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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Lena N. MEASURES

SÉGUIN, G., F. BOUCHARD, L.N. MEASURES, C.F. UHLAND, S. LAIR, 2011. Infections with Philometra sp. Associated with mortalities in wild-hatched captive-raised striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis., 34(6): 475-481 .

The striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), once represented an important resource for fisheries in the St Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). A restoration programme, involving captive propagation, was implemented with the objective of restocking the population, which had disappeared in the late 1960s. An unusually high rate of mortality was observed during the winter of 2006 in captive-raised fingerlings that were originally collected from the Miramichi River (New Brunswick, Canada) the previous summer. Post-mortem examinations revealed extensive granulomatous and hyperplastic peritonitis associated with numerous nematodes of the genus Philometra. Given the severity of the lesions, high intensity of infection by Philometra sp. Was presumed to be the primary factor in the unusual mortalities reported that winter. Observations suggest that this nematode, which was acquired in the wild, cannot establish itself in a captive environment, most likely because of the absence of the obligate intermediate host. Examination of archived specimens of striped bass showed that this parasite was probably present in the St Lawrence River population prior to its extirpation. Consequently, the introduction of infected fish into this ecosystem should not be a concern. Nevertheless, infectionrelated mortalities of fingerlings might affect dynamics of wild striped bass populations.

FROUIN, E., L. MENARD, L. MEASURES, P. BROUSSEAU, M. FOURNIER, 2010. T lymphocyte-proliferative responses of a Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) exposed to heavy metals and PCBs in Vitro. Aquat. Mamm.,36(4): 365-371 .

This study investigated in vitro the effects of methylmercury chloride (CH3 HgCl), zinc chlo-ride (ZnCl2), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), lead acetate (Pb(C2H3O2)2), and PCBs (Aroclor mix-tures) on the proliferation of T lymphocytes from the thymus, lymph node, and blood from one female grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) juvenile. After exposure to heavy metals, a dose-response curve was observed with a decrease in prolifera-tion of both T lymphocytes from blood and the lymph node. Exposure to Aroclor mixtures led to a mostly reduced proliferation of thymocytes and T lymphocytes from the lymph node and blood. Lymph node cells seem less sensitive to heavy metals than peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymph node lymphocytes are more sensitive to PCBs than peripheral blood lymphocytes but less than thymocytes. These results suggest that the sensitivity of T lymphocytes from one grey seal to contaminants may be due to inherent tissue/matrix differences in the sensitivity of these cells to con-taminants; however, an individual response cannot be excluded in the present case. That is, samples from a single individual are not extrapolated to the species as a whole in this paper but discussed rela-tive to exposure response by tissues.©2010 Aquatic mammals.

APPELBEE, A.J., R.C.A. THOMPSON, L.M. MEASURES, M.E. OLSON, 2010. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Harp and Hooded Seals from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Vet. Parasitol., 173(1-2): 19-23 .

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are protozoan parasites known to cause enteric disease in terrestrial wildlife species (mammals, reptiles and birds). Few surveys for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine wildlife species, such as pinnipeds, have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotype of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in two species of pinnipeds, Harp Seal (Phoca groenlandica) and Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata), from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Faecal samples were collected from pup and adult seals and examined for the presence of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium using microscopy and immunofluorescent staining. Tissues from the small intestine of adult seals were also collected and examined for infections using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Giardia cysts were found in the faeces of 42 %(16/38) of adult Harp Seals, but in none of the harp seal pups (0/20). Although Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of adult hooded seals (0/10) using microscopy, 80 % tested positive for Giardia using PCR of intestinal tissue indicative of a true replicating infection. Both harp and hooded seals harboured infections with the zoonotic strain, Giardiaduodenalis Assemblage A, as determined using a nested-PCR technique to amplify a small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rRNA) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium was not detected by microscopy, nor using the PCR technique on intestinal tissues from any of the 68 seals examined.©2010 Elsevier B.V.

PICHÉ, C., L. MEASURES, C. BÉDARD, S. LAIR, 2010. Bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary histopathology in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) experimentally infected with otostrongylus circumlitus. J. Wildl. Dis., 46(2): 409-421 .

The objective of this study was to characterize pathologic changes associated with experimental infection of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) with the lungworm Otostrongylus circumlitus (Metastrongyloidea: Crenosomatidae). The leukocyte differential cell count in samples obtained by unguided bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the intensity of the histologic lesions in the lungs were assessed in seven harp seals experimentally exposed to 300 infective, third-stage O. Circumlitus larvae. Seven unexposed harp seals were used as controls. First-stage larvae were observed in the feces of three of the seven exposed seals at 38, 42, and 45 days postexposure (dpe). Adult nematodes were found in the right primary bronchi of two of these three seals at necropsy 53 dpe. Fifty-six BALs were performed on the 14 seals. No statistical difference was observed between the exposed and control seals and among the four sampling times in percentage of neutrophils and macrophages in the BAL fluid. A significant difference was observed between the exposed and control seal groups in the percentage of eosinophils (P<0.0001), the count of eosinophils having increased by a factor of 70.4 in exposed seals. Significant statistical differences were observed between exposed and control seals in intensity of interstitial inflammation (P=0.001), bronchitis (P=0.02), bronchiolitis (P=0.04), alveolitis (P=0.03), and interstitial granulomatous inflammation (P=0.04). Our findings showed that harp seals are susceptible to infection with O. circumlitus. However, parasitic infections were transient and of low intensity, at least under our experimental conditions.©2010 Wildlife Disease Association

MEASURES, L., 2008. Les causes de mortalité du béluga du Saint-Laurent. Naturaliste can., 132(2): 75-79 .

[Abstract only available in French]
La population de bélugas de l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent (ESL) est estimée à quelque 1 100 individus, ce qui représente, au mieux, moins de 15  % de ce qu'elle pouvait être à la fin du XIX· siècle. La cause principale de ce déclin est attribuable à la chasse, laquelle n'a pris fin qu'en 1979. Les dénombrements réguliers et étalonnés des 20 dernières années n'indiquent toutefois aucun accroissement significatif des effectifs malgré la cessation de la récolte. Entre 1983 et 2005, 337 carcasses de béluga ont été trouvées. Les maladies infectieuses (38  % ) combinées aux cancers (15  % ) représentent plus de 50  % des cas de mortalité déterminés. L'âge moyen des bélugas trouvés morts dans l'ESL est de 34 ans même si ceux-ci peuvent vivre plus de 80 ans. En outre, les bélugas étudiés avaient accumulé une charge importante de contaminants chimiques dans leurs tissus. Cependant, on n'a pas démontré une relation de cause a effet entre les contaminants chimiques et les cancers et autres maladies dont les bélugas sont victimes. Plusieurs hypothèses sont proposées pour expliquer les difficultés qu'éprouve cette population au statut menacé pour se rétablir. La population de bélugas de l'ESL est unique en ce que les maladies y jouent un rôle important.©2008 La Société Provancher d'histoire naturelle du Canada

MARIGO, J., A.C.P. VICENTE, A.L.S. VALENTE, L. MEASURES, C.P. SANTOS, 2008. Redescription of Synthesium pontoporiae n. comb. With notes on S. tursionis and S. seymouri n. comb. (Digenea: Brachycladiidae Odhner, 1905). J. Parasitol., 94(2): 505-514 .

Synthesium pontoporiae n. comb. Is redescribed, together with Synthesium tursionis and Synthesium seymouri n. comb.; the parasites were obtained from stranded and accidentally caught cetaceans. The sucker ratio (ratio between widths of the oral and ventral suckers) in S. pontoporiae was 1:1.8–3.0 (mean 1:2.2); in S. tursionis was 1:0.8–1.2; and in S. seymouri was 1:0.5–0.7. Synthesium pontoporiae differed from its congeners by additional diagnostic characters, including: oval to lobed testes; small cirrus with pyriform proximal region and flexible, tubular distal region formed by evagination of ejaculatory duct; and vitellarium in small follicles extending from the level of the seminal vesicle to the posterior extremity of the body and not forming dendritic radial bunches. Data on the morphology of adult S. pontoporiae and S. tursionis were inferred from confocal laser microscopical observations.©2008 American Society of Parasitologists

HAMMILL, M.O., L.N. MEASURES, J.-F. GOSSELIN, V. LESAGE, 2007. Lack of recovery in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga ; Absence de rétablissement du béluga de l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2007/026, 19 p .

