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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Louise LEFEBVRE

GRÉGOIRE, F., W. BARRY, J. BARRY, L. LEFEBVRE, C. LÉVESQUE, J. HUDON, 2006. West coast of Newfoundland capelin (Mallotus villosus M.) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) larval survey, part 3: Description of the data collected in partnership with the industry (Barry Group) in July 2005. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1168(Part 3), 32 p .

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In partnership with the Barry Group in Corner Brook, a larval survey was conducted from July 19 to 21, 2005, between Bonne Bay and Port au Port Bay on the west coast of Newfoundland. Fish eggs and larvae were found at all the sampled stations. The two most abundant groups of eggs that were identified were CYT (cunner [Tautogolabrus adspersus] and yellowtail flounder [Limanda ferruginea]) and CHW (cod [Gadus morhua], haddock [Melanogrammus aeglefinus], and witch flounder [Glyptocephalus cynoglossus]). Mackerel eggs (Scomber scombrus) were also found at each station. Of the sixteen species of larvae identified, the most abundant were those of cunner, fourbeard rockling [Enchelyopus cimbrus], capelin [Mallotus villosus], righteye flounder [Pleuronectidae], and cod. Depth-based profiles of water temperature and salinity were made for each station. All the biological and oceanographic data collected during the survey were compiled and are presented in the tables, figures, and appendices found in this document. These data will be analyzed and published in a forthcoming report.

GREGOIRE, F., W. BARRY, J. BARRY, L. LEFEBVRE, C. LEVESQUE, J. HUDON, 2005. West coast of Newfoundland capelin (Mallotus villosus M.) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) larval survey, part 1: Description of the data collected in partnership with the industry (Barry Group) in July 2004. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1168, 38 p .

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In partnership with the Barry Group in Corner Brook, a larval survey was conducted from July 15 to 17, 2004, between Bonne Bay and Port au Port Bay on the west coast of Newfoundland. Fish eggs and larvae were found at all the sampled stations. The two most abundant groups of eggs that were identified were CYT (cunner [Tautogolabrus adspersus] and yellowtail flounder [Limanda ferruginea]), and CHW (cod [Gadus morhua], haddock [Melanogrammus aeglefinus], and witch flounder [Glyptocephalus cynoglossus]). Mackerel eggs (Scomber scombrus L.) were also found at most of the stations. Of the twenty species of larvae identified, the most notable were those of capelin (Mallotus villosus M.), herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.), cod, righteye flounder (Pleuronectidae spp.), and cunner. Depth-based profiles of water temperature and salinity were made for each station. All the biological and oceanographic data collected during the survey were compiled and are presented in the tables, figures, and appendices found in this document. These data will be analyzed and published in a second report

GRÉGOIRE, F., C. D'ENTREMONT, C. LÉVESQUE, C. McGILLIVRAY, L. LEFEBVRE, D. SMITH, J. GEHUE, 2004. Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) maturity study : (1) Biological data collected in partnership with the industry at the Martine Marie Fishery Ltd. Plant (Barry Group), Middle West Pubnico, Nova Scotia, between 2001 and 2003. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1152, 84 p .

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In partnership with the industry, a maturity study on Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) was conducted at the Martine Marie Fishery Ltd. plant, Middle West Pubnico, Nova Scotia, between 2001 and 2003 inclusively. During this study, a total of 13,840 fish were measured; of this number, 2,284 specimens were frozen at the plant before being sent to the DFO laboratory in Mont-Joli. At the plant, ovaries were also collected and preserved in a formaldehyde solution for histological examination. Data from laboratory analyses were validated and used to calculate the condition (Fulton) and gonado-somatic indices. All data were compiled and presented in the tables, figures, and appendices of this document. These data will be analysed and published in future reports

GRÉGOIRE, F., L. LEFEBVRE, J. LAVERS, 2004. Évaluation analytique et analyses de risque pour le stock des harengs (Clupea harengus harengus L.) de printemps de la côte ouest de Terre-Neuve (Division 4R de l'OPANO) en 2003 ; Analytical assessment and risk analyses for the spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) stock of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R) in 2003. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2004/090, 70 p .

