar to those observed in previous years aboard the CCGS Alfred Needler.

MORIN, B., 2004. Flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2003. Rapport sur l'état des stocks, 2004/014, 11 p .

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OUELLET, P., F. GRÉGOIRE, M. HARVEY, E. HEAD, B. MORIN, G. ROBERT, L. SAVARD, S. SMITH, M. STARR, D. SWAIN, 2003. Exceptional environmental conditions in 1999 in eastern Canadian waters and the possible consequences for some fish and invertebrate stocks. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 3: 21-27 .

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[Abstract only available in French]
Plusieurs indicateurs des conditions atmosphériques indiquent que des températures de l’air anormalement élevées en 1999 ont entraîné une réduction de la glace de mer en hiver et au printemps sur les plateaux continentaux de Terre-Neuve, du Labrador et de la Nouvelle-Écosse et une augmentation des températures de l’eau de surface sur l’ensemble de la zone Atlantique. Également, d’autres indices indiquent que le cycle de production biologique (la floraison du phytoplancton) a été initié plus tôt en 1999 dans la plupart des régions de la zone. Ces conditions océanographiques exceptionnelles auraient eu des conséquences positives sur la production (ex. recrutement, croissance) de nombreux stocks de poissons et d’invertébrés dans l’Est du Canada.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 2003. Évaluation du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2002 ; Assessment of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2002. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2003/088, 75 p .

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The 2002 landings increased by 25 % compared to 2001 levels, primarily because Newfoundland fishermen exceeded their allocation by around 100 T and because significant catches (275 T) were made during an experimental fishery in Quebec. Yet again, the total allowable catch (TAC) was not reached, despite a 1,000 tons reduction. The catch rates of gillnet fishermen rose in 2002, mainly in the Esquiman Channel. Landings consisted of females for the most part. As mean catch size has decreased since 1998, the number of Greenland halibut per landed ton grew of 30 % between 1998 and 2002. A comparative fishing experiment conducted in Quebec in 2002 using 5.5-inch and 6-inch mesh showed a high proportion of females in landings (greater than 80 %) with either mesh size. Mean catch sizes for the 5.5-inch and 6.0-inch mesh were 43 cm and 45 cm, respectively, while the proportions of immature females in landings made with 5.5-inch and 6-inch mesh were 62 % and 42 %, respectively. However, catch per unit effort (CPUE) was at least three times higher when using 5.5-inch mesh. Biomass indices from surveys increased between 1995 and 2000, but were down in 2001 and 2002. However, the 2002 DFO survey index was still higher than the 1990s index average. It should be noted that the DFO survey index was boosted by the large year-classes of 1997 and 1999. Survey indices show that abundance of fish of 44 cm and more (fish available to the fishery) has been declining since 1999. The individual growth rate of the large 1997 year- lass was lower than that of the previous year-classes in the western Gulf, which means that it will take longer for the 1997 year-class to reach the commercial size. The lower growth rate was less marked in the Esquiman Channel, which explains why fishing was better there in 2002. However, in 2002, the feeding, condition and growth rate of juvenile Greenland halibut improved, and size at sexual maturity increased for males. Although the abundance of pre-recruits (1997 and 1999 yearclasses) is high, it is difficult to predict how successful the fishery will be in 2003 considering the weaker growth rate of the 1997 year-class.

MORIN, B., 2003. Fletan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2002. Rapport sur l'état des stocks, 2003/007, 14 p .

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MORIN, B., 2003. Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) Greenland halibut in 2002. Science, Stock Status Report, 2003/007, 7 p .

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MORIN, B., S. HURTUBISE, 2003. Shrimp fishery bycatches of redfish and review of the possible causes of the disappearance of the 1988 year-class. Pages 95-98 in Gascon, D. (ed.). Redfish Multidisciplinary Research Zonal Program (1995-1998): Final Report. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2462, 139 p .

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MORGAN, M.J., W.R. BOWERING, A.C. GUNDERSEN, A. HOINE, B. MORIN, O.SMIRNOV, E. HJORLEIFSSON, 2003. A comparison of the maturation of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) from populations throughout the north Atlantic. J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci., 31: 99-112 .