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Estimates of pristine population size and changes in abundance of St. Lawrence Estuary beluga were examined over the period 1866-2006. Overhunting led to a decline in abundance from pristine estimates of 7,800 (SE=600) in 1866, to approximately 1,000 animals in 1985. In spite of almost 30 years of protection from hunting, the St. Lawrence Estuary beluga shows no signs of recovery with a current population of approximately 1,100 (SE=300, 95 % CI=500-1,800, rounded to the nearest 100) animals. A carcass monitoring and necropsy program detects on average 15 carcasses per year, which likely represents a fraction of the total number of deaths in this population. The age structure of adult animal carcasses suggests that adult mortality rates (6.5 %/yr) are similar to what would be expected in a hunted Arctic beluga population (7.0 %/yr) (Burns and Seaman 1985). Estimates of reproductive rates are uncertain, and juvenile animals are underrepresented in the stranding record. Among all animals regardless of age class where cause of death could be determined, parasitic and bacterial infections accounted for 38 % of mortality, followed by cancer (15 %), problems during birth (7 %), and trauma (5 %), while various other factors accounted for 7 %. A paucity of diet information limits attempts to model trophic interactions and habitat requirements. Emigration does not appear to be an important factor, but the loss of only 1-2 animals per year has longer term cumulative impacts that are not beneficial to a small population

MEASURES, L., 2007. Compte rendu de l'atelier sur le béluga de l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent : revue du programme des carcasses, 14 au 17 novembre 2005, Mont-Joli ; Proceedings of the workshop on the St. Lawrence estuary beluga : review of carcass program, November 14-17, 2005, Mont-Joli. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series, 2007/005, 88 p .

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The beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) is a medium-sized toothed whale found in Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. Of seven populations of beluga in Canada the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) beluga is the southernmost population. The SLE beluga lives in an estuarine habitat that is part of an international waterway, the St. Lawrence Seaway, with daily marine traffic and input of various contaminants including industrial effluents, chemical and biological waste from agricultural runoff, municipal and ship wastewater and ballastwater. This population has been protected from hunting since 1979. It currently numbers around 1,000 animals. The SLE beluga population was designated endangered in 1983 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and down-listed to threatened in 2004 and protected as such by the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Concerns have been raised about the role of chemical contaminants causing certain pathological changes that may be hindering recovery of this population. Over the last two decades various measures to improve habitat quality and further protect this population have been undertaken by governmental and non-governmental organisations. However, the SLE beluga population has failed to show significant signs of recovery. The reasons for this are still not understood. Belugas are long-lived, high trophic level predators and are exposed to a variety of anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The SLE beluga is highly visible, charismatic and emblematic in Quebec, Canada and the world. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) has the legal responsibility to conserve and protect this population and promote recovery through the development and implementation of a species recovery strategy and action plan as stipulated in by SARA. Since 1982 a program to monitor mortalities of the SLE beluga population with necropsy and sampling of beach-cast carcasses has been supported by DFO, Parks Canada and others [Institut National d’Écotoxicologie du Saint-Laurent (INESL), Les Industries Filmar, Université de Montréal, Faculté de medicine vétérinaire (FMV), World Wildlife Fund (WWF)]. The objective of this beluga carcass program was to determine the cause of death of beach-cast animals using adapted standard veterinary pathological and diagnostic methods. Results in publications were often used as a scientific basis for implementation of conservation measures and in decisions made by resource and habitat managers including creation of the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park and the proposed St. Lawrence Estuary Marine Protected Area, both of which, in part, are designed to protect the SLE beluga and its habitat. The SLE carcass program consists of three components: monitoring, sampling and necropsy (post-mortem examination). After 22 complete years (1983 - 2004) of this program, DFO and Parks Canada considered it worthwhile to conduct a critical evaluation of this program by organising a workshop with various scientists or managers involved with the program and or using its results in conservation from DFO and Parks Canada. External experts were asked to provide critical evaluations of the program. The workshop had four themes, namely, Cause of mortality and diseases; Contaminants and toxic effects; Biology and demography; Conservation. Participants were also asked to provide an evaluation of the consequences for the carcass program of four options (elimination, reduction, maintenance of status quo or modification) with respect to their particular field of research or interest. The SLE beluga has become a worldwide symbol of environmental awareness and protection. Knowledge gained from the carcass program has contributed to conservation efforts to preserve and protect this population of beluga. Monitoring has documented mortalities. Sampling has documented exposure to certain toxic contaminants. Necropsies and sampling have documented lesions, anomalies such as cancer, opportunistic infections, and biomarkers such as DNA adducts suggesting toxic effects, possible endocrine disruption and immunosuppression due to contaminants which may, at the population level, be affecting growth, survival, recruitment, reproduction and increase mortality rate. In this respect the carcass program has been valuable in identifying potential threats to recovery of the population. The etiology or cause of certain lesions and the role of toxic contaminants, pathogens or both are still unknown. Limitations of the carcass program include: the small number of carcasses found with unknown biases such as under-representation of juveniles in the stranding data base; problems aging animals, particularly old individuals; advanced decomposition of some carcasses and other factors which result in a significant percentage of carcasses with unknown cause of death; few tissue samples of sufficient quality to test hypotheses on the role of pathogens or contaminant levels and toxic effects or to detect annual trends; poor data base management; and no integration of contaminant data with pathologic or biomarker data in order to demonstrate any causal link between certain lesions and the presence of certain toxic contaminants. Integration of these data including data from other research (i.e. aerial surveys, diet studies, etc.) would greatly increase the power of analyses and help to understand why this population is not recovering. Confounding problems include the longevity of beluga and the decline of some toxic contaminants and the discovery of new toxic contaminants in the marine environment and beluga tissues. Four key recommendations concerning the carcass program resulted from workshop discussions and are as follows: Recommendation 1: The SLE carcass program, a world-recognized case study, should continue in order to monitor the state and recovery (detect improvement or deterioration) of this population. The carcass program provides valuable information on strandings (monitoring component); pathologies, cause of death (necropsy component), and provides tissue samples for further assessment such as age at death, pathogens, genotyping, contaminants, physiological and reproductive states and diet (sampling component). With long-lived animals data must be collected over a long time period in order to detect changes in contaminant loads and toxic effects and to evaluate responses to management efforts to help this population recover. What is needed now is that the necropsy data base be updated, validated, better organized, and accessible to certain researchers. With this large time series of data, integration of existing data linking information from various aspects of SLE beluga research including monitoring, necropsy, sampling, contaminant analyses, genetic data, aerial surveys, photographic identification, tagging, etc. should begin. Hypotheses could be proposed and tested using existing data, and this will provide a valuable resource platform on which to design special projects financed with special funding. Recommendation 2: A consortium should be created and all available information integrated. A consortium of participating researchers studying the SLE beluga, with DFO as the lead agency, would be an efficient way to manage and share information, enhance collaborations, identify research needs and facilitate financing of special projects. Objectives of the consortium should include: 1) establish and document protocols for all components of the carcass program; 2) improve data sharing and promote research collaborations on the SLE beluga; 3) advise on research direction, priorities and mitigation measures to protect the population and facilitate recovery; 4) inventory, maintain, manage and co-ordinate use of archived tissue banks and data bases; 5) explore potential sources of funding to conduct special research projects; 6) assist in developing a contingency plan to detect and respond in a timely manner to an unusual stranding event, mortality event or immediate threat to the population; 7) maintain an inventory of all publications related to the program and communicate results to other scientists, managers and the public. Funding to help organize and co-ordinate activities of the consortium would be required. Recommendation 3: The core components of the SLE beluga carcass program (monitoring, necropsy, sampling) should continue with adequate funding since it constitutes the foundation upon which essential data required in managing, recovering and conserving this population are based. However, this "core" program is not adequately financed at present. Intrinsic funding (from DFO and Parks Canada) has thus far proved insufficient. Almost all parts of the "core" program have been partially financed by extrinsic funding (funds from outside of the carcass program, volunteers, etc) and are unpredictable with no long term financial commitment. Recommendation 4: There should be special research projects funded by special funds from outside the "core" program, i.e. NSERC, FCAR, non-governmental funds. Special projects financed by special extrinsic funds will benefit from and enhance the "core" program, and will answer specific questions posed by results from the "core" program as well as serve specific management needs. The "core" program has collected sufficient data thus far to generate a number of testable hypotheses that can be examined as special projects which may or may not be supported by DFO (depending on the mandate and priorities). Some examples of special projects were suggested. Successful conservation of the St. Lawrence ecosystem and recovery of its endemic and emblematic beluga population depends on sound scientific data. Current evidence shows that the beluga population is not declining, but at the same time it does not appear to be increasing. Given that this population is protected from hunting there is a need to identify and quantify factors that may be limiting recovery - valuable data obtained from the carcass program can help identify these factors but these data must be integrated with data from other research on this population and close collaboration of all interested researchers and managers be facilitated and developed further. The successful protection and recovery of the SLE beluga population falls under one of DFO’s key strategic outcomes - healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems - for all Canadians.

