Archived Content

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.

Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Caroline LAFLEUR

GALBRAITH, P.S., J. CHASSÉ, D. GILBERT, P. LAROUCHE, D. BRICKMAN, B. PETTIGREW, L. DEVINE, A. GOSSELIN, R.G. PETTIPAS, C. LAFLEUR, 2011. Physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2010 ; Conditions océanographiques physique dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 2010. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2011/045, 86 p .

Click to see all the text

An overview of physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2010 is presented. Air temperatures reached record highs when averaged from January to March and from October through December as well as annually. The monthly averaged freshwater runoff measured at Québec City was normal overall in 2010 but was unusually high during winter and fall, and the spring freshet was almost absent. Near-surface water temperatures in the Gulf were normal or above normal all year and in all regions except for the Mécatina Trough and Esquiman Channel in June. Maximum sea-ice volume within the Gulf and on the Scotian Shelf was 11 km³, a record low since 1969. The duration of the 2009–2010 ice season was shorter than normal and associated with the early ice melt. Winter inflow of cold and saline water from the Labrador Shelf occupied the Mécatina Trough over the entire column in winter 2010. The spread of the intrusion was confined close to the Strait of Belle Isle, leading to an overall small volume of 809 km³. However, this intrusion volume represented 29 % of the unusually small volume of mixed layer waters that were colder than -1 °C. The winter cold mixed layer volume in the Gulf, excluding the Estuary, was 13 900 km³, a value higher than the 1996–2009 average by 0.7 SD. This cold-water volume corresponded to 42 % of the total water volume of the Gulf. However, it was very warm, on average about 1 °C above the freezing point. This is the first time in 15 years of winter surveys that such high temperatures were recorded. The cold intermediate layer (CIL) index for summer 2010 was - 0.04 °C, which is similar to observations in 2000. This is an increase of 0.38 °C since 2009. On the Magdalen Shallows, none of the bottom area was covered by water with temperatures < 0 °C in September 2010, similar to conditions in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2009. In other regions of the Gulf, very few areas had bottom temperatures below 0 °C. Regional patterns of the August and September CIL show that the layers for T < 1 °C and < 0 °C were much thinner in most parts of the Gulf in 2010 than in 2009 and had a generally higher core temperature everywhere. Conditions in March 2010 were characterized by a very thick winter mixed layer, although very warm, including a thick intrusion of Gulf waters into the Estuary. By June 2010, the CIL thickness returned to nearnormal but still had above-normal minimum temperatures. The CIL warming rate appeared to be slower than usual because core temperatures were closer to normal in certain regions by August and more so by November. The warm deep waters in the Estuary in 2009 were replaced by colderthan- normal waters by June 2010. Colder-than-normal deep waters also occupied the northwest Gulf at that time. Very warm waters occupied Cabot Strait in June at 250 m—the depth of the temperature maximum—and there is a hint that the top portion of this water mass was sampled during the March survey. The warm deep waters were still present in Cabot Strait in August as well as in November. Gulf-wide average temperatures were below normal at 200 to 300 m and salinities were below normal from 150 to 300 m. Temperatures at 300 m increased marginally overall but significantly (by 1 SD) at Cabot Strait, where the anomaly is now +1 SD. Salinity at 200 m and 300 m decreased overall by 0.6 SD but increased at Cabot Strait to reach +0.6 SD at 200 m. The 300 m waters of the Estuary are expected to cool further during the next two years, but it will be interesting to follow the warm anomaly present in 2010 at Cabot Strait as it progresses up the channel toward the Estuary. The surface mixed layer in November was anomalously thick but more importantly very warm, warmer in fact than in November 2009 which were the preconditions for the record conditions of March 2010.

GALBRAITH, P.S., R.G. PETTIPAS, J. CHASSÉ, D. GILBERT, P. LAROUCHE, B. PETTIGREW, A. GOSSELIN, L. DEVINE, C. LAFLEUR, 2010. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2009 Conditions d’océanographie physique dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 2009. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2010/035, 77 p .