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CAMIRAND, R., B. MORIN, L. SAVARD, 2003. Historical and current knowledge of the Greenland Halibut from the Quebec fixed-gear fishers in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Pages 366-374 in N. Haggan, C. Brignam and L. Wood (ed.). Putting Fishers Knowledge to Work. Conference Proceedings August 27-30 2001. Fish. Cent. Res. Rep., 11(1) .

BERNIER, B., B. MORIN, 2002. Description des relevés par grille de sébaste dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent de 1998 à 2000 ; Description of redfish grid surveys in the Gulf of St. Lawrence from 1998 to 2000. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 265, 39 p .

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Surveys, conducted by GEAC (Groundfish Enterprise Allocation Council) in collaboration with DFO, were carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence according to a definite sampling strategy. The main objectives of these grid surveys were to describe the distribution of redfish in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and at the mouth of the Gulf and to construct an abundance index. To fulfil these objectives, a systematic grid sampling plan was used. The distribution of the redfish catches for the three years showed the highest concentrations of redfish were found at the mouth of the Gulf, in NAFO Divisions 4T, 4Vn, and 4R. The summer GEAC grid survey catch rate index showed a decreasing trend between 1998 and 2000. The length frequency distributions for the redfish from the summer surveys (1998 to 2000) display two modes: between 13 and 19 cm, corresponding to the 1993-1005 year-classes, and between 28 and 37 cm, dominated by the 1980 year-class. The continuation of the GEAC early-summer surveys should provide information that will be useful for better describing the distribution pattern of redfish and to extend the series of this new abundance when redfish are more likely to be found in their summer geographic range in the Gulf. This index can be compared to the other abundance indices from surveys (DFO and Sentinel) conducted in the summer and fall.

MORIN, B., 2002. Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) Greenland halibut in 2001. Science, Stock Status Report, A4-03, 12 p .

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MORIN, B., 2002. Flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2001. Rapport sur l'état des stocks, A4-03, 12 p .

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BOURDAGES, H., D. ARCHAMBAULT, B. MORIN, A. FRÉCHET, L. SAVARD, F. GRÉGOIRE, M. BÉRUBÉ, 2002. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d'août 2002 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ;. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2002/090, 69 p .

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In 2002, the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey in the northern Gulf took place between August 1st and September 1st. A total of 207 fishing tows were conducted over the entire area of which 190 were successful, which corresponds to 76 % of the initial objective of 250 tows. Summary results concerning biomass and abundance, length frequencies and distribution of catch rates are presented for 13 species, including the four that are targeted by the survey (cod, Greenland halibut, redfish and shrimp). Results from 2002 are compared with those from previous years in order to have an indication of the trends for the 13 years time series. However results from 2002 are preliminary and must be considered as such pending laboratory analysis and completion of the validation of data. According to these preliminary results, biomass indices for cod, redfish, witch flounder and American plaice are very low in the northern Gulf while those of shrimp and Greenland halibut have remained high. A general decline in catches is observed for the majority of species along the West Coast of Newfoundland. However, the coverage of this area in 2002 was restricted due to frequent gear damage.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, H. BOURDAGES, D. BERNIER, R. CAMIRAND, 2001. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) en 2000 ; The status of the redfish stock in unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence) in 2000. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2001/001, 73 p .

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The fishery in management unit 1 [divisions 4RST +  3Pn and 4Vn (Jan.-May)] has been closed since 1995. Before the fishery was closed, the catch was dominated by fish born in the early 1970s and around 1980. Both groups consisted of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1988 year-class, composed mainly of S. fasciatus, has decreased rapidly since 1991. The reasons for the small size of the current stock are heavy past exploitation and lack of recruitment. Following the 1995 closure of the fishery, the stock’s abundance seems to have stabilized; the abundance index derived from DFO’s research surveys has been stable, if low. Two cohorts of juveniles were observed in DFO’s 2000 research survey: the 1996 and 1998 year-classes. Most of these redfish are S. fasciatus, and both of these yearclasses seem relatively weak compared with that of 1988. The catch rate index obtained from the Groundfish Enterprise Allocation Council (GEAC) grid surveys trended downward from 1998 to 2000. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) figures from the index fishery were similar in 1999 and 2000, but lower than those obtained before the fishery was closed in 1995. The indices from the sentinel fishery surveys have also been stable for the period 1995-1999, but the value from the summer 2000 survey amounts to only about half of the 1999 estimate. Overall, the outlook for this stock remains poor for the foreseeable future.