LEBEUF, M., M. NOËL, S. TROTTIER, L. MEASURES, 2007. Temporal trends (1987–2002) of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Sci. Total Environ., 383(1-3): 216-231 .

Temporal trends of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals were examined in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Canada. Blubber samples of 86 adult belugas were collected from animals stranded on the shore of the SLE between 1987 and 2002 and analyzed for several regulated PBTs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p''dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordane (CHL) and related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Mirex. In addition, time trends of tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), two compounds that may origin from DDT formulations, were also examined. Concentrations of most of the PBTs examined had exponentially decreased by at least a factor of two (half-life time (t1/2)<15 years) in beluga between 1987 and 2002 while no increasing trends were observed for any of the PBTs measured. The decreasing trends of PBT concentrations in SLE beluga may be due to a decline in contamination of its diet following North American and international regulations on the use and production of these compounds or by a change in its diet itself or by a combination of both. Some PBTs did not exhibit any significant trends in beluga possibly because the most intense elimination phase subsequent to legislative regulations occurred prior to the 1987-2002 time period. Other chemicals, such γ-HCH, did not significantly decrease likely because they are still currently used in some restricted applications. Conversely, α-HCH showed a significant decreasing trend indicating that ∑HCHs is not representative of all HCHs. Both TCPMe and TCPMOH exhibited no trends in beluga during the time period examined. The metabolic capacity of SLE beluga has apparently accelerated the depletion of at least one PBT, namely CB-28/31. A significant relationship between the half-life of PBTs in beluga and log Kow was observed for most of the chemicals examined. Several factors are expected to have influenced the temporal changes of PBT concentrations in beluga which limit the usefulness of this species as a bioindicator of changes in PBT contamination in the SLE ecosystem. ©2007 Elsevier B.V.

MEASURES, L., 2007. Proceedings of the Workshop on the St. Lawrence Estuary Beluga : review of carcass program, November 14-17, 2005, Mont-Joli ; Compte rendu de l'atelier sur le béluga de l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent : revue du programme des carcasses, 14 au 17 novembre 2005, Mont-Joli. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des compte rendus, 2007/005, 88 p .

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The beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) is a medium-sized toothed whale found in Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. Of seven populations of beluga in Canada the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) beluga is the southernmost population. The SLE beluga lives in an estuarine habitat that is part of an international waterway, the St. Lawrence Seaway, with daily marine traffic and input of various contaminants including industrial effluents, chemical and biological waste from agricultural runoff, municipal and ship wastewater and ballastwater. This population has been protected from hunting since 1979. It currently numbers around 1,000 animals. The SLE beluga population was designated endangered in 1983 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and down-listed to threatened in 2004 and protected as such by the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Concerns have been raised about the role of chemical contaminants causing certain pathological changes that may be hindering recovery of this population. Over the last two decades various measures to improve habitat quality and further protect this population have been undertaken by governmental and non-governmental organisations. However, the SLE beluga population has failed to show significant signs of recovery. The reasons for this are still not understood. Belugas are long-lived, high trophic level predators and are exposed to a variety of anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The SLE beluga is highly visible, charismatic and emblematic in Quebec, Canada and the world. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) has the legal responsibility to conserve and protect this population and promote recovery through the development and implementation of a species recovery strategy and action plan as stipulated in by SARA. Since 1982 a program to monitor mortalities of the SLE beluga population with necropsy and sampling of beach-cast carcasses has been supported by DFO, Parks Canada and others [Institut National d’Écotoxicologie du Saint-Laurent (INESL), Les Industries Filmar, Université de Montréal, Faculté de medicine vétérinaire (FMV), World Wildlife Fund (WWF)]. The objective of this beluga carcass program was to determine the cause of death of beach-cast animals using adapted standard veterinary pathological and diagnostic methods. Results in publications were often used as a scientific basis for implementation of conservation measures and in decisions made by resource and habitat managers including creation of the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park and the proposed St. Lawrence Estuary Marine Protected Area, both of which, in part, are designed to protect the SLE beluga and its habitat. The SLE carcass program consists of three components: monitoring, sampling and necropsy (post-mortem examination). After 22 complete years (1983 - 2004) of this program, DFO and Parks Canada considered it worthwhile to conduct a critical evaluation of this program by organising a workshop with various scientists or managers involved with the program and or using its results in conservation from DFO and Parks Canada. External experts were asked to provide critical evaluations of the program. The workshop had four themes, namely, Cause of mortality and diseases; Contaminants and toxic effects; Biology and demography; Conservation. Participants were also asked to provide an evaluation of the consequences for the carcass program of four options (elimination, reduction, maintenance of status quo or modification) with respect to their particular field of research or interest. The SLE beluga has become a worldwide symbol of environmental awareness and protection. Knowledge gained from the carcass program has contributed to conservation efforts to preserve and protect this population of beluga. Monitoring has documented mortalities. Sampling has documented exposure to certain toxic contaminants. Necropsies and sampling have documented lesions, anomalies such as cancer, opportunistic infections, and biomarkers such as DNA adducts suggesting toxic effects, possible endocrine disruption and immunosuppression due to contaminants which may, at the population level, be affecting growth, survival, recruitment, reproduction and increase mortality rate. In this respect the carcass program has been valuable in identifying potential threats to recovery of the population. The etiology or cause of certain lesions and the role of toxic contaminants, pathogens or both are still unknown. Limitations of the carcass program include: the small number of carcasses found with unknown biases such as under-representation of juveniles in the stranding data base; problems aging animals, particularly old individuals; advanced decomposition of some carcasses and other factors which result in a significant percentage of carcasses with unknown cause of death; few tissue samples of sufficient quality to test hypotheses on the role of pathogens or contaminant levels and toxic effects or to detect annual trends; poor data base management; and no integration of contaminant data with pathologic or biomarker data in order to demonstrate any causal link between certain lesions and the presence of certain toxic contaminants. Integration of these data including data from other research (i.e. aerial surveys, diet studies, etc.) would greatly increase the power of analyses and help to understand why this population is not recovering. Confounding problems include the longevity of beluga and the decline of some toxic contaminants and the discovery of new toxic contaminants in the marine environment and beluga tissues. Four key recommendations concerning the carcass program resulted from workshop discussions and are as follows: Recommendation 1: The SLE carcass program, a world-recognized case study, should continue in order to monitor the state and recovery (detect improvement or deterioration) of this population. The carcass program provides valuable information on strandings (monitoring component); pathologies, cause of death (necropsy component), and provides tissue samples for further assessment such as age at death, pathogens, genotyping, contaminants, physiological and reproductive states and diet (sampling component). With long-lived animals data must be collected over a long time period in order to detect changes in contaminant loads and toxic effects and to evaluate responses to management efforts to help this population recover. What is needed now is that the necropsy data base be updated, validated, better organized, and accessible to certain researchers. With this large time series of data, integration of existing data linking information from various aspects of SLE beluga research including monitoring, necropsy, sampling, contaminant analyses, genetic data, aerial surveys, photographic identification, tagging, etc. should begin. Hypotheses could be proposed and tested using existing data, and this will provide a valuable resource platform on which to design special projects financed with special funding. Recommendation 2: A consortium should be created and all available information integrated. A consortium of participating researchers studying the SLE beluga, with DFO as the lead agency, would be an efficient way to manage and share information, enhance collaborations, identify research needs and facilitate financing of special projects. Objectives of the consortium should include: 1) establish and document protocols for all components of the carcass program; 2) improve data sharing and promote research collaborations on the SLE beluga; 3) advise on research direction, priorities and mitigation measures to protect the population and facilitate recovery; 4) inventory, maintain, manage and co-ordinate use of archived tissue banks and data bases; 5) explore potential sources of funding to conduct special research projects; 6) assist in developing a contingency plan to detect and respond in a timely manner to an unusual stranding event, mortality event or immediate threat to the population; 7) maintain an inventory of all publications related to the program and communicate results to other scientists, managers and the public. Funding to help organize and co-ordinate activities of the consortium would be required. Recommendation 3: The core components of the SLE beluga carcass program (monitoring, necropsy, sampling) should continue with adequate funding since it constitutes the foundation upon which essential data required in managing, recovering and conserving this population are based. However, this "core" program is not adequately financed at present. Intrinsic funding (from DFO and Parks Canada) has thus far proved insufficient. Almost all parts of the "core" program have been partially financed by extrinsic funding (funds from outside of the carcass program, volunteers, etc) and are unpredictable with no long term financial commitment. Recommendation 4: There should be special research projects funded by special funds from outside the "core" program, i.e. NSERC, FCAR, non-governmental funds. Special projects financed by special extrinsic funds will benefit from and enhance the "core" program, and will answer specific questions posed by results from the "core" program as well as serve specific management needs. The "core" program has collected sufficient data thus far to generate a number of testable hypotheses that can be examined as special projects which may or may not be supported by DFO (depending on the mandate and priorities). Some examples of special projects were suggested. Successful conservation of the St. Lawrence ecosystem and recovery of its endemic and emblematic beluga population depends on sound scientific data. Current evidence shows that the beluga population is not declining, but at the same time it does not appear to be increasing. Given that this population is protected from hunting there is a need to identify and quantify factors that may be limiting recovery - valuable data obtained from the carcass program can help identify these factors but these data must be integrated with data from other research on this population and close collaboration of all interested researchers and managers be facilitated and developed further. The successful protection and recovery of the SLE beluga population falls under one of DFO’s key strategic outcomes - healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems - for all Canadians.

