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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Denis LEFAIVRE

BERNATCHEZ, P., C. FRASER, D. LEFAIVRE, S. DUGAS, 2011. Integrating anthropogenic factors, geomorphological indicators and local knowledge in the analysis of coastal flooding and erosion hazards. Ocean Coast. Manage. 54(8) 621-632 .

The settlement and development of Québec's maritime coastline has generally taken place without consideration for coastal dynamics and coastal hazards. Consequently, fighting coastal erosion has become a necessity. Until now, the construction of rigid walls and encroachments has been the preferred approach to the problem. In the Chaleur Bay region, coastal communities are particularly vulnerable to erosion and flooding because a number of residential, commercial and transportation infrastructures have been installed on beach terraces and sand spits. Recent storms, such as the storm of December 2, 2005, have made possible a better understanding of how these rigid defence structures amplify the effects of storm surges and waves. These structures drive the sand away from the coast, lowering beach levels and even causing beaches to vanish entirely from the areas situated in front of the defence structures. The end result is a weakening of the natural capacity of these coastal systems to absorb the energy of waves and a greater risk of coastal flooding. An integrated approach using local knowledge on the one hand, along with LIDAR surveys and a DGPS system on the other hand, have made possible to map the levels reached by flooding at the time of the storm. The results indicate that such levels vary greatly in spatial terms and that the difference between the levels actually reached and the water level measured by tide gauge can be as much as 2 m; a difference that is due to anthropogenic perturbations. This raises questions concerning the safety and the reference levels used for mapping coastal flooding risk. Taking into account knowledge of local communities, analysis of water levels, geomorphological indicators and aggravating anthropogenic factors, an approach and basic criteria are put forward with a view of establishing a reference level for the mapping of flood risk that can be used by community land-use planners. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

SAUCIER, F.J., F. ROY, S. SENNEVILLE, G. SMITH, D. LEFAIVRE, B. ZAKARDJIAN, J.-F. DUMAIS, 2009. Modélisation de la circulation dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent en réponse aux variations du débit d'eau douce et des vents;Modelling of the circulation in the estuary and gulf of St. Lawrence in response to variations in fresh water runoff and winds. Rev. Sci. Eau;J. Water Sci., 22(2): 159-176 .

We examine recent results issued from observations and numerical simulations of the general circulation and climate of the St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf. We focus this study on the intensity of the estuarine circulation. The approach is presented with an emphasis on the integration, using numerical simulations, ofkey processes such as turbulent mixing associated with tides at the head of the Laurentian Channel and air-sea exchanges over the Lower Estuary and Gulf. The numerical simulations allow us to follow the evolution of circulation and climate over periods of a few hours to several years. We first examine the tidal variability of the circulation at the head of the Laurentian Channel and the Upper Estuary, illustrating the importance of processes that largely govern the estuarine circulation. The most important processes are the dynamical instabilities associated with tidal straining and internal hydraulic jumps near the sills. On the other hand, the wind stress dominates the variability of freshwater export from the Lower Estuary and Gulf to the Atlantic Ocean. Using sensitivity experiments, the effects of freshwater runoff and wind intensity on the estuarine circulation are isolated. The results show that the St. Lawrence model responds ta the external forcings like a classical two-Iayer estuary during periods ofhigher stratification (spring and summer), when the freshwater drives more efficient withdrawal of the cold intermediate layer of the Gulf to a depth of approximately 150 m. On the other hand, in periods of lower stratification (fall and winter), the wind stress drives the deep water circulation (more than 150 m depth) and an excess freshwater input partly inhibits this ventilation, as in a marginal northern sea. These results suggest that an eventual reduction of freshwater runoff from the St. Lawrence River, associated with climate change or development, could reduce the estuarine circulation during spring and summer. During winter, such a reduction could favour the withdrawal of deep waters from the Laurentian Channel.©2009 RSE inc.

LEFAIVRE, D., S. HAMDI, B. MORSE, 2009. Statistical analysis of the 30-Day water level forecasts in the St. Lawrence River. Mar. Geod., 32(1): 30-41 .