MORIN, B., 2001. Flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST). Rapport sur l'état des stocks, A4-03, 8 p .

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MORIN, B., 2001. Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) Greenland halibut. Science, Stock Status Report, A4-03, 8 p .

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MORIN, B., 2000. Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) Greenland Halibut. Science, Stock Status Report, A4-03, 7 p .

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MORIN, B., 2000. Flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST). Rapport sur l'état des stocks, A4-03, 8 p .

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MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1999. Assessment and biology of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 1998 ; Évaluation et biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1998. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 99/185, 57 p .

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The largest summer concentrations of Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence are found in the west and north of Anticosti Island and near the west coast of Newfoundland in the Esquiman Channel. Gillnets have been the most widely used fishing gear since the mid-1970s. Preliminary landings for 1998 totalled 3,989 t, while total allowable catch (TAC) was 4,000 t. The CPUEs of gillnet fishers in 1998 rose by 25 % over 1996 and 1997. The abundance indices for Greenland halibut show an increase in biomass since 1990 and an increase in commercial size fish since 1994. However, the biomass index and the abundance of adults in the DFO research survey declined slightly in 1998. Finally, a new very abundant year-class (1997) was observed in 1998 on the research survey. On the basis of histological criteria, the size at which 50 % of females reach maturity was estimated at 46 cm in 1998.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, N. ST-HILAIRE, 1999. The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence) in 1998 ; L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence) en 1998. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 99/132, 38 p .

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The fishery in management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] has been closed since 1995. Before it was closed, it was dominated by fish of species Sebastes mentella born around 1980 and in the early 1970s. Abundance of the 1988 year-class, chiefly species S. fasciatus, declined sharply starting in 1991. The small size of the stock at present is due to heavy fishing and lack of recruitment. Stock abundance seems to have stabilized since the fishery was closed in 1995. DFO research surveys and the sentinel fisheries seem to indicate decreased availability of redfish to trawls from August on. The DFO research surveys have found a new year-class (1996), but it will take several years of survey data before its true size can be determined. Catches of approximately set, the level established last year for redfish industry surveys, are not likely to result in a high exploitation rate if the abundance index remains at its current level.

MORIN, B., 1999. Flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST). Rapport sur l'état des stocks, A4-03, 8 p .

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MORIN, B., 1999. Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST). Science, Stock Status Report, A4-03, 7 p .

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MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, E. ALBERT, 1998. Assessment and biology of Greenland Halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 1996 and 1997 ; Évaluation et biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1996 et 1997. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 98/07, 57 p .

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The main Greenland halibut concentrations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summer are found west of Anticosti Island and, to a lesser extent, north of this Island and in the Esquiman Channel, near the west coast of Newfoundland. Gillnets are the main gear type used in this fishery since the mid-1970s. The 1997 preliminary landings totalled 2 459 t. The total allowable catch (TAC) was set at 3 000 t in 1997. On the whole, the CPUEs of index fishermen were twice as high in 1996 and 1997 as during the period 1991 to 1995. Abundance indices for Greenland halibut have risen since 1990, with a more pronounced increase since 1994. The abundance of commercial-size individuals (over 40 cm) has increased since 1994 owing to the presence of strong year-classes. In 1996 and 1997, the number of juveniles rose significantly. In addition, the length at which 50 % of females reach maturity was estimated at 50 cm during this period. Preliminary results from microscopic analyses of ovaries have revealed evidence of maturation that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Parasite research has shown that the Greenland halibut concentrated in the Cabot Strait area in winter probably come from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

MORIN, B., 1997. Flétan du Groenland du Golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST). Rapport sur l'état des stocks, A4-03, 7 p .