PANG, D.S.J., Y. RONDENAY, L. MEASURES, S. LAIR, 2006. The effects of two dosages of midazolam on short-duration anesthesia in the harp seal (Phoca groenlandica). J. Zoo Wildl. Med., 37(1): 27-32 .

The purpose of this study was to provide safe anesthesia for bronchoalveolar lavage and assess the utility of premedication with i.m. midazolam for short-duration anesthesia with isoflurane in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Fourteen yearling harp seal pups were anesthetized three times each as part of a prospective, cross-over, blinded study. Each animal received i.m. premedication with saline, low-dose, or high-dose midazolam (respectively 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ kg). Following premedication, anesthesia was induced with 4 % isoflurane in oxygen delivered through a mask and connected to a Bain non-rebreathing system. A significantly longer time was taken from the end of general anesthesia to head movement in the high-dose group compared with the saline group (P = 0.002). A significantly longer time was taken from the end of general anesthesia to ambulation in the high-dose group compared with the saline group (P = 0.006). There were no significant differences between groups in the subjective assessment of anesthetic quality or ease of intubation. Premedication with i.m. midazolam at the dosages used did prolong recovery from anesthesia, although to a degree unlikely to be significant clinically.©2006 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

PANG, D.S.J., Y. RONDENAY, E. TRONCY, L.N. MEASURES, S. LAIR, 2006. Use of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide to predict arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide in harp seals during isoflurane-induced anesthesia. Am. J. Vet. Res., 67(7): 1131-1135 .

BOILY, F., S. BEAUDOIN, L.N. MEASURES, 2006. Hematology and serum chemistry of harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) during the breeding season, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. J. Wildl. Dis., 42(1): 115-132 .

Standard hematologic and serum chemistry parameters were determined from 28 harp seals (>i>Phoca groenlandica) and 20 hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) sampled from 6 March 2001 to 13 March 2001 during the breeding season. Whole blood was collected immediately postmortem from harp seal mother–pup pairs and from six hooded seal pups, and from live-captured adult hooded seals and three hooded seal pups; blood was analyzed within 24 hr at a local human hospital. A certified veterinary laboratory validated subsamples of whole blood and analyzed all serum chemistry parameters. Significant interlaboratory differences in mean values of packed cell volume (PCV) and mean cell volume (MCV) were found. Significant differences were found between samples from the five seal groups (adult male hooded seals, lactating female hooded seals, unweaned hooded seal pups; lactating female harp seals, and unweaned harp seal pups) for hematology and most serum chemistry parameters. In general, age-class influenced mean values of PCV, hemoglobin (HB), red blood cell (RBC) counts, MCV, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts per 100 leucocytes, but most age-related variations were species specific. Harp seal pups had significantly lower mean values of HB, PCV, MCH, and MCHC than did other seal groups, and significantly lower mean RBC counts than did hooded seal pups. Mean NRBC counts per 100 leukocytes were more than three times higher in harp seal pups than in hooded seal pups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Mean MCV were significantly lower in harp and hooded seal pups compared to those of adult harp and hooded seals. Differences in hemograms between pup species were likely because of the precocious development of hooded seal pups, which are weaned within 4 days, compared to 12 days for harp seal pups. Among adult seal groups, male hooded seals had significantly higher mean values of PCV and HB than did female harp and hooded seals, and significantly higher mean RBC counts than did adult female hooded seals. Among adult females, mean values of MCH and MCHC were statistically higher in hooded seals than in harp seals. Adult female harp and hooded seals did not differ significantly in other RBC parameters and mean leukocyte counts. Mean values of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin showed species-specific variations between adults and pups. Except for ALP, few significant differences in mean enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT, creatine kinase and -glutamyltransferase were found between seal groups. Mean concentrations of electrolytes (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, and total carbon dioxide) varied with age class, but variations in potassium and magnesium were species specific. Harp seal pups had significantly higher mean phosphorus and potassium levels compared to other seal groups.© 2006 Wildlife Disease Association

LEBEUF, M., M. NOËL, S. TROTTIER, L. MEASURES, 2005. Temporal trends (1987 - 2002) of regulated POPs in beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Organohalogen compounds, 67: 1233-1235 .

LEBEUF, M., B. GOUTEUX, L. MEASURES, S. TROTTIER, 2004. Levels and temporal trends (1988-1999) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence estuary, Canada. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38: 2971-2977 .

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in blubber samples of 54 stranded adult beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) collected between 1988 and 1999 in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Quebec, Canada. Summed concentrations of 10 PBDE congeners (£PBDEs) measured in beluga samples varied between 20 and almost 1000 ng/g wet weight. According to the PBDE concentrations in marine mammals reported in the scientific literature, SLE belugas appear to be relatively lightly contaminated. Only a few predominant congeners (namely, PBDE-47, -99, and -100) represent on average more than 75 % of £PBDEs in SLE belugas. The accumulation of £PBDEs in both male and female belugas showed significant exponential increase throughout the 1988-1999 time period. The time necessary for beluga to double their blubber concentration of the most prevalent PBDE congeners was no longer than 3 years. The PBDE temporal changes reported in this study are generally faster but in agreement with the trend observed in other organisms collected in Canada, such as lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes, ringed seal (Phoca hispida), and beluga whale from the Canadian Arctic. Some changes in the pattern of PBDEs in belugas were also observed during the time period investigated. The recent and important increase of PBDE levels in SLE belugas could explain the unexpected lack of statistical difference in PBDE contamination between males and females. This suggests that to date PBDEs tend to be accumulated by both male and female belugas, masking the elimination of PBDEs by females through post-natal transfer to their offspring. This study confirms that the growing use of PBDEs as flame retardants has resulted in rising contamination of Canadian aquatic environments. Additional studies are needed to assess the toxicological implications of the PBDE tissue levels found in SLE belugas.©2004 American Chemical Society

MEASURES, L.N., 2004. Marine mammals and "wildlife rehabilitation" programs ; Mammifères marins et programmes de « réhabilitation de la faune ». DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2004/122, 39 p .

