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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Michael C.S. KINGSLEY

LESAGE, V., J.-F. GOSSELIN, M. HAMMILL, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, J. LAWSON, 2007. Ecologically and biologically significant areas (EBSAs) in the Estuary and Gulf St. Lawrence : a marine mammal perspective ; Zones d'importance écologique et biologique (ZIEB) pour l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent : une perspective des mammifères marins. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2007/046, 92 p .

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The importance of some areas of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence for the aggregation for marine mammals is a long-recognized phenomenon. In this report, results from three aerial surveys and two satellite-telemetry studies are analysed and combined with results from the existing literature to identify known areas of concentration of marine mammals. The quality of areas of marine mammal concentration and associated functions are assessed against criteria developed to identify Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs). Based on these criteria, there would be eleven areas of ecological and biological significance for marine mammals: 1) Pointe-des-Monts to Sept-Îles, 2) West of Anticosti, 3) Jacques-Cartier Strait, 4) Strait of Belle-Isle/Mecatina Plateau, 5) Western shelf of Newfoundland, 6) Entrance of St Georges Bay, Newfoundland, 7) Cape Breton Trough, 8) Offshore Gaspé, including the channel of Baie des Chaleurs, 9) North margin of the Laurentian Channel to the south of Anticosti, 10) the St. Lawrence Estuary, and finally, 11) the Shelf of southern Gulf, which would find its importance mainly during the ice-covered period.

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., I. GAUTHIER, 2002. Visibility of St Lawrence belugas to aerial photography, estimated by direct observation. Pages 259-270 in M.P. Heide-Jorgensen & Oystein Wiig (eds). Belugas in the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic. Tromso (NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 4) .

HICKIE, B.E., M.C.S. KINGSLEY, P.V. HODSON, D.C.G. MUIR, P. BELAND, D. MACKAY, 2000. A modelling-based perspective on the past, present, and future polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the St. Lawrence beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 57 (Suppl. 1): 101-112 .

Individual- and population-based models are presented that provide quantitative assessments of the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants over the lifetime of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and consider all aspects of its life history The models are used to examine the history of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation by the endangered St. Lawrence beluga population from 1950 to the present and to predict future trends based on likely contaminant loading scenarios. The hypothesis that migrating American eels (Anguilla rostrata) are a significant source of contaminants to the population is examined. The history of PCB exposure via the diet is reconstructed from existing data and from PCB profiles in dated sediment cores. The models adequately describe the effects of age, growth, sex, and reproductive activity on PCB concentrations in the beluga, and results show good agreement with observed concentrations when eels are included as 3% of the annual diet. PCB levels in the population appear to have peaked between 1967 and 1972. The model agrees with recent studies that have shown that PCB concentrations in the population are declining slowly.

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 2000. Numbers and distribution of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in James Bay, eastern Hudson Bay, and Ungava Bay in Canada during the summer of 1993. Fish. Bull., 98(4): 736-747 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1999. Indices d'abondance et estimations de la population de bélugas de l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2266, 27 p .

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Population assessment is the essential component of monitoring species at risk. The belugas of the St. Lawrence estuary have been monitored by aerial surveys since 1973. The results of the latest survey, by high-altitude aerial photography on 26 August 1997, are reported here and compared with those of earlier surveys. The survey area extended from Île-aux-Coudres to Île du Bic. Transects 6,000 feet wide spaced 2 n.mi. apart were photographed at a scale of 1:8,000 using colour positive aerial survey film, but 21 % of the study area was covered by fog and could not be photographed. Counts were corrected for diving animals by two different factors : a historical standard 15 % to yield an index of population size, and a more recent 109 % based on behavioural data to yield an estimate of true population. The sequence of survey data was smoothed with linear trends in sets of five points to yield moving averages, current estimates and rates of change. In the 1997 survey, 284 belugas were counted on 88 of the 832 photo frames taken, and 20 more were counted in the Saguenay Fjord by a simultaneous visual survey. The estimate of the standard index was 681 (SE 91) and of the true population size 1221 (SE 189). From linear smoothing of the most recent five surveys, the current estimate of the standard index was 700 (SE 46), with an increase of 21.4 whales/yr (SE 8.2) and of the true population size 1238 (SE 119) with an increase of 31.4 whales/yr (SE 13.1). 39 vessels from kayaks to barges were counted on the photographs, but there was no evidence of boats tending to be near belugas or seeking to approach them.