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MORIN, B., 1997. Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST). Science, Stock Status Report, A4-03, 6 p .

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MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1997. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) ; The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence). MPO, Secrétariat canadien pour l'évaluation des stocks, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 97/112, 23 p .

The fishery in management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] has been closed since 1995. Commercial catches before the closing were dominated by fish born around 1980 and at the beginning of the 1970s and were mainly of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1988 year-class has decreased rapidly since 1991 and these fish were identified as being S. fasciatus. Research survey indicated that the redfish stock abundance has remained stabel since 1996. The high rate of exploitation and the lack of recruitment have resulted in the current low stock size. With the closure of this fishery in 1995, the abundance of the stock seems to have stabilized. At this time, there is no sign of any significant incoming recruitment.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, G.A. CHOUINARD, 1996. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) ; The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence). MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research document, 96/112, 31 p .

The fishery in management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] was closed in 1995 and remained closed in 1996. Commercial catches before the closing were dominated by fish born around 1980 and at the beginning of the 1970's and were mainly of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1988 year-class has decreaded rapidly since 1991 and those fish were identified as being S. fasciatus. Research surveys indicated that the redfish stock abundance has declined slightly in 1996 in comparison to 1995. The high rate of exploitation and the lack of recruitment have resulted in the current low stock size. With the closure of this fishery in 1995, the rate of decline of the abundance of the stock should be much slower. At this time, there is no sign of any significant incoming recruitment.

GILBERT, M., D. GAUTHIER, J.A. GAGNÉ, Y. GRATTON, P. LAROUCHE, B. MORIN, R. MORIN, J.A. PERCY, T.G. SMITH, G.-H. TREMBLAY, G. WALSH, 1996. Hypothèses reliées aux effets environnementaux du projet Grande Baleine sur l'écosystème marin côtier du sud-est de la baie d'Hudson. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2127, 67 p .

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The possible realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric development project could have significant biophysical impacts on the coastal marine environment of southeastern Hudson Bay.This document presents the results of discussions held within a working group composed of scientific personnel of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans - Laurentian Region that defined, in the form of hypotheses and research proposals, the environmental aspects related to the realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric project. These aspects mainly concern the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of southeastern Hudson Bay as well as the biology of some important species of fish and marine mammals inhabiting this region. A brief description of the actual and planned hydroelectric developments in the hydrographic basin of James and Hudson bays, as well as a synthesis of ongoing research activities and knowledge acquired to date on the marine environment of this region, are also presented.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, R. ARTHUR, G. CHOUINARD, A. FRÉCHET, P. GAGNON, 1996. L'évaluation et la biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1995 ; Assessment and biology of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 1995. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research document, 96/53, 59 p .

The main concentrations of Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summer are found on the west side of Anticosti Island and to a lesser extent north of this Island and in the Esquiman Channel near the west coast of Newfoundland. Gillnet is the main fishing gear used in this fishery since the mid 1970's. Preliminary landings of 1995 reached 2300 t. The total allowable catch (TAC) was fixed to 4000 t since 1993. In 1996, it was reduced to 2000 t. Abundance indices increase slightly since 1990. Also, the abundance of commercial sizes (over 40 cm) Greenland halibut has increased since 1994 because of the presence of good year-classes. However, large size (over 50 cm) fish were still not numerous in the population in 1995 and the number of juveniles in 1995 was still lower than the average of 1990-1995. The length at which 50 % of the females reach maturity was estimated at 49 cm in 1995. The weight of fish according to length (or condition) increased slightly in 1995 for fish over 40 cm. In winter, the Greenland halibut concentrated in the Cabot Strait area are probably coming from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

MORIN, B., 1996. Greenland halibut in Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST). DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Stock Status Report, 96/58, 7 p .

MORIN, B., 1996. Flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST). MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Rapport sur l'état des stocks, 96/58, 7 p .