Forecasts of water levels in the St. Lawrence River on the east coast of Canada have been issued every working day since 1997 using a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model (One-D) for periods extending up to 30 days. In order to assess the performance of these forecasts, a comparison between the model forecasts and the observations of the water levels during 2005 was done at 12 stations of the SINECO network located between Montreal and Quebec City. The statistical analysis shows that mean errors are small compared to the water level fluctuations. Confidence intervals of the forecasted values for all stations are evaluated.©2009 Taylor & Francis

DAVIDSON, F.J.M., D.G. WRIGHT, D. LEFAIVRE, J. CHASSÉ, 2006. The need for ongoing monitoring programs in the development of ocean forecasting capabilities in Canada. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 5: 43-47 .

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[Abstract only available in French]
Le Programme de Monitorage de la Zone Atlantique (PMZA) est un atout important pour le développement de l’océanographie opérationnelle au Canada. Il permet d’obtenir des observations pouvant être utilisées autant comme valeurs à assimiler dans les modèles que comme références permettant de valider les sorties des modèles numériques de prévisions océaniques. Bien que toutes les observations du PMZA ne soient pas encore recueillies et transmises de façon automatique et en temps réel, les futurs systèmes de prévisions océaniques pourraient avec avantage faire usage des observations in situ recueillies en temps réel par le PMZA. Dans ce contexte, l’utilisation conjointe des observations satellitaires d’altimétrie et de la température de surface avec les observations in situ de profils de température et de salinité devrait faire partie de la première étape débouchant sur le développement de la prévision océanique sur les plateaux continentaux de l’est du Canada.

LEFAIVRE, D., 2005. Effet des changements climatiques sur les niveaux d'eau du fleuve Saint-Laurent entre Montréal et Québec : projections pour les années 2050. Ministère des pêches et des océans, , Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Direction des sciences oceaniques, Sciences, 34 p .

GALBRAITH, P.S., F.J. SAUCIER, N. MICHAUD, D. LEFAIVRE, R. CORRIVEAU, F. ROY, R. PIGEON, S. CANTIN, 2002. Shipborne monitoring of near-surface temperature and salinity in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 2: 26-30 .

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[Abstract only available in French]
Une collaboration entre le Service Météorologique du Canada, le Ministère des Pêches et des Océans et des armateurs a permis l'installation de thermosalinographes (TSG) à bord de trois navires commerciaux et d'un navire de la Garde Côtière naviguant sur le Saint-Laurent. Ces instruments permettent le suivi en temps réel de la température des eaux près de la surface via le Système Global de Télécommunication d'Environnement Canada et l'Observatoire du Saint-Laurent. Ces données sont ensuite assimilées dans des modèles de circulation océanique permettant de prévoir l'évolution de la couverture hivernale de la glace de mer et des conditions océanographiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent. L'installation typique d'un appareil est illustrée de même que des exemples de diffusion des données. Après seulement quelques années de fonctionnement, les appareils déployés sur les navires commerciaux font déjà découvrir de nouveaux aspects de l'océanographie du Saint-Laurent.

OUELLET, P., D. LEFAIVRE, J.-P. ALLARD, 2001. Abondance des larves de homard (Homarus americanus) et disponibilité des post-larves pour l'établissement benthique aux Îles-de-la-Madeleine, sud du golfe du Saint-Laurent (Québec). Pages 17-21 in M.J. Tremblay & B. Sainte-Marie (eds.). Symposium sur le Programme intégré sur le homard canadien et son environnement (PINHCE): résumés et sommaire des travaux. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2328, 130 p .

OUELLET, P., D. LEFAIVRE, J.-P. ALLARD, 2001. Lobster (Homarus americanus) abundance and post-larvae availability to settlement at the Magdalen Islands, southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Quebec). Pages 14-18 in Tremblay M.J. & B. Sainte-Marie (eds.). Canadian Lobster Atlantic Wide Studies (CLAWS) Symposium : abstract and proceedings summary. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2328, 130 p .

SAUCIER, F.J., J. CHASSÉ, M. COUTURE, R. DORAIS, A. D'ASTOUS, D. LEFAIVRE, A. GOSSELIN, 1999. The making of a surface current atlas of the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada, Fourth international conference on computer modelling of seas and coastal regions. Pages 87-97 in C. A. Brebbia & P. Anagnostopoulos (ed.). Coastal engineering and marina developments : Proceedings of the 4th international conference on computer modelling of seas and coastal regions. Lemnos, May 1999. .