Click to see all the text

An overview of physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2009 is presented. Air temperatures were close to normal when averaged from January to March. Air temperatures were in general either normal or above normal for the remainder of the year. The monthly averaged freshwater runoff measured at Québec City was normal overall in 2009 but consisted of aboveaverage runoff in July compensated later by lower runoff in the fall. Near-surface water temperatures in the Gulf were above normal in all regions except the Northwest Gulf and the Estuary in June and in every region in August. Maximum sea-ice volume within the Gulf and on the Scotian Shelf was 65 km³, a value that is below normal using updated ice volume estimates for 1971-2000. The duration of the 2008-09 ice season was longer than normal in the Estuary, normal in the central Gulf and Cabot Strait, and shorter elsewhere. This was mostly associated with the variability of the first occurrence of ice. Winter inflow of cold and saline water from the Labrador Shelf occupied the Mécatina Trough over the entire column in winter 2009. The spread of the intrusion was confined a bit closer to the coast compared to 2008 conditions, leading to an overall smaller volume of 1270 km³, which is similar to the 2002 observations. The winter cold mixed layer volume in the Gulf, excluding the Estuary, was 14 000 km³, a value higher than the 1996–2009 average by 0.7 SD. This cold-water volume corresponded to 42% of the total water volume of the Gulf. The cold intermediate layer (CIL) index for summer 2009 was -0.42°C, which is similar to observations in 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2007. This is an increase of 0.32°C since 2008. On the Magdalen Shallows, almost none of the bottom area was covered by water with temperatures < 0°C in September 2009, similar to conditions in 2005, 2006 and 2007. Regional patterns of the August and September CIL show that the layers for T < 1°C and < 0°C were much thinner in most parts of the Gulf in 2009 than in 2008 and had a generally higher core temperature everywhere. In the northern Gulf, the area covered by low temperature water (< 1°C) decreased in 2009 relative to 2008 conditions. Temperatures in March 2009 were characterized by a very thick cold layer, including a thick intrusion of Gulf CIL waters into the Estuary. By June 2009, CIL temperatures returned to normal with a warming trend that continued into August, especially on the Magdalen Shallows. By October–November, CIL conditions were normal in most regions except the estuary and Northwest Gulf, where the CIL and the surface mixed layer were anomalously deep. Overall, temperature and salinity were generally normal from 150 m to 200 m, and slightly lower than normal at 250 and 300 m. Temperature and salinity at 300 m decreased for a third consecutive year, from 2008 to 2009. The lower-than-normal Gulf-wide water temperatures at 300 m were composed of normal waters in the Estuary and northwest and colder waters in the centre and coming into the Gulf at Cabot Strait. This cold anomaly has propagated inward in the last few years and is expected to continue toward the Estuary during the next few years.

GALBRAITH, P., R.G. PETTIPAS, J. CHASSÉ, D. GILBERT, P. LAROUCHE, B. PETTIGREW, A. GOSSELIN, L. DEVINE, C. LAFLEUR, 2009. Physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2008 ; Conditions d’océanographie physique dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 2008. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2009/014, 73 p .

Click to see all the text

An overview of physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2008 is presented. Air temperatures were close to normal when averaged from January to March, contributing to an ice cover volume that was also close to the climatological mean. Air temperatures were in general either normal or above normal for the remainder of the year. The monthly averaged freshwater runoff measured at Québec City was normal overall in 2008, but consisted of above-average runoff in summer compensated later by lower runoff in the fall. The high summer runoff contributed to higher-than-normal stratification. Near-surface water temperatures were generally above normal throughout the Gulf for the months of May, July and November and were also above-normal on the Magdalen Shallows in June and in the northern Gulf from August to October. In August the northern parts of the Gulf saw positive anomalies while the southern parts experienced negative anomalies. This lead to the unusual occurrence that the waters around Prince Edward Island and in Northumberland Strait had higher temperature in July than in August 2008. On the Magdalen Shallows, a large area of the bottom was covered by water with temperatures < 0 °C in September 2008, similar to the cold period observed in the 1990s and in contrast to conditions in September 2005, 2006 and 2007 when such cold waters were not observed. Maximum sea-ice volume within the Gulf and on the Scotian Shelf was 81 km3, a value now considered about normal using updated ice volume estimates for 1971-2000. Ice first appeared early in the season and stayed later than normal (later by about 8 days later on the Magdalen Shallows). Winter inflow of cold and saline water from the Labrador Shelf occupied the Mécatina Trough from top to bottom in winter 2008. The spread of the intrusion was confined a bit closer to the coast compared to 2007 conditions, leading to an overall smaller volume of 1850 km3, which is similar to 2001 and 2006 observations. The winter cold mixed layer volume was 13 700 km3, a value higher than the 1996–2008 average by 0.8 SD, and corresponded to 41 % of the total water volume of the Gulf. The summer CIL (cold intermediate layer) index for 2008 was -0.70 °C, comparable to the very cold conditions observed in 2003 and a large decrease (by 0.47 °C) from the previous summer. Regional patterns of the August and September CIL show that the layers for T < 1 °C and < 0 °C were much thicker in most parts of the Gulf in 2008 than in 2007 and had a generally lower core temperature throughout the Gulf. In the Northern Gulf, the area covered by water of low temperature (from < -1 °C through < 1 °C) increased in August 2008 relative to August 2007. Temperatures in the water column in June 2008 were characterized by a very thick and cold CIL in most regions except the Estuary and by warm deep waters in the Estuary and the northwest Gulf. This overall pattern persisted in the August– September mean conditions. By October and into November, CIL conditions were still thick and cold, while waters above the CIL were anomalously warm. Overall, temperature and salinity were generally normal from 150 m to 300 m, with the exception of slightly lower than normal (by 0.6 SD) temperature at 150 m. Temperature and salinity in this depth range decreased for a second consecutive year. The near-normal Gulf-wide water temperatures at 300 m were composed of warmer waters in the Estuary, near-normal temperatures in the northwest and central, and colder waters flowing into the Gulf at Cabot Strait.