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The results of a Sequential Population Analysis (SPA) reveal that the spawning biomass of the spring spawning stock of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) in NAFO Division 4R appears to have risen from a record low of 32,559 t in 1997 to 57,727 t in 2003 and 52,582 t in 2004. The spawning stock biomass calculated for 2004 exceeds the minimum acceptable limit BLIM of 37,831 t but is below the buffer limit BBUF of 57,453 t. The SPA reveals that the herring became significantly more abundant in the late 1960s and the mid-1980s. The SPA also reveals that fishing mortality among the oldest individuals (age 8 and older) exceeded the F0,1 threshold on a few occasions in the late 1960s and the early 1980s and almost continuously throughout the 1990s. For an exploitation rate of 24 % (F0,1), the expected catches in 2004 would be close to 10,000 t. However, a decline of 8 % of the spawning stock biomass would be observed at this same catch level. For this stock, the probabilities of exceeding F0,1 in 2004 would be less than 50 % for catches of less than 10,000 t.

GRÉGOIRE, F., L. LEFEBVRE, J. GUÉRIN, J. HUDON, J. LAVERS, 2004. Le hareng (Clupea harengus harengus L.) de la côte ouest de Terre-Neuve (Division 4R de l'OPANO) en 2003 ; Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) on the West coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R) in 2003. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2004/078, 74 p .

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The 2003 herring landings (Clupea harengus harengus L.) on the West coast of Newfoundland amounted to 14,681 t, representing 73 % of the Total Allowable Catch (TAC). The most significant landings were recorded in unit area 4Rd, with 10,546 t. The large seiners alone unloaded 11,090 t of herring on a quota of 11,000 t, compared to 2,307 t or 52 % of their quota for the small seiners, and 1,284 t or 28 % of their quota for fishermen using gillnet. The catch-at-age of spring spawners was dominated by the year-class of 1996, with 26.5 % of all the catches, and that of the fall spawners, by the year-class of 2000, with 34.1 % of the catches. The condition (index of Fulton) of the spring and fall spawners declined sharply in 2003, following major gains between 1998 and 2002. Almost all the 4 year old herrings and more are mature and, compared to the 1960s and 1970s, sexual maturity is now reached earlier, in particular for the spring spawners. Herring is generally caught in the whole sampling area covered by the annual scientific surveys conducted to assess groundfish and shrimp (Pandalus borealis) abundance in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. During these surveys, the most significant herring catches are realized in the area of Anticosti, on the lower North Shore of Quebec, and on the West coast of Newfoundland, at the head of the Esquiman Channel. Two dispersion indices calculated by indicator kriging show an upward trend between 1990 and 2001, followed by an important decline in 2003. For the West coast of Newfoundland, these two indices were relatively stable between 1993 and 1997. They increased rapidly after that and declined again in 2003.

GRÉGOIRE, F., L. LEFEBVRE, J. LAVERS, 2004. Évaluation analytique et analyses de risque pour les stocks de hareng (Clupea harengus harengus L.) de la côte ouest de Terre-Neuve (Division 4R de l'OPANO) en 2002 ; Analytical assessment and risk analyses for the herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) stocks on the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R) in 2002. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2004/060, 92 p .

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Sequential Population Analyses (SPA) were realized in 2003 on the spring-spawning and fall-spawning stocks of herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R). The results of these analyses revealed that the spawning biomass of the spring stock appears to have risen from 35,011 t in 1997 to 67,851 t in 2002, and to 58,921 t in 2003. This last value is greater than the minimum acceptable limit BLIM of 37,834 t, but close to the buffer limit BBUF of 57,468 t. Fishing mortality among the oldest individuals (age 8 and older) would have exceeded the F0.1 threshold on a few occasions in the late 1960s and the early 1980s and almost continuously throughout the 1990s. For this same stock, the probabilities of exceeding F0.1 in 2003 would be less than 50 % for catches of less than 11,000 t. For the fall-spawning herring stock, the spawning biomass appears to have fallen from 71,412 t in 1994 to 53,373 t in 2002 and to 48,481 t in 2003. This last value is slightly greater than the BLIMvalue of 47,953 t, but lower than the BBUF limit of 61,074 t. For this stock, the probabilities of exceeding F0.1 in 2003 would be less than 50 % for catches of less than 11,600 t. Results of the SPA reveal also important impreciseness in the calculation of some parameters and the presence of a retrospective pattern denoting a tendency to underestimate the real abundance of these two stocks. Consequently, the results of the SPA must be used with caution, and greater uncertainty must be ascribed to the projections derived from the risk analyses. Therefore, we are recommending a gradual increase in the TAC which should not exceed 20,000 t in 2003.