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, D. CHABOT, J.J. MAGUIRE, 1995. Évaluation et biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1994. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 95/59, 47 p .

Since 1992, Greenland halibut of Divisions 4RST is managed as a distinct population on the basis of yield per recruit. The main concentrations of Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summer are found on the west side of Anticosti Island and to a lesser extent north of this Island and in the Esquiman Channel near the west coast of Newfoundland. Preliminary results on sexual maturity of Greenland halibut in the estuary of the St. Lawrence River had showed that the length where 50 % of the male and the female were mature were 39 and 56 cm respectively in 1993-94. Landings of 4RST Greenland halibut have increased from 2,800 t to 3,600 t between 1993 and 1994. Gillnet is the main fishing gear used in this fishery since the middle of the 1970's. The size of fish caught by gillnet in 1994 was mainly between 41-45 cm and 70 % of these fishes were female. Thus, the majority of the catch were immature fish. Abundance indices showed that the biomass of Greenland halibut is low but relatively stable since 1990. Exploitation rate is probably high and the low number of large fish results in the concentration of this exploitation on the annual recruitment. Thus, it is important to protect juveniles in order to allow the spawning biomass to increase.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, 1995. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) ; The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence). MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/109, 49 p .

The preliminary estimate of total landings of redfish from the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1994 was 19,500 t. The TAC in 1994 was 30,000 t for management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] and the fishery was closed in 1995. Commercial catches in 1994 were dominated by fishes born around 1980 and 1970 and were mainly of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1985 and 1988 cohorts have decreased rapidly since 1991 and these fish were identified as being S. fasciatus. Research surveys indicated that the stock abundance is declining and that the exploitation rate was between 20 and 30 % for the 1970 and 1980 year-classes during the 1990-1994 period. This is well above the generally accepted F0.1 reference level of 12 % for redfish. This high exploitation combined with the lack of recruitment to the fishery has resulted in the low current stock size. With the closure of this fishery in 1995, the decline in the abundance of the stock should be at a much lower rate. At this time there is no sign of any significant incoming recruitment.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, L. BOURASSA, 1994. Le stock de flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) : état de la ressource en 1993. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 94/25, 31 p .

[Abstract only available in French]
Les débarquements de flétan du Groenland de 4RST ont diminué de 3,400 t à 2,800 t de 1992 à 1993. Cette baisse est principalement due aux engins mobiles et particulièrement pour les crevettiers à la suite de l'introduction de la grille Nordmore. Le filet maillant est l'engin le plus utilisé depuis le milieu des années 70. La taille des poissons capturés en 1992 se situait principalement entre 41 et 43 cm, correspondant à la classe d'âge de 1988. Une grande majorité des captures sont des poissons immatures. Une analyse préliminaire des taux de captures des pêcheurs-repères suggère que les PUE ont diminué de 1992 à 1993. L'indice d'abondance du relevé d'été montre une baisse importante entre 1992 et 1993 et des classes d'âge (1989-1991) plus faibles que la classe d'âge de 1988. D'après les informations disponibles, il est important de réduire l'effort de pêche et la proportion de poissons immatures pêches afin de permettre une conservation de cette ressource dans le Golfe.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1994. Le stock de sébaste (Sebastes spp.) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST + 3Pn4Vn [jan.-mai] : état de la ressource en 1993. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 94/24, 62 p .

[Abstract only available in French]
Les débarquements totaux préliminaires de sébaste du golfe du Saint-Laurent en 1993 ont atteint 51,000 t. Le TAC pour 1993 était de 60,000 t pour la nouvelle unité de gestion 1 (divisions 4RST + 3Pn et 4Vn (janvier-mai). Il a été réduit de façon préventive à 30,000 t en 1994. La pêche en 1993 a été dominée par les poissons nés vers 1980 et ceux nés au début des années 1970. Les poissons de ces deux groupes sont principalement de l'espèce Sebastes mentella. Les cohortes de 1985 et 1988 ont vu leur abondance diminuer rapidement depuis 1991 et ce sont des poissons identifiés comme S. fasciatus. Selon des relevés d'abondance, la biomasse du stock est en diminution et le taux d'exploitation est aux environs de 28 % ce qui est très élevé pour une espèce à croissance lente comme le sébaste et ce niveau est supérieur à F 0.1. La réduction du TAC à 30,000 t en 1994 va permettre de réduire le taux d'exploitation. Toutefois, ce niveau de capture n'est probablement pas soutenable à moyen terme, étant donné la biomasse présente (probablement en-dessous de 200,000 t) et l'absence de recrutement important.