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Wildlife rehabilitation involves the rescue or capture, care and treatment of abandoned, orphaned, injured or sick wild animals with the ultimate goal of returning the animal to the wild if it is healthy, able to survive and does not pose a risk to wild populations, domestic animals or public safety. Rehabilitation of marine mammals is controversial and there is no national policy or regulation by Fisheries and Oceans Canada despite some interest and support of rehabilitation in different regions of Canada. This document reviews legislation to protect wildlife and marine mammals in Canada. There is a brief comparative overview of marine mammal legislation and protection in the United States as well as international agreements pertaining to translocation (=rehabilitation) of wildlife and disease control. A short historical review of rehabilitation of marine mammals is provided with a discussion of the pros and cons. While animal welfare is usually the predominant reason to rehabilitate wildlife there are benefits in terms of new knowledge of their diseases and ailments and veterinary therapies, identification of new threats to wild populations including species at risk and opportunities for public education in conservation. On the other hand, released rehabilitated wildlife make no significant contribution to wild populations and released animals may be disease carriers threatening wild populations especially species at risk. Introduction of novel or exotic pathogens, development of antibiotic resistance, interference in natural selection by changing gene frequencies or perpetuation of deleterious genes or creation of highly virulent pathogens are significant risks to wild populations from wildlife rehabilitation programs. Costs of rehabilitation and regulation are problems for government agencies and non-governmental groups to consider. Should marine mammal rehabilitation be permitted in Canada, recommendations with suggested regulations to reduce risks to wild populations are provided.

MEASURES, L.N., J.P. DUBEY, P. LABELLE, D. MARTINEAU, 2004. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian pinnipeds. J. Wildl. Dis., 40(2): 294-300 .

Sera (n=328) collected from phocids (1995-97) from the east coast of Canada, including harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and tested by a modified agglutination test for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Titers equal to or greater than 1:25 were considered evidence of exposure. Grey seal (11/122, 9 %), harbor seal (3/34, 9 %), and hooded seal (1/60, 2 %) had titers of 1:25 and 1:50. Harp seals (n=112) were seronegative. Probable maternal antibody transfer was observed in one harbor and one grey seal pup at 10 and 14 day of age, respectively. Transmission of T. gondii in the marine environment is not understood. The discovery of T. gondii in marine mammals might indicate natural infections unknown because of lack of study or might indicate recent contamination of the marine environment from the terrestrial environment by natural or anthropogenic activities.©2004 Wildlife Disease Association

GAJADHAR, A.A., L. MEASURES, L.B. FORBES, C. KAPEL, J.P. DUBEY, 2004. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). J. Parasitol., 90(2): 255-259 .

Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals Halichoerus grypus to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination of seal tissues, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from inoculated seals revealed a single tissue cyst in only 1 seal. Control mice inoculated with 10 oocysts from the same inoculum given to seals became serologically and histologically positive for T. gondii. Cats that were fed brain or muscle tissue collected from inoculated seals passed T. gondii oocysts in feces. This study demonstrates that T. gondii oocysts can establish viable infection in seals and supports the hypothesis that toxoplasmosis in marine mammals can be acquired from oocysts in surface water runoff and sewer discharge.©2004 American Society of Parasitologists

MEASURES, L.N., B. ROBERGE, R. SEARS, 2004. Stranding of a pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps, in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Can. Field-Nat., 118(4): 495-498 .

A pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps, stranded alive and later died in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada on 28 August 2001. This is the northern-most stranding of this species in the western Atlantic. The whale was estimated to be approximately 3 m long and a longitudinal section from one tooth (31 mm long and 5.0 mm in diameter) revealed 3.5 growth layer groups

KAPEL, C.M.O., L. MEASURES, L.N. MOLLER, L. FORBES, A. GAJADHAR, 2003. Experimental Trichinella infection in seals. Int. J. Parasitol., 33: 1463-1470 .

HOUDE, M., L.N. MEASURES, J. HUOT, 2003. Lungworm (Pharurus pallasii : Metastrongyloidea: Pseudaliidae) infection in the endangered St. Lawrence beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas). Can. J. Zool., 81: 543-551 .

Eighty-eight percent of adult beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas (age ≥7 years; n = 32), and 72 % of juveniles (1 year ≥ age < 7 years; n = 11) were infected with the cranial sinus nematode Pharurus pallasii. No fetuses or young of the year (age ≤1 year; n = 9) were infected. The mean intensity of infection was 419 (range 2-2042) in adults and 179 (range 1-500) in juveniles. There was no difference in mean intensity of infection between the sexes or between juvenile and adult beluga. The absence of P. pallasii in young of the year suggests that transmission is not transplacental or transmammary and that infections are acquired as young beluga begin to feed on infected prey. Pharurus pallasii were 3 times more numerous in the peribullar sinuses than in the frontal sinuses, but were equally distributed laterally. Male and female P. pallasii in heavily infected sinuses were significantly longer than those in lightly infected sinuses. No intensity-dependent effect on fecundity of gravid females was observed. No macroscopic lesions were observed in association with P. pallasii in fresh or frozen carcasses. Low numbers of adult P. pallasii in the lungs suggest that the cranial sinuses are the preferred site of infection. No relationship was found between intensity of infection and body condition of beluga©2003 National Research Council Canada

COUTURE, C., L. MEASURES, J. GAGNON, C. DESBIENS, 2003. Human intestinal anisakiosis due to consumption of raw salmon. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 27: 1167-1172 .

HOUDE, M., L. MEASURES, J. HUOT, 2003. Experimental transmission of Pharurus pallasii (Nematoda : Metastrongyloidea), lungworm of the cranial sinuses of the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), to fish. Can. J. Zool., 81: 364-370 .

Transmission of lungworms (Metastrongyloidea: Pseudaliidae) in the marine environment has been poorly studied. This experimental study is the first conducted on a pseudaliid, Pharurus pallasii, a lungworm of the cranial sinuses of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). First-stage larvae removed from uteri of gravid female P. pallasii from a freshly dead beluga were experimentally exposed to various marine organisms (fish, crustaceans, molluscs). First-stage larvae failed to develop in experimentally exposed invertebrates. The first moult occurred in the intestinal wall of American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) and Arctic sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpioides) 45 and 78 days post exposure, respectively. The third larval stage, which is infectious to the final host, was not observed in fish during the 14 months of the experiment. No cellular inflammatory reaction to or encapsulation of larvae was observed in histological sections of the intestinal wall of American plaice 268 days post exposure. Survival and development of P. pallasii larvae to the second stage in fish suggest that fish are likely suitable intermediate hosts in the life cycle of P. pallasii. Invertebrates may still play a role as transport (paratenic) hosts. The morphology of the first and second larval stages of P. pallasii is described for the first time©2003 National Research Council Canada

GOLDSTEIN, T., F.M.D. GULLAND, B.M. ALDRIDGE, J.T. HARVEY, T. ROWLES, D.M. LAMBOURN, S.J. JEFFRIES, L. MEASURES, P.K. YOCHEM, B.S. STEWART, R.J. SMALL, D.P. KING, J.L. STOTT, J.A.K. MAZET, 2003. Antibodies to phocine herpesvirus-1 are commun in north North America harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). J. Wildl. Dis., 39: 487-494 .

LALANCETTE, A., Y MORIN, L. MEASURES, M. FOURNIER, 2003. Contrasting changes of sensitivity by lymphocytes and neutrophils to mercury in developing grey seals. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 27(8): 735-747 .

MEASURES, L.N., 2003. Otostrongylus circumlitus, a lungworm of phocids – life cycle, epizootiology, development and pathology. Page 125 in Proceedings of the European Society of Veterinary Pathologists (21) .

FORBES, L.B., L. MEASURES, A. GAJADHAR, C. KAPEL, 2003. Infectivity of Trichinella nativa in traditional northern (country) foods prepared with meat from experimentally infected seals. J. Food Protect., 66: 1857-1863 .