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1999. Population indices and estimates for the belugas of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2266, 27 p .

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Population assessment is the essential component of monitoring species at risk. The belugas of the St. Lawrence estuary have been monitored by aerial surveys since 1973. The results of the latest survey, by high-altitude aerial photography on 26 August 1997, are reported here and compared with those of earlier surveys. The survey area extended from Île-aux-Coudres to Île du Bic. Transects 6,000 feet wide spaced 2 n.mi. apart were photographed at a scale of 1:8,000 using colour positive aerial survey film, but 21 % of the study area was covered by fog and could not be photographed. Counts were corrected for diving animals by two different factors : a historical standard 15 % to yield an index of population size, and a more recent 109 % based on behavioural data to yield an estimate of true population. The sequence of survey data was smoothed with linear trends in sets of five points to yield moving averages, current estimates and rates of change. In the 1997 survey, 284 belugas were counted on 88 of the 832 photo frames taken, and 20 more were counted in the Saguenay Fjord by a simultaneous visual survey. The estimate of the standard index was 681 (SE 91) and of the true population size 1221 (SE 189). From linear smoothing of the most recent five surveys, the current estimate of the standard index was 700 (SE 46), with an increase of 21.4 whales/yr (SE 8.2) and of the true population size 1238 (SE 119) with an increase of 31.4 whales/yr (SE 13.1). 39 vessels from kayaks to barges were counted on the photographs, but there was no evidence of boats tending to be near belugas or seeking to approach them.

McALPINE, D.F., M.C.S. KINGSLEY, P.-Y. DAOUST, 1999. A lactating record-age St. Lawrence beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Mar. Mamm. Sci., 15: 854-859 .

LESAGE, V., C. BARRETTE, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, B. SJARE, 1999. The effect of vessel noise on the vocal behavior of belugas in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Canada. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 15; 65-84 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1998. Walruses, Odobenus rosmarus, in the Gulf and Estuary of the St. Lawrence, 1992-1996. Can. Field-Nat., 112: 90-93 .

LESAGE, V., M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1998. Updated status of the St. Lawrence River population of the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas. Can. Field-Nat., 112: 98-114 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1998. Population index estimates for the St. Lawrence belugas, 1973-1995. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 14: 508-530 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., T.J. BYERS, 1998. Failure of reproduction in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Amundsen Gulf, Northwest Territories in 1984-1987. Pages 197-210 in M.P. Heide-Jorgensen & C. Lydersen (eds). Ringed seals in the North Atlantic. Tromso (NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 1) .

REEVES, R.R., G.W. WENZEL, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1998. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Canada. Pages 100-129 in M.P. Heide-Jorgensen & C. Lydersen (ed.). Ringed seals in the North Atlantic. Tromso (NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 1) .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1998. The numbers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Baffin Bay and associated waters. Pages 181-196 in M.P. Heide-Jorgensen & C. Lydersen (eds). Ringed seals in the North Atlantic. Tromso (NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 1) .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., R.R. REEVES, 1998. Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996. Can. J. Zool., 76: 1529-1550 .

aerial line-transect surveys of cetaceans were flown in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in late August and early September of 1995 and in late July and early August of 1996. Systematic north-south transects were spaced 15' of longitude apart. In 1995, the study area comprised the entire Gulf, divided into three strata for analysis; 69 % was flown. In 1996, a single stratum covered only the north shore shelf; 75 % of the design was flown. The survey platform was a light high-winged aircraft with bubble windows flown at 213 m (700 ft). Ten species were seen. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) yielded enough sightings to support good estimates, while fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) yielded few sightings and unreliable estimates. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) were seen too rarely to support any analysis. The tenth species was a small delphinid, not positively identified. Minke whales were ubiquitous, but more common in the northern strata. We estimated about 1000 in the whole Gulf in 1995 and about 600 in the northernmost stratum in 1996 (these numbers, and those following, are uncorrected for visibility bias). We estimated about 12 000 Atlantic white-sided dolphins in the Gulf in 1995, but in 1996 saw hardly any, perhaps because we flew the survey earlier. Harbour porpoises (12 000 in 1995 and 21 000 in 1996) were most numerous in the northern stratum, but were also widely distributed at lower densities in the central and southern Gulf. White-breaked dolphins (2500 in 1995 and 2500 in 1996) occurred only in the Strait of Belle Isle and the extreme northeastern Gulf. We estimated a few hundred fin whales in the northern and central strata and about 100 humpbacks, mostly in the northeast. Long-finned pilot whales were only seen in the southeastern Gulf, surveyed only in 1995 (about 1500)©1998 National Research Council Canada

WESTGATE, A.J., D.C.G. MUIR, D.E. GASKIN, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1997. Concentrations and accumulation patterns of organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of harbour porpoises, Phocoena, from the coast of Newfoundland, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy/Gulf of Maine. Environ. Pollut., 95: 105-119 .