GRÉGOIRE, F., L. LEFEBVRE, 2003. Biological characteristics of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) from Newfoundland's west coast for the 1965-2001 period. Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 270, 38 p. .

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Commercial herring landings on Newfoundland's west coast have been sampled regularly since the mid-1960s. An analysis of the collected samples indicates that the two spawning stocks have identical growth rates (length and weith). However, variations have been noted over the years. For example, although the 1980s were distinguished by more rapid herring growth, the dominant yearat a younger age and spawning has occurred at a later date.

GRÉGOIRE, F., L. LEFEBVRE, 2003. Estimation of gillnet selectivity for Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) from the west coast of Newfounland, 1997-2001. Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 272, 22 p. .

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Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) is commercially fished off the west coast of Newfoundland by a large number of fishers using gillnets. Gillnets are a very selective fishing gear, so fishers use different mesh sizes to maximize captures. We calculated gillnet selectivity for three different mesh sizes using catch data from index fishers for the 1997 to 2001 period. The results of this study demonstrate that the probability of capturing larger Atlantic herring increases with mesh size. For example, in 1999, the modal lengths of herring estimated by a normal selectivity model were 38 cm, 39.9 cm and 41.8 cm for mesh sizes of 63.50 mm, 66.80 mm, and 69.85 mm, respectively. These results also demonstrate that there were changes in the modal lengths and selectivity for a given mesh size over the study period. Finally, a yield per recruit analysis indicates that the best yields would be obtained using nets with the smallest mesh size.

GRÉGOIRE, F., L. LEFEBVRE, M. BEAUDOIN, 2002. Mise à jour des débarquements et des données biologiques du hareng (Clupea harengus harengus L.) de la division 4S de l'OPANO ; Landings and biological data update for NAFO division 4S herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.). MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2002/019, 41 p .

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The herring (Clupea harengus harengus L.) fishery on the North Shore of Quebec saw rapid expansion through the 1970s. From less than 80 t per year for the 1960-1970 period, landings attained an average annual value of 707 t between 1979 and 2000. Peaks of 1,075 t, 2,885 t and 1,394 t were reached in 1982, 1983 and 1987 respectively, but since 1994, the annual landings show a decreasing trend. The most important herring landings are concentrated in three unit areas, namely 4Sz, 4Sv, and 4Sw with average annual landings of 279 t, 153 t and 97 t. The main fishing gear used to catch herring is the gillnet with average landings of 503 t per year. Since 1984, the annual length frequencies for the spring spawners sampled in unit area 4Sz have been characterised by the presence of three strong year-classes. These year-classes have been those of 1980, 1990 and 1994. For the fall spawners sampled in unit areas 4Sv and 4Sw, they have been those of 1979, 1991 and 1992. The Quebec North Shore herring is a regular catch of a groundfish and shrimp (Pandalus borealis) abundance research survey. This survey is conducted annually throughout the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. During these surveys, herring catches are generally distributed throughout the sampled area. However, during the last years, more catches have been realised in the area located to the East Coast of Anticosti Island. Given the size of the region and the current catch level relative to other regions of Eastern Canada, herring catches on the North Shore of Quebec could certainly be higher. However, the information presently available does not allow us to accurately determine the level to which catches might be raised.

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1999. An evaluation of the western Newfoundland herring acoustic abundance index from 1989-1997. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 99/120, 20 p .

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A hydroacoustic survey was conducted aboard the F.G. Creed in the fall of 1997 as part of a fishery-independent abundance index for the west coast of Newfoundland herring stocks. Systematic-parallel transects were chosen along the coast and were surveyed during night-time hours. Biological sampling was accomplished in collaboration with the western Newfoundland large purse seine fleet, which also took temperature, salinity and depth (STD) profiles. Raw volume backscatter data (Sv) were collected from a 38 kHz transducer, as well as split-beam phase data. This survey revealed that herring concentrations were more schooled than in 1995, closer to shore, more in the upper layers, and displaced towards the north and the south where warmer waters were available at all depths. The vast majority of herring echoes (80 %) were recorded north of New Ferrole (stratum 10) and along the coast towards the Strait of Belle Isle. The total combined spring and autumn stock size in 1997 (88,000 t) was relatively stable compared to the 1995 estimate (89,500 t), although the spring-spawning stock decreased by 37 % and the autumn-spawning stock increased by 20 % over the past two years.