DEVINE, L., C. LAFLEUR, 2008. Quality Control of Bottle Data at Maurice Lamontagne Institute;Contrôle de qualité des données bouteilles à l'Institut Maurice-Lamontagne. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 7: 27-37 .

Click to see all the text

This article describes the quality control tests that we at Maurice Lamontagne Institute (MLI) apply to data collected from water samples before the dataset is distributed and archived. The tests verify important metadata (sampling time and location) and examine the data from various perspectives, allowing the data manager to make judgments on the data’s quality.

GALBRAITH, P.S., D. GILBERT, R.G. PETTIPAS, J. CHASSÉ, C. LAFLEUR, B. PETTIGREW, P. LAROUCHE, L. DEVINE, 2008. Physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2007 ; Conditions d'océanographie physique dans le golfe Saint-Laurent en 2007. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2008/001, 59 p .

Click to see all the text

An overview of physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2007 is presented. Air temperatures ranged from normal to cooler than normal for most of the year in the western parts of the Gulf; however, the eastern regions were only significantly cooler than normal in April and May. Averaged over the whole Gulf for the entire year, air temperature was normal. The monthly averaged runoff at Québec City was below normal during all months of 2007. Near-surface water temperatures were much cooler in 2007 overall than in 2006 in all regions of the Gulf. Near-surface waters were warm in the St. Lawrence Estuary in January and February. Summer maximum surface temperatures occurred earlier than usual, followed by earlier-than-usual cooling. Surface temperatures were generally below normal for the rest of the year except for October in the Estuary. On the Magdalen Shallows, there was (almost) no bottom area covered by water with temperatures <0 °C in September 2007. Maximum sea-i ce volume within the Gulf and on the Scotian Shelf was below normal but still much higher than the volume recorded in 2006. Winter inflow of cold and saline water from the Labrador Shelf occupied the Mecatina Trough from top to bottom. The spread of the intrusion had an area similar to that of 2006, but its volume was much larger and similar to that observed in 2004. The winter cold mixed layer volume was 13100 km3, slightly above the 1996-2007 average, and corresponded to 39 % of the total water volume of the Gulf. The higher winter volume of cold water compared with 2006 conditions led to a decrease of 0.44 °C in the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) index, reaching -0.23 °C in summer 2007, which is comparable to conditions observed in 2004. The index saw a large decrease after three consecutive years of warming. Regional patterns of the CIL show that the layer for T < 1 °C and < 0  °C was much thicker in the northern half of the Gulf in 2007 than in 2006 and had a generally lower core temperature almost everywhere as well. Seasonal and regional patterns of water column temperatures in June were generally close to the 1971-2000 climatology at all depths, except for the very thick and cold CIL in the Anticosti Channel and warm deep waters in the northwest. This overall pattern persisted from August to September, but by late fall conditions were about normal everywhere except for the anomalously warm nearsurface mixed layers in the northwest and warm near-surface waters on the Magdalen Shallows and in Cabot Strait. Averaged annually for the entire Gulf, the temperature and salinity from 150 m to 300 m were normal in 2007. Spatially, at 300 m, this was composed of warmer than normal waters near the Estuary, near-normal temperatures in the centre and colder than normal waters coming into the Gulf at Cabot Strait. The outlook for 2008 from the March 2008 survey is for a slight cooling of the CIL index to -0.47 °C resulting from a thicker cold winter surface layer.

GALBRAITH, P.S., D. GILBERT, C. LAFLEUR, P. LAROUCHE, B. PETTIGREW, J. CHASSÉ, R.G. PETTIPAS, W.M. PETRIE, 2007. Physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2006 ; Conditions d'océanographie physique dans le golfe Saint-Laurent en 2006. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2007/024, 51 p .