GOSSELIN, J.-F., L. MEASURES, 2002. La population de bélugas de l'estuaire. Saint-Laurent Vision 2000 (Suivi de l'état du Saint-Laurent, 15) 6 p. .

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PILLET, S., M. FOURNIER, L.N. MEASURES, J.-M. BOUQUEGNEAU, D.G. CYR, 2002. Presence and regulation of metallothioneins in peripheral blood leukocytes of grey seals. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 185(3): 207-217 .

MEASURES, L.N., M.E. OLSON, 2002. Giardiasis in Canadian phocid seals. Page 316 in B.E. Olson, M.E. Olson & P.M. Wallis (eds.). Giardia : the cosmopolitan parasite .

MEASURES, L.N., 2002. Pathogen pollution in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and estuary. Pages 165-168 in F. McLaughlin, C. Gobeil, D. Monahan & M. Chadwick (eds.). Proceedings of the First Annual National Science Workshop, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2403) .

MEASURES, L.N., 2002. Protozoans of marine mammals. Pages 49-57 in Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Parasitology - ICOPA X, Vancouver, August 2002 .

GOSSELIN, J.-F., L. MEASURES, 2002. Beluga whale population of the estuary. St. Lawrence Vision 2000 (Monitoring the state of the St. Laurence River, 15) 6 p. .

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NIELSEN, O., R.E.A. STEWART, K. NIELSEN, L. MEASURES, P. DUIGNAN, 2001. Serologic survey of Brucella spp. antibodies in some marine mammals of North America. J. Wildl. Dis., 37(1): 89-100 .

MEASURES, L.N., 2001. Dioctophymatosis. Pages 357-364 in W.M. Samuel, M.J. Pybus & A.A. Kocan (ed.). Parasitic diseases of wild mammals .

MEASURES, L.N., 2001. Lungworms of marine mammals. Pages 279-300 in W.M. Samuel, M.J. Pybus & A.A. Kocan (ed.). Parasitic diseases of wild mammals .

HAMMILL, M.O., V. LESAGE, Y. DUBÉ, L.N. MEASURES, 2001. Oil and gas exploration in the Southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence : a review of information on Pinnipeds and Cetaceans in the area. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2001/115, 40 p .

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Information on pinnipeds (seals) and cetaceans (whales) in the proposed region of oil and gas exploration in the southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence were summarized. Cabot Strait is an important migratory corridor for marine mammals moving in and out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Other major features of the area include seasonal ice cover which provides a platform for pinniped reproduction and limits access of marine mammals (primarily cetaceans) to the Gulf of St. Lawrence during winter months. The presence of large canyons in the Gulf, and particularly the Cape Breton Trough near Cheticamp are important foraging areas for cetaceans. Four pinniped species are common to the area: harp, hooded, grey and harbour seals. General knowledge on population abundance, whelping areas, distribution, and diet are available for these animals, but specific (local) at sea distribution, relative abundance and local diet information in the area are needed. Harbour seals form the basis of a seal-watching industry on the east coast of Prince Edward Island. At least 15 whale species may occur or pass through Cabot Strait. Six are abundant regular visitors. Fin, Minke, Humpback, and Pilot whales, White-sided dolphins, and Harbour porpoise are seen regularly, while low numbers of Right whales regularly transit the area. The area appears to be particularly important for Pilot Whales and this species forms the basis of whale-watching activities on western Cape Breton Island. Overall, a major knowledge gap is a lack of information on species present, abundance, seasonal occupation, seasonal movements and diet of whales in the southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Seismic activity could cause physical damage to hearing, result in distribution changes due to noise or changes in food distribution. Increases in strandings have been linked to increases in man-made noise production. Pilot whales, a species that often strands in the area, would appear to be particularly vulnerable.

HOUDE, M., J. HUOT, L.N. MEASURES, 2001. Infections of the lungworm, Pharurus pallasii (Metastrongyloidea), in the endangered St. Lawrence beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Page 18 in Proceedings of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine (32) .

MEASURES, L.N., J.P. DUBEY, 2001. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian phocids - an example of pathogen pollution?. Page 146 in Proceedings of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine (32) .

TETREAULT, F., J.H. HIMMELMAN, L. MEASURES, 2000. Impact of a castrating trematode, Neophasis sp., on the common whelk, Buccinum undatum, in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Biol. Bull., 198: 261-271 .

NIELSEN, O., R.E.A. STEWART, L. MEASURES, P. DUIGNAN, C. HOUSE, 2000. A morbillivirus antibody survey of Atlantic walrus, narwhal and beluga in Canada. J. Wildl. Dis., 36(3): 508-517 .

LEBEUF, M., K.E. BERNT, S. TROTTIER, M. NOËL, M.O. HAMMILL, L. MEASURES, 2000. Tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol in marine mammals from the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Environ. Pollut., 111(1): 29-43 .

FORBES, L.B., O. NIELSEN, L. MEASURES, D.R. EWALT, 2000. Brucellosis in ringed seals and harp seals from Canada. J. Wildl. Dis., 36(3): 595-598 .

MEASURES, L.N., 2000. Protozoan and helminth infections of marine mammals : recognized and emerging diseases?. Page 347 in Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine (31) .

LEBEUF M., K. BERNT, M. HAMMILL, L. MEASURES, 2000. Stratification of PCBs in the blubber of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence estuary. Organohalogen Compounds, 46: 487-490 .

MEASURES, L.N., M. OLSON, 1999. Giardiasis in Pinnipeds from Eastern Canada. J. Wildl. Dis., 35(4): 779-782 .

MEASURES, L.N., M. OLSON, 1999. Giardiasis in Canadian phocid seals. Page 160 in Proceedings of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine (30) .

MEASURES, L.N., 1999. Life cycle of Otostrongylus circumlitus (Metastrongyloidea : Crenosomatidae) of phocid seals.. Page 49 in Proceedings of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine (30) .

MIKAELIAN, I., M.-P. TREMBLAY, C. MONTPETIT, S.V. TESSARO, H.J. CHO, C. HOUSE, L. MEASURES, D. MARTINEAU, 1999. Seroprevalence of selected viral infections in a population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Canada. Vet. Rec., 144(2): 50-51 .

DURETTE-DESSET, M.C., R. CLAVEAU, L. MEASURES, R. ISABEL, 1999. Adultes de Nematodirus helvetianus (Trichostrongylina: Molineoidea) dans le diaphragme de Coyote, Canis latrans, du Bas St-Laurent et de Gaspésie, au Québec. Can. Field-Nat., 113: 279-281 .

HAYES, R., L.N. MEASURES, J. HUOT, 1998. Euphausiids as intermediate hosts of Anisakis simplex in the St. Lawrence estuary. Can. J. Zool., 76: 1226-1235 .

To determine abundance of larval Anisakis simplex in euphausiids of the St. Lawrence estuary, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa raschii were collected at seven sites from the mouth of the Saguenay River to Baie des Outardes. Larvae were removed from euphausiids by means of a modified Baermann apparatus filled with a pepsin-HCI digest solution. Abundances of larvae in euphausiids ranged from 0 to 58.2 x 10-5. Larvae (N=100) were in the third stage (bearing one cuticle) or moulting from the second stage to the third stage (bearing two cuticles). Euphausiids, particularly T. raschii, which represented 98 % of the total euphausiids sampled, are important intermediate hosts of A. simplex in the St. Lawrence estuary. These data indicate the importance of the St. Lawrence estuary as an enzootic for A. simplex and thus a valuable area to study the biology and the transmission of this parasite©1998 National Research Council Canada

GOSSELIN, J.-F., L.N. MEASURES, J. HUOT, 1998. Lungworm (Nematoda : Metastrongyloidea) infections in Canadian phocids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 55: 825-834 .