GILBERT, M., R. ALEXANDER, J. ARSENAULT, W.R. ERNST, W. FAIRCHILD, P. HENNIGAR, G. JULIEN, T. KING, M. LEBEUF, D. LEFAIVRE, 1998. Contamination par les BPC des sédiments et du crabe des neiges aux environs du site du naufrage de la barge Irving Whale après son renflouage ; PCB contamination of sediments and snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) around the site of the sinking of the Irving Whale barge after its recovery. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2204, 32 p .

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In the spring and early summer of 1997, sediment and snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) samples were collected around the site where the barge Irving Whale had sunk and been recovered in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The objectives of this sampling program were to : 1) assess changes in the local PCB contamination since the recovery of the barge, and 2) better determine potential impacts on the snow crab fishery in the southern Gulf. In addition, PCB concentrations and congener composition patterns were determined in various compartments of the Gulf ecosystem to provide insight into the fate of the missing PCBs that were lost from the barge and dispersed in the environment. PCB concentrations in sediments within contamination hotspots around the barge footprint decreased since the recovery of the barge and some spatial spreading of PCBs was observed, possibly as a result of local sediment movements during the winter. Although estimates of the total PCB load in sediments within an area of 20,000 m2 southeast of the barge footprint suggest a decrease from 119 kg in October 1996 to 76 kg in the spring of 1997, any apparent loss of PCBs from the site over the winter cannot be clearly established at present. The local PCB contamination of snow crab also decreased since the recovery of the barge, mainly in the concentration of less persistent low chlorinated PCB congeners that are typically found in the Aroclor 1242 PCB mixture of the barge. As a result, no crab samples collected around the Irving Whale site in 1997 had PCB concentrations exceeding the Canadian guideline for human consumption. Potential impacts of the local PCB contamination on the snow crab fishery in the southern Gulf are believed to be negligible, but the current fishing exclusion zone around the site should be maintained to ensure the quality of the fishery and to prevent the resuspension of locally-contaminated sediments.

THERRIAULT, J.-C., B. PETRIE, P. PEPIN, J. GAGNON, D. GREGORY, J. HELBIG, A. HERMAN, D. LEFAIVRE, M. MITCHELL, B. PELCHAT, J. RUNGE, D. SAMEOTO, 1998. Proposal for a northwest Atlantic zonal monitoring program. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci., 194, 57 p .

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A comprehensive monitoring program has been designed for the northwestern Atlantic with the aim of increasing the Department of Fisheries and Oceans's capacity to understand, describe, and forecast the state of the marine ecosystem and to quantify the changes in the oceans and the predator-prey relationships of marine resources. This report presents an overview of the current monitoring activities and identifies the fundamental elements of a zonal monitoring program, which includes 1) in situ multidisciplinary monitoring of biological, chemical, and physical variables at fixed stations and along transects; 2) remote sensing of sea-surface temperature and ocean colour; 3) measurements of sea level; 4) groundfish surveys in all regions; and 5) continuous plankton recorder (CPR) lines on the Newfoundland and Scotian shelves. The necessity is discussed for coordinated and standardised sampling protocols and data management activities. The importance of data analysis and interpretation is addressed as well as the need to designate committees that will be responsible for the management and coordination of zonal monitoring activities.

THERRIAULT, J.-C., B. PETRIE, P. PEPIN, J. GAGNON, D. GREGORY, J. HELBIG, A. HERMAN, D. LEFAIVRE, M. MITCHELL, B. PELCHAT, J. RUNGE, D. SAMEOTO, 1998. Proposition pour un programme zonal de monitorage de la région nord-ouest de l'Atlantique. Rapp. tech. can. hydrogr. sci. océan., 194, 69 p .

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A comprehensive monitoring program has been designed for the northwestern Atlantic with the aim of increasing the Department of Fisheries and Oceans's capacity to understand, describe, and forecast the state of the marine ecosystem and to quantify the changes in the oceans and the predator-prey relationships of marine resources. This report presents an overview of the current monitoring activities and identifies the fundamental elements of a zonal monitoring program, which includes 1) in situ multidisciplinary monitoring of biological, chemical, and physical variables at fixed stations and along transects; 2) remote sensing of sea-surface temperature and ocean colour; 3) measurements of sea level; 4) groundfish surveys in all regions; and 5) continuous plankton recorder (CPR) lines on the Newfoundland and Scotian shelves. The necessity is discussed for coordinated and standardised sampling protocols and data management activities. The importance of data analysis and interpretation is addressed as well as the need to designate committees that will be responsible for the management and coordination of zonal monitoring activities.