McQUINN, I.H., HAMMILL, M., L. LEFEBVRE, 1999. An assessment and risk projections of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herrring stocks (1965 to 2000). DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 99/119, 94 p .

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Both spring- and autumn-spawning herring are found along the west coast of Newfoundland (4R). The 1999 assessment indicates that the status of the spring-spawning stock is in danger of collapse. The autumn spawning stock is declining gradually while the exploitation rate has been slowly increasing. Apart from the 1990 year-class, recruitment to the spring-spawning stock has been below average (1965-1996) since the 1987 year-class. The spring-spawner spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has declined to an historical low of 14,000 t in 1999. If the spring-spawner F 0.1 catch of 2,300 t is caught in 1999, the risk that the SSB would not increase by even 20 % by the year 2000 would be about 40 %, and the minimum SSB target of 38,000 cannot be achieved even without fishing. Recruitment to the autumn-spawning stock has been above average (1973-1996) since the large 1979 year-class, which has kept this stock at an intermediate level. The autumn-spawner SSB has been declining slowly, from 80,000 t in 1984 to 42,000 t in 1998. An autumn-spawner F0.1 yield for 1999 would be approximately 9,000 t and would result in a 90 % risk that the SSB will decrease by 10 %, although there is a 70 % probability that the SSB will not decline below 35,000 t. It is essential that fishing effort be reduced and be shifted to the north as much as possible to avoid directed fishing on the spring-spawning stock

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1997. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring stocks (1973 to 1996). DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 97/116, 43 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1996. An evaluation of the acoustic backscatter of western Newfoundland herring with a comparison of classical statistics and geostatistics for the estimation of variance. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 96/58, 24 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1996. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery between 1973 and 1995. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 96/57, 46 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1995. A review of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery data (1973 to 1994). DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/56, 40 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1995. Distribution, movements and size composition of spring-spawning herring in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/57, 31 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1995. Acoustic backscatter of herring along the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) in November from 1989 to 1993. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/58, 34 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1994. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring resource up to 1993. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 94/43, 65 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, 1993. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R) herring resource up to 1992. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 93/53, 48 p .

McQUINN, I.H., L. LEFEBVRE, A. KONAN, 1992. A review of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO division 4R) herring fishery data up to 1991. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 92/70, 27p .

Herring stocks are exploited in NAFO Division 4R from April to December, by both fixed and mobile gears. Landings reached only 19,400 t in 1991, despite a TAC of 35,000 t, mainly due to poor market and late-fall weather conditions. A limited market demand for gillnetted herring has reduced the fixed gear landings to < 20 % of the total since 1985. The traditional U.S. barrelled-product market has been slowly replaced by over-the-side sales to the Russians, and frozen-round products for the Japanese. Spring spawners have been prevalent in the annual catches since 1973. Historically, this spawning group has been dominated by the 1968 and 1974 year-classes. Since 1985, the 1980 and 1982 year-classes have comprised > 68 % of the catch in numbers. The fall spawners had been dominated by the 11+ age group until 1983, when the 1979 year-class became the single most important cohort in the catch. The spring index-fishermen gillnet catch-rate series showed a significant increase from 1984 to 1987, a subsequent decreasing trend to 1990 and an increase in 1991. The fall-spawner series showed an increase to 1985, followed by a declining trend between 1987 and 1990, increasing again in 1991. Cohort analysis were not attempted as the population numbers were unconverged in the last analytical assessment. However, the 1987 spring-spawner year-class, and 1986 fall-spawner cohort, have appeared in the purse seine catches in numbers not seen since the 1980 cohort recruited to the fishery. This is a promising sign for the continued good health of these stocks.

MORIN, B., A. FRÉCHET, M. APARICIO, L. LEFEBVRE, B. BERNIER, 1992. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent. CSCPCA doc. rech., 92/85, 39 p .