Otostrongylus circumlitus (Railliet, 1899) was found in 5 % (16/308) of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), 6 % (1/17; intensity=38) of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), and none of 100 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from eastern Canada and none of 31 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Holman, Northwest Territories. Eighty-two percent of these infections were observed in young-of-the-year seals. Filaroides (Parafilaroides) gymnurus (Railliet, 1899), detected in nodules in the superficial parenchyma of the lungs, infected 24 % (5/16) of grey seals, 27 % (4/15) of harbour seals, 57 % (29/51) of harp seals, 81 % (25/31) of ringed seals, and one stranded bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) (new host report for harp, ringed, and bearded seals; new locality report for Holman). Filaroides (Parafilaroides) hispidus Kennedy, 1986 was found in systematically sliced lungs of grey seals (2/3; new host report) and ringed seals (2/7) but not in harp seals (n=11) or harbour seals (n=5). Intensity ranged from 37 to 3570 for F. (P.) gymnurus and from 295 to 1196 for F. (P.) hispidus. No detrimental effect on body condition of seals could be associated with infection by lungworms.

HAYS, R., L.N. MEASURES, J. HUOT, 1998. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and herring (Clupea harengus) as paratenic hosts of Anisakis simplex, a parasite of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in the St. Lawrence estuary. Can. J. Zool., 76: 1411-1417 .

Capelin (Mallotus villosus) (N=760) and herring (Clupea harengus) (N=165) were collected in the St. Lawrence estuary during the summer of 1994 and 1995 to examine the importance of pelagic fish in transmission of Anisakis simplex to cetaceans. Larval A. simplex were removed from fish by means of a pepsin-digest solution or by dissection. Prevalence of A. simplex in dissected capelin was 5 %, with a mean intensity of 1.2. Prevalences of A. simplex in herring were 95 and 99 %, with mean intensities of 6.2 and 6.8 for pepsin digestion and dissection, respectively. Third-stage larval A. simplex found in capelin and herring were compared with third-stage larvae found in euphausiids and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence estuary and no differences in size or morphology of larvae from these four hosts were observed. Euphausiids, which harboured moulting second-stage and third-stage larvae, are intermediate hosts of A. simplex. As there was no apparent development of larvae in herring or capelin, these fish are considered to be paratenic hosts of A. simplex in the St. Lawrence estuary©1998 National Research Council Canada

MEASURES, L.N., 1998. Oral mycoplasmal infections in Canadian pinnipeds. Page 127 in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health, Baltimore .

FAULKNER, J., L.N. MEASURES, F.G. WHORISKEY, 1998. Stenurus minor (Metastrongyloidea : Pseudaliidae) infections of the cranial sinuses of the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. Can. J. Zool., 76: 1209-1216 .

Seventy-eight harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (33 females, 45 males), were obtained in summer (June-September) as incidental by-catch from the cod fishery in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and examined for the presence of cranial sinus nematodes. Stenurus minor (Kühn, 1829) Baylis and Daubney, 1925 were present in the cranial sinuses of all adult porpoises (> 1 year old, N=66, mean intensity=2362, range=87-8920) and absent in all young of the year (< 1 year old, N=12). Only fifth-stage worms were observed and these were equally distributed between the right and left sides of the skull (mean intensity=1158 and 1213 in the left and right side, respectively). However, S. minor were approximately twice as numerous in the frontal sinuses as in the ear sinuses. Mean intensities of S. minor were similar among all infected porpoises. Parasite load had no apparent effect on porpoise body condition (measured as percent blubber mass of the carcass). No gross lesions associated with the presence of numerous S. minor in the cranial sinuses were observed. There was an inverse relationship between the intensity of S. minor infection and mean worm length, which is suggestive of a "crowding effect". Mean worm length was 17.8 ±0.2 mm in lightly infected porpoises and 16.1 ± 0.2 mm in heavily infected animals©1998 National Research Council Canada

MEASURES, L.N., 1998. Oral mycoplasmal infections in Canadian pinnipeds. Page 50 in Proceedings of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine (29) .

MEASURES, L.N., J.-F. GOSSELIN, E. BERGERON, 1997. Heartworm, Acanthocheilonema spirocauda (Leidy, 1858), infections in Canadian phocid seals. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54: 842-846 .

Heartworm, Acanthocheilonema spirocauda, was observed in four of six species of seals (19 seals of 701) examined from the Atlantic coast of Canada including the Canadian Arctic. Fourteen of 221 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 2 of 18 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), 2 of 186 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) (new host record), and the only hooded seal examined (Cystophora cristata) were infected with A. spirocauda. Intensity of infection ranged from 1 to 31. Infected seals were age 0 to 14, but 8 of the 14 infected ringed seals were age 0. All worms were found in the right ventricle except in three cases. In one ringed seal and one harp seal, worms were found in the pulmonary artery, and in another ringed seal, worms were found deep within the lungs. No infections were found in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) (N=271) or bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) (N=4). Heartworm is primarily a parasite of young seals. Its apparent absence in grey seals examined to date suggests either that a much larger sample of young seals from a broad geographic area is needed or that grey seals are refractory to infection or do not survive infections.

BERGERON, E., L.N. MEASURES, J. HUOT, 1997. Experimental transmission of Otostrongylus circumlitus (Railliet, 1899) (Metastrongyloidea : Crenosomatidae), a lungworm of seals in eastern Arctic Canada. Can. J. Zool., 75: 1364-1371 .

The transmission of few metastrongyloids infesting marine mammals is known. The results of experimental infections using Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae), a lungworm of pinnipeds, suggested that this metastrongyloid uses fish as intermediate hosts. Various marine organisms (crustaceans, molluscs, and fish) were exposed to first-stage larvae from naturally infected young-of-the-year ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from northern Quebec (Salluit). The fist and second moults occurred 3 and 56 days post exposure in the mucosa and muscularis of the intestine of American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) kept at 4 °C. Third-stage larvae were found under the intestinal serosa. Attempts to infect invertebrates were unsuccessful. Transmission to seals may occur from mid-June through the autumn as young seals start feeding intensively on invertebrates and fish. First-stage larvae leave the lungs via the bronchial escalator and are swallowed and released into the sea with the faeces of seals, where they would be available to benthic or pelagic fish. The morphology of the first three larval stages is described.©1997 National Research Council Canada

GOSSELIN, J.-F., L.N. MEASURES, 1997. Redescription of Filaroides (Parafilaroides) gymnurus (Railliet, 1899) (Nematoda : Metastrongyloidea), with comments on other species in pinnipeds. Can. J. Zool., 75(3): 359-370 .

The species Filaroides (parafilaroides) gymnurus (Railliet, 1989) Anderson, 1978 is redescribed, based on examination of mature fifth-stage specimens from wild infected ringed seals (Phoca hispida), harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) collected in eastern and arctic Canadian waters. Mature specimens of Filaroides (Parafilaroides) hispidus Kennedy, 1986 from ringed seals and grey seals were also examined. Comparison of these worms with museum specimens and the literature led to a review of species in the subgenus Parafilaroides (Dougherty, 1946) Anderson, 1978. Filaroides (Parafilaroides) gymnurus (Railliet, 1899) Anderson, 1978, F. (P.) decorus (Dougherty and Herman, 1947) Anderson, 1978, F. (P.) hydrurgae (Mawson, 1953) Kennedy, 1986 and F. (P.) hispidus Kennedy, 1986 are recognized as valid species. Filaroides (Parafilaroides) arcticus (Delyamure and Alekseev, 1966) Kennedy, 1986 and F. (P.) krascheninnikovi (Yarakhno and Skrjabin, 1971) Kennedy, 1986 are synonymized with F. (P.) gymnurus (Railliet, 1899) Anderson, 1978. Filaroides (Parafilaroides) caspicus (Kurochkin and Zablotsky, 1958) Kennedy, 1986 is considered a species inquirenda©1997 National Research Council Canada

BERGERON, E., L.N. MEASURES, J. HUOT, 1997. Lungworm (Otostrongylus circumlitus) infections in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from eastern Arctic Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54: 2443-2448 .

Otostrongylus circumlitus, a metastrongyloid nematode found in the lungs of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and other pinnipeds, may affect the health of seals and reduce diving capacity. Of five sites sampled in eastern Arctic Canada (190 seals examined), Salluit, Que., is an important enzootic zone (prevalence 48.2 %, n=27). Maximum intensity of O. circumlitus was 32 worms. Infection is restricted to young-of-the-year seals and may have an impact on recruitment of the population. Local geographic conditions may influence transmission of the parasite and thus prevalence and intensity of O. circumlitus among populations of ringed seals. No condition index used showed any significant relationship to infection, but prevalence and intensity were related to sternal blubber thickness (0.01 < p < 0.05) indicating that this parasite may have an effect on the physical condition of seals. Otostrongylus circumlitus may have an indirect effect on seals by modifying their diving behavior. Severe infections may lead to death, but light infections could be lost after a certain time with subsequent development of protective immunity.