THERRIAULT, J.-C., D. GILBERT, P. LAROUCHE, D. LEFAIVRE, B. PELCHAT, 1997. L'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent scrutés de près. Le Fleuve : bull. d’inf., 8(1) : 2-4 .

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[Abstract only available in French]
La mer n’est pas inépuisable. La chute des stocks de morue dans l’est du Canada et les manchettes faisant état depuis quelques années des difficultés des pêcheurs aux deux extrémités du pays ont puissamment contribué à sensibiliser le grand public à la nécessité de mieux connaître le milieu marin, si l’on veut en gérer les ressources durablement.©1997 Saint-Laurent Vision 2000

LEFAIVRE, D., J.F. SAUCIER, J. CHASSÉ, A. GOSSELIN, 1997. Forecasting trajectory of would-be and actual oilspills during the 1996 Irving Whale Barge Salvage in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Bulletin SCMO 25(3): 68-71 .

PAINCHAUD, J., D. LEFAIVRE, J.-C. THERRIAULT, L. LEGENDRE, 1996. Bacterial dynamics in the upper St. Lawrence estuary. Limnol. Oceanogr., 41(8): 1610-1618 .

PAINCHAUD, J., D. LEFAIVRE, J.-C. THERRIAULT, L. LEGENDRE, 1995. Physical processes controlling bacterial distribution and variability in the upper St. Lawrence Estuary. Estuar. Coasts, 18: 433-444 .

The vertical structure of the water column and the spatial distribution and semidiurnal variability of bacteria were investigated at six stations in the upper St. Lawrence estuary. The sigmat profiles indicate that the upper St. Lawrence is a partially mixed estuary. Stratification results from buoyancy input from the freshwater outflow of the St. Lawrence River, and its variability is controlled by tidal and, to a lesser extent, wind mixing. Calculations show that tidal mixing largely exceeds mixing caused by wind. Free and attached bacteria presented different patterns of spatial distribution and temporal variability. Free bacteria exhibited highest mean concentrations at the freshwater station (3.5-4.4 106 ml-1) and lowest concentrations at the downstream stations (0.3-0.5 106 ml-1); their numbers declined exponentially relative to salinity. Attached bacteria had highest mean concentrations (3.2-5.5 106 ml-1) at salinities between 0.5 and 5 and were virtually absent at downstream stations (<0.05 106 ml-1). The importance of semidiurnal variability was demonstrated. Over the tidal cycle, variability of attached bacteria was always greater than that of free bacteria. The analysis of causal models between salinity and free and attached bacteria, showed that the two types of bacteria are uncoupled and that both types have a strong relationship with salinity. Physical processes are thus important controlling factors of the distribution and variability of bacteria. Results suggest that large-scale processes, such as freshwater outflow and residual circulation, largely control free bacteria, whereas short-term and more local processes (e.g., sediment resuspension caused by wind) may also be important in the control of attached bacteria.©1995 Springer

FRÉCHETTE, M., D. LEFAIVRE, 1995. On self-thinning in animals. Oikos, 73: 425-428 .

LEFAIVRE, D., 1995. Les eaux froides dans la région de l'archipel de Mingan. Naturaliste can., 119(2): 74-75 .

OUELLET, P., D. LEFAIVRE, 1994. Vertical distribution of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) larvae in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; implications for trophic interactions and transport. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 51: 123-132 .

GRATTON, Y., M. COUTURE, D. LEFAIVRE, 1994. Océanographie physique du fjord du Saguenay. Pages 8-16 in J.-M. Sévigny & C.M. Couillard (éd.). Le fjord du Saguenay : un milieu exceptionnel de recherche. Ministère des pêches et des océans (Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2270) .

TEE, K.T., P.C. SMITH, D. LEFAIVRE, 1993. Topographic upwelling off southwest Nova Scotia. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23: 1703-1726 .

FRÉCHETTE, M., D. LEFAIVRE, C.A. BUTMAN, 1993. Bivalve feeding and the benthic boundary layer. Pages 325-369 in R.F. Dame (ed.). Bivalve filter feeders in estuarine and coastal ecosystem processes. Springer-Verlag .