MORIN, B., D. POWER, P. GAGNON, 1994. Distribution of redfish (Sebastes spp.) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and in the Laurentian Channel based on RV surveys and commercial fishery catch. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 94/91, 52 p .

[Abstract only available in French]
L'analyse des relevés de poissons de fond dans les divisions 3Ps3Pn4RST de 1978 à 1993 a montré que le sébaste était concentré dans la région du détroit de Cabot en janvier et février. Cette observation semble s'être amplifiée depuis 1990 et les concentrations de sébaste débordent dans la sous-division 3Ps. La distribution des taux de capture de la pêche commerciale d'hiver supporte les données des relevés. En mai, les activités de pêche se déplacent vers le nord dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent, ainsi que vers le sud dans le chenal Laurentien, à la limite de 4Vn et 4Vs jusqu'au mois d'octobre. Les données de taux de capture analysées suggèrent que la migration du sébaste dans la région de Détroit de Cabot (4RT, 3Pn et 4Vn) a débuté aussi tôt que novembre au cours des trois dernières années ce qui ne concorde pas avec les unités de gestion présentement en place (i.e. 3Pn et 4Vn sont considérés comme du sébaste du chenal Laurentien ou Unité 2). La distribution du sébaste par groupe de longueur lors des relevés de poissons de fond a montré un déplacement vers le sud dans le détroit de Cabot à mesure que la taille des poissons augmente. La distribution et la migration des deux principales espèces de sébaste (Sebastes mentella and S. fasciatus) dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent semblent différentes et d'autres analyses sont requises afin de décrire l'impact sur la pêche.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Le stock de sébaste (Sebastes spp.) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST+3Pn-4Vn [jan.-mai]) : état de la ressource en 1992. MPO, Document de recherche sur les pêches dans l'Atlantique, 93/42, 56 p .

Preliminary estimates put total 1992 landings of redfish from the Gulf of St. Lawrence at 77,384 t. Winter fishing (Jan.-April) has increased sharply in recent years and represented 47 % of landings in 1992. Catches continued to rise in 3Pn and 4Vn in 1992. Most landings were made by Shilikov-Turbo midwater trawls (71 %) and bottom trawls (27 %). The dominant commercial length frequency is the 29-31 cm mode, which corresponds to the 1981 year-class. A second mode, 35 to 37 cm, is made up of the year- classes from the early 1970s. The standardized catch rate series for bottom and midwater trawls combined and for bottom trawls only reveal three peaks, the last of which began in 1988. Catch rates increased 20 % in 1992. Summer research survey results show that biomass declined 20 % in 1992, while length frequency modes are similar to those of the commercial fishery. In addition, a juvenile fish mode at 14 cm (1988 year-class) is also evident. The 1981 year-class will constitute the main component of the fishery for the next three to four years, before the next recruitment. Until then, catch rates and biomass should decline, and if catches remain constant over this period, the exploitation rate should rise.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Le flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) : la pêche en 1992 et l'état du stock. MPO, Document de recherche sur les pêches dans l'Atlantique, 93/41, 56 p .

Since 1988, landings of Greenland halibut from 4RST have declined sharply to 2,200 t in 1991, and increased again to 3,400 t in 1992. The fishing gear most used in this fishery since the mid-1970s is the gill net. Most of the fish caught in 1992 were in the 41 to 45 cm range, corresponding to the 1985-86 year- classes. The catch rates for the Index Fishers Program were higher in 1992 than in 1991. The biomass estimates from the research surveys fell in 1988 and 1989, but increased again thereafter. Research survey results indicate that the 1988 year- class seems to be good; however, it will be impossible to estimate its size or compare it with the 1980-81 age groups, which sustained the fishery in 1986-88, before it begins contributing significantly to the fishery.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) : the fishery in 1992 and the state of the stock. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 93/41, 56 p .