Click to see all the text

An overview of physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2006 is presented. Air and surface water temperatures were above normal except for late summer in most parts of the Gulf. Bottom water temperatures on the Magdalen Shallows were unusually warm; no observations below 0 °C were recorded in September. The yearly total freshwater runoff at Québec City was normal but included an anomalous strong fall peak. Sea ice coverage and volume within the Gulf during the winter was the lowest recorded since 1969. The winter cold mixed layer volume was the smallest recorded in the 11 year history of the winter helicopter survey and corresponded to 29 % of the total water volume of the Gulf. This shallow winter mixed layer led to the CIL index for summer 2006 increasing to +0.21 °C. This is the warmest value since 1983, but only 0.1 °C warmer than in 2000 which was the second warmest. Regional patterns of the CIL minimum temperatures show that increases between 2005 and 2006 were more pronounced in the Laurentian Channel than elsewhere. The minimum temperature actually decreased in Mecatina Trough, presumably due to the increased inflow of a thick layer of cold and highly saline water, which was observed from the annual March survey, through the Strait of Belle Isle. Regional patterns similar to those found for the CIL minimum temperatures were seen in the regional CIL thickness distribution. The CIL volume (T <1 °C) for the Magdalen Shallows during the September groundfish survey was the lowest since 1982. Water temperatures were generally one standard deviation above the mean, based on the 1971-2000 climatology at all depths for most of the year. Exceptions to this included the CIL in Esquiman Channel and Mecatina Trough and the deeper waters (>300 m) of the southern half of the Laurentian Channel which were colder. The most noteworthy thermal features in November were the anomalously deep CIL in the Estuary and northwestern Gulf regions and the anomalously warm waters above the CIL everywhere in the Gulf. The outlook for 2007 based on the March 2007 survey is for a 0.6 °C cooling of the summer CIL index forecast from a thicker winter cold surface layer and increased inflow of Labrador Shelf water through the Strait of Belle Isle.

GRÉGOIRE, F., C. LAFLEUR, 2006. Distribution et abondance des œufs et des larves de maquereau bleu (Scomber scombrus L.) des relevés d'ichtyoplancton réalisés dans le sud du golfe du Saint-Laurent entre 1965 et 1975 ; Distribution and abundance of the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) eggs and larvae from the ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence between 1965 to 1975. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2006/098, 114 p .

Click to see all the text

In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the first large scale ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted by Kohler between 1965 and 1975. During this period, a total of 35 surveys were made from May to October at a rate of 2–5 surveys per year. Atlantic mackerel eggs and larvae were collected on most of these surveys. A large number of sampling gears were used but standard nets deployed on the surface and at 15 m yielded eggs at a significant number of stations. Eggs were not only collected as early as May, but also quite late in the season, i.e. in September and October. In May, most of the eggs were found around the Magdalen Islands and in June, between New Brunswick and the Magdalen Islands. The most significant abundances of eggs were recorded in June

GILBERT, D., P.S. GALBRAITH, C. LAFLEUR, B. PETTIGREW, 2004. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2003 ; Conditions d’océanographie physique dans le golfe Saint-Laurent en 2003. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2004/061, 63 p .

Click to see all the text

An overview of physical oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2003 is presented. Air temperatures and surface water temperatures were below normal in winter and above normal in the fall. During winter 2003, sea ice coverage within the Gulf was about 10 % above the long-term mean, the first year above normal since 1995. But of more significance, a record amount of ice was advected out of the Gulf through Cabot Strait during winter 2003, and the total volume of ice formation in the Gulf was much higher than normal. Moreover, the inflow of water through the Strait of Belle Isle in the northeast Gulf was by far the largest one observed over the 9-year period of helicopter CTD surveys conducted in March. This inflow of cold and salty water from Belle Isle Strait together with the large amount of ice produced in the Gulf in the winter of 2003 caused a huge increase in the summertime thickness and volume of T < 0 °C waters (+300 %) and T < 1 °C waters (+40 %) relative to 2002. This was accompanied by a 0.65 °C drop in the cold intermediate layer minimum temperature index which is now 0.54 °C below the 1971-2000 normal conditions and the fifth coldest in 57 years. The annual mean runoff of the St. Lawrence River at Québec City was 13.4 % below normal. This led to above normal surface salinities and below normal surface layer stratification during most of 2003. In the 30-100 m layer, the 2003 temperature was colder than normal while salinity was higher than normal. In the 100-200 m layer, the 2003 temperature was colder than normal but salinity was close to normal. Finally, in the 200-300 m layer, both temperature and salinity were close to normal. The 2003 annual mean oxygen concentration in the bottom waters (≥ 300 m) of the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (18.3% saturation) was the second lowest ever observed.