MEASURES, L.N., 1996. Effect of temperature and salinity on development and survival of eggs and free-living larvae of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 53: 2804-2807 .

Eggs of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens) were subjected to 12 treatments involving four temperatures (0, 5, 10, 15 °C) and three salinities (fresh water, brackish water, seawater). Eggs developed and larvae hatched in all treatments except at 0 °C. Larvae hatched in 57 days at 5 °C, 21.24 days at 10 °C, and 10.11 days at 15 °C. Mean percent hatch of larvae was 95.99 % in treatments at 5, 10, and 15 °C. After 1 year at 0 °C, sealworm eggs had not hatched, and when placed at 18.20 °C, very few larvae developed and hatched (0.6 %). In brackish water or seawater, hatched larvae survived 91 days at 5 °C, 63.67 days at 10 °C, and 43.44 days at 15 °C. In fresh water, larvae survived 11, 7.8, and 4.5 days at 5, 10, and 15 °C, respectively. These data suggest that the low water temperatures recently observed off the east coast of Canada may influence transmission of sealworm to first intermediate hosts, their development in these hosts and subsequent transmission, and distribution in fish.

HOBERG, E.P., L.N. MEASURES, 1995. Anophryocephalus inuitorum sp.nov. and A. arcticensis sp.nov. (Eucestoda : Tetrabothriidae) in ringed seals (Phoca hispida hispida) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from high-latitude seas of eastern Canada and the Arctic basin. Can. J. Zool., 73: 34-44 .

Anophryocephalus inuitorum sp.nov. And A. arcticensis sp.nov. Are described from ringed seals (Phoca hispida hispida) in the eastern Canadian Arctic; the latter species is also reported from harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) in the Gulf of St,. Lawrence. Anophryocephalus inuitorum is most similar to A. Skrjabini, but can be distinguished by fewer testes (14-27) and smaller dimensions of the strobila, neck (3.0-5.9 mm long), and cirrus sac (31-70 µm long), diameter of the genital atrium (44-68 µm), and length of the male canal (23-42 µm long). Anophryocephalus arcticensis resembles A. nunivakensis in the structure of the scolex, but is readily distinguished by a longer neck (8.9-14.7 mm), an elongate cirrus sac (60-98 X 44-73 µm) with a substantially thicker muscular wall, a more globular vitelline gland, and larger embryophores (29-41 µm long) and oncospheres (24-34 µm long). These are the first species of Anophryocephalus to be described from phocines in the eastern Canadian Arctic, and are included in a revised key for the genus.©1995 National Research Council Canada

SIDDALL, M.E., L.N. MEASURES, S.S. DESSER, 1995. Seasonal changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and haematocrit in American plaice infected with Haemohormidium terranovae. J. Fish Biol., 47: 1-6 .

MEASURES, L.N., P. BÉLAND, D. MARTINEAU, S. DE GUISE, 1995. Helminths of an endangered population of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Can. J. Zool., 73: 1402-1409 .

Helminths were identified in 38 belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, stranded in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence during 1984-1993. These helminth species were Anisakis simplex, Contracaecinea sp., Pseudoterranova sp., Stenurus arctomarinus, Pharurus pallasii, Halocercus taurica (new host record), Halocercus monoceris (new host record), Hadwenius seymouri. Diphyllobothrium sp., and Bolbosoma sp. (new host record). Of 21 helminths previously reported from populations of belugas worldwide, 7 were found in the St. Lawrence population. Lungworms, such as Halocercus monoceris, may prove useful in identification of beluga populations in the Arctic and may also be an important cause of morbidity and mortality of calves.©1995 National Research Council Canada

MEASURES, L.N., H. HONG, 1995. The number of moults in the egg of sealworm, Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda : Ascaridoidea) : an ultrastructural study. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 52 (Suppl. 1): 156-160 .

The number of moults in the egg of sealworm, Pseusoterranova decipiens (Nematoda : Ascaridoidea), and other ascaridoids is contentious. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of egg and free-living larvae of sealworm confirmed that only one moult occurs in the egg. The first stage larval (L1) cuticle on embryos was first observed in eggs incubated at 15 degree C in the sea water on a day 5 after eggs were dissected from the uterus of sealworm obtained from the stomach of grey seals. There was no ecdysis of this L1 cuticle. A second cuticle began to form beneath the L1 cuticle between day 5 and 12. The second-stage larval (L22) cuticle continued to develop and on day 12 the L2 larva hatched enclosed within the cuticle of the first stage. The L11 cuticle appeared to be partially resorbed during development of the L2 cuticle. This study provides the first ultrastructural evidence of the number of moults that occur in eggs of sealworm.

SIDDALL, M.E., S.S. DESSER, L.N. MEASURES, 1994. Light and electron microscopic examination of so-called piroplasms of fishes from Atlantic Canada and systematic revision of the Haemohormiidae (Incertae sedis). J. Parasitol., 80: 1018-1025 .

MEASURES, L.N., 1994. Synonymy of Longibucca eptesica with Longibucca lasiura (Nematoda : Rhabditoidea) and new host and geographic records. J. Parasitol., 80: 486-489 .

MEASURES, L.N., 1994. Seasonal dynamics of the bat stomach worm, Longibucca lasiura (Nematoda : Rhabditoidea), in Alberta. Can. J. Zool., 72: 791-794 .

One hundred and sixty-nine bats belonging to 6 different species and collected from 4 ecological zones (aspen parkland, boreal forest, grassland, and montane) in Alberta, Canada, during 1988 and 1989 were examined for helminths. Forty bats were infected with the stomach nematode Longibucca lasiura McIntosh and Chitwood, 1934. Sample size, prevalence, and mean intensity (with range in parentheses) of L. lasiura for the 6 species of bat were as follows : Myotis lucifugus, N=130, 27 %, 39 (1-121); Myotis ciliolabrum, N=10, 10 %, 1; Eptesicus fuscus, N=6, 33%, 12 (2-22); Lasionycteris noctivagans, N=2, 100 %, 22 (5-39). Myotis evotis (N=9) and Lasiurus cinereus (N=3) were not infected. Longibucca lasiura was found in bats from all ecological zones except the boreal forest. This parasite was found in bats active during summer (June to August) and in hibernating M. lucifugus collected in September and April.©1994 National Research Council Canada

SIDDALL, M.E., L.N. MEASURES, S.S. DESSER, 1994. Infection with the Piroplasm Haemohormidium terranovae in relation to haematocrit and mortality of American Plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoisdes). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 51: 959-964 .

MEASURES, L.N., J.-F. GOSSELIN, 1994. Helminth parasites of ringed seal, Phoca hispida, from northern Quebec, Canada. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 61: 240-244 .

MEASURES, L.N., 1993. Annotated list of metazoan parasites reported from the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 60: 62-66 .

MEASURES, L., L. BOSSÉ, 1993. Gammarus lawrencianus (Amphipoda) as intermediate host of Echinorhynchus salmonis (Acanthocephala) in an estuarine environment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50: 2182-2183 .

MEASURES, L.N., 1992. Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala) in a blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, stranded in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 59: 206-211 .

WONG, P.L., C.M. BARTLETT, L.N. MEASURES, M.A. McNEILL, R.C. ANDERSON, 1990. Synopsis of the parasites of vertebrates of Canada : Nematodes of birds. Alberta Agriculture, Animal Health Division, 44 p .

MEASURES, L.N., M. BEVERLEY-BURTON, A. WILLIAMS, 1990. Three new species of Monocotyle (Monogenea : Monocotylidae) from the stingray, Himantura uarnak (Rajiformes : Dasyatidae) from the Great Barrier Reef : phylogenetic reconstruction, systematics and emended diagnoses. Int. J. Parasitol., 20: 755-767 .