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Redfish (Sebastes spp.) stock of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST + 3Pn4Vn [Jan.-May]) : state of the resource in 1992. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 93/42, 56 p .

MORIN, B., G. WALSH, C. AUDET, L. LAPIERRE, 1992. Histopathologie des branchies et du foie de poisson comme indicateur de la qualité des habitats aquatiques du Saint-Laurent. Pages 128-130 in A.J. Niimi & M.C. Taylor (éd.). Comptes rendus du dix-huitième atelier annuel sur la toxicité aquatique, 30 septembre au 3 octobre 1991, Ottawa, Ontario (Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1863) .

MORIN, B., C. HUDON, F.G. WHORISKEY, 1992. Environmental influences on seasonal distribution of coastal and estuarine fish assemblages at Wemindji, eastern James Bay. Environ. Biol. Fishes, 35: 219-229 .

MORIN, B., A. FRÉCHET, M. APARICIO, L. LEFEBVRE, B. BERNIER, 1992. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent. CSCPCA doc. rech., 92/85, 39 p .

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1992. Évaluation du stock de sébaste (Sebastes spp.) du golfe du Saint-Laurent : 4RST + 3Pn4Vn (jan.-mai). CSCPCA doc. rech., 92/59, 45 p .

CHOUINARD, G.A., T. HURLBUT, B. MORIN, J. BAIRD, C. BISHOP, 1992. The lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) resource in Atlantic Canada. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 92/106, 19 p .

In Atlantic Canada, lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) has been exploited, primarily for its roe since the early seventies. The fishery is almost exclusively conducted in Newfoundland during the months of May and June when the female gonads are ripe. Landings of roe peaked in 1987 at approximately 3,700 t. Generally, between 40 and 60 % of the landings originate from eastern Newfoundland (3K and 3L), about 30 % from southern Newfoundland (3Pn and 3Ps) and the remainder from western Newfoundland (4R). The fishery is highly dependent upon the availability of markets. The decrease in landings observed in the last few years was due to low prices which led to a reduction in effort. Winter groundfish surveys conducted in areas 3Pn and 4RS tend to indicate a lower abundance in recent years; however, because of the semi-pelagic habits of the species, estimates of abundance are likely to be imprecise. Densities appear to be highest in area 3Pn. Length frequencies obtained from the commercial fishery in 1988 and 1989 indicate that larger fish tend to be landed in area 3Ps compared to areas 3K and 3L.

MORIN, B., C. HUDON, F. WHORISKEY, 1991. Seasonal distribution, abundance, and life-history traits of Greenland cod, Gadus ogac, at Wemindji, eastern James Bay. Can. J. Zool., 69: 3061-3070 .

Greenland cod populations near Wemindji, eastern James Bay, were studied in 1987 and 1988 to describe the species' general ecology and life-history characteristics. During the summer, they principally occupied shallow (2–5 m) coastal waters. This habitat was characterized by a belt of eelgrass (Zostera marina) at depths of 1–3 m, salinities between 20 and 23 ‰, and temperatures of 3–20 °C. Daily trap catches were highly variable, and more fish were caught at night than during the day. In winter, more cod were found inshore, in the estuary, than in coastal waters. This movement corresponds to the completion of sexual maturity; spawning occurs in April to June. Growth rate was linear for males and females. The age at maturity was 3 years and no trade-off was observed between growth and reproduction. Greenland cod spawned every year, and the maximum age was 9 years. Life-history variables for Greenland cod differ from those of most arctic benthic fishes; this species shows rapid growth, high fecundity, low age at maturity, and high mortality. These characteristics may represent important adaptations allowing cod to sustain life in James Bay coastal waters, where environmental conditions are different from those in arctic waters.©1991 National Research Council Canada