LEBLOND, P., D. LEFAIVRE, G. BUGDEN, D. CAIRNS, A. CONDAL, M. EL-SALH, L. FORTIER, D. GREENBERG, M. JEAN, V. KOUTITONSKY, Y. SIMARD, P. YEATS, 1991. Rapport de l'atelier de travail sur l'océanographie physique. Pages 6-12 in J.-C. Therriault (éd.). Le golfe du Saint-Laurent : petit océan ou grand estuaire? Ministère des pêches et des océans (Publ. spéc. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 113) .

LEBLOND, P., D. LEFAIVRE, G. BUGDEN, D. CAIRNS, A. CONDAL, M. EL-SALH, L. FORTIER, D. GREENBERG, M. JEAN, V. KOUTITONSKY, Y. SIMARD, P. YEATS, 1991. Report of the Workshop on Physical Oceanography. Pages 6-12 in J.-C. Therriault (ed.). The Gulf of St. Lawrence : small ocean or big estuary ? Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 113) .

KOUTITONSKY, V.G., B. LONG, D. LEFAIVRE, M. SALA, 1991. The influence of hydrodynamical processes on sediment transport in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Cont. Shelf Res., 11: 1209-1221 .

TEE, K.-T., D. LEFAIVRE, 1990. Three-dimensional modeling of the tidally induced residual circulation off southwest Nova Scotia. Pages 79-92 in R.T. Cheng (ed.). Residual currents and long-term transport. Springer-Verlag, New York (Coastal and estuarine studies, 38) .

FRÉCHETTE, M., D. LEFAIVRE, 1990. Discriminating between food and space limitation in benthic suspension feeders using self-thinning relationships. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 65: 15-23 .

OUELLET, P., D. LEFAIVRE, V.G. KOUTITONSKY, 1990. Distribution of shrimp (Pandalus borealis) larvae and hydrographic pattern in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 47: 2068-2078 .

PAINCHAUD, J., D. LEFAIVRE, G.-H. TREMBLAY, J.-C. THERRIAULT, 1990. Analysis of the distribution of suspended particulate matter, bacteria, chlorophyll a and Po4 in the Upper St. Lawrence Estuary, using a two-dimensional box model. Pages 59-65 in W. Michaelis (ed.). Estuarine water quality management : monitoring, modelling and research. Springer-Verlag, New York (Coastal and estuarine studies, 36) .

GREGORY, D.N., O.C. NADEAU, D. LEFAIVRE, 1989. Current statistics of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Estuary. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci., 120, 178 p .

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This report presents a statistical summary of all of the moored current data for the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Estuary available from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography and the Maurice Lamontagne Institute. Included in the data set are one thousand and eighty seven data months from two hundred and five locations spanning the period from 1963-1988. Arranged by month and blocked by one-degree squares, the report includes, for all deployments, tables of the maximum observed speed, magnitude and direction of the vector mean current, and the magnitude and orientation of the maximum and minimum axes of variability. The variability is reported in both the tidal and sub-tidal (low frequency) ranges. The same information is also presented in a series of maps subdivised into three layers, namely z ≤ 30m, 30m < z ≥ 100m et z > 100m. The primary maps separate the St. Lawrence system into the Gulf and Estuary. Secondary maps describe specific regions, namely the Gaspe Current, Strait of Belle Isle and Cabot Strait.

TEE, K.-T., P.C. SMITH, D. LEFAIVRE, 1988. Estimation and verification of tidally induced residual currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18: 1415-1434 .

GAGNÉ, J.A., D. LEFAIVRE, 1988. Recruitment research in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Northern Quebec. Pages 116-141 in M. Sinclair, J.T. Anderson, M. Chadwick, J. Gagné, W.D. McKone, J.C. Rice & D. Ware (ed.). Report from the National Workshop on Recruitment. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1626) .

TEE, K.-T., P.C. SMITH, D. LEFAIVRE, 1987. Modelling and observations of the residual current of southwest Nova Scotia. Pages 455-470 in J.C.J. Nihoul & B.M. Jamart (ed.). Three-dimensional models of marine and estuarine dynamics. Elsevier, Amsterdam (Elsevier oceanography series, 45) .

PAINCHAUD, J., D. LEFAIVRE, J.-C. THERRIAULT, 1987. Box model analysis of bacterial fluxes in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 41: 241-252 .

LEGENDRE, L., S. DEMERS, D. LEFAIVRE, 1986. Biological production at marine ergoclines. Pages 1-29 in J.C.J. Nihoul (ed.). Marine interfaces ecohydrodynamics. Elsevier, Amsterdam (Elsevier oceanography series, 42) .