HARWOOD, L.A., S. INNES, P. NORTON, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1996. Distribution and abundance of beluga whales in the Mackenzie estuary, southeast Beaufort Sea, and west Amundsen Gulf during late July 1992. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 53: 2262-2273 .

Three Twin Otter aircraft, each with three or four observers, were used to conduct a systematic survey of the southeast Beaufort Sea (4.5.6.3% coverage), Mackenzie estuary (15.29 % coverage), and west Amundsen Gulf (2.9 % coverage) over a 55-h period on 23.25 July 1992. Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) were found throughout the estuary and offshore strata, with the highest density in Kugmallit Bay, Mackenzie estuary (1.137 beluga/km2). Over 85 % of the beluga were estimated to be offshore, where they were widely distributed at low densities (0.099.0.311 beluga/km2). Data collected by primary observers (experienced in aerial surveys) yielded an estimate of 15 307 (95 % CI 12 305 . 18 309) beluga visible at the surface. Six reviewers independently assessed which sightings made by secondary observers (community participants with limited aerial survey experience but with experience searching for beluga from boats) did not duplicate primary sightings. These were used to adjust the primary counts for missed-at-surface and about-to-surface beluga, and yielded an index of stock size of 19 629 (95 % CI 15 134 . 24 125) visible beluga; this does not account for those far below the surface and therefore unavailable to the observers, or those outside the study area.

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1996. Population index estimate for the belugas of the St. Lawrence in 1995. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2117, 38 p .

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On 25 August 1995 a survey flight was carried out to estimate a population index for the St. Lawrence population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Two aircraft, each equipped with a metric mapping camera shooting 9 inchs x 9 inchs frames through a 6 inchs lens, flew at 4000 feet over a systematic grid of transects, aligned from northwest to southeast, that stretched from Île aux Coudres to Île du Bic. The transects were spaced 2 nautical miles apart, giving a 50 % coverage of the estuary. One thousand and ninety-two frames were shot on colour positive aerial survey film. At the same time, another aircraft surveyed the length of the Saguenay Fjord with a single visual observer. The wind was light over the whole survey area and the sky was clear, so good-quality photography was obtained. The film was analysed on a light table using low-power microscopy. A total of 377 belugas were counted on 86 frames. Ninety-three were judged to be duplicates of belugas also seen on the adjacent frame, so the net count was 284. Fifty of 197 (25 %) appeared from their small size to be juveniles. The resulting estimate of visible belugas was 568 (sampling S.E. 94.0). A 15 % visibility correction gave an estimated index for the St. Lawrence of 653.2 (S.E. 108.1). The counts were not corrected for sun glare reflected from the water surface and appearing on the photo frames. On the simultaneous visual survy of the Saguenay Fjord, 51 more belugas were seen at baie Ste-Marguerite and one further upstream; these counts were not corrected for visibility. The final total estimated population index, including the Saguenay, was 705.2. This index estimate is 34 % than the value of 525 obtained on a windier day in 1992 using the same methods, and a 16 % increase over the 1990 estimate.

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1996. Estimation d'un indice d'abondance de la population de bélugas du Saint-Laurent en 1995. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2117, 42 p .

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On 25 August 1995 a survey flight was carried out to estimate a population index for the St. Lawrence population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Two aircraft, each equipped with a metric mapping camera shooting 9 inchs x 9 inchs frames through a 6 inchs lens, flew at 4000 feet over a systematic grid of transects, aligned from northwest to southeast, that stretched from Île aux Coudres to Île du Bic. The transects were spaced 2 nautical miles apart, giving a 50 % coverage of the estuary. One thousand and ninety-two frames were shot on colour positive aerial survey film. At the same time, another aircraft surveyed the length of the Saguenay Fjord with a single visual observer. The wind was light over the whole survey area and the sky was clear, so good-quality photography was obtained. The film was analysed on a light table using low-power microscopy. A total of 377 belugas were counted on 86 frames. Ninety-three were judged to be duplicates of belugas also seen on the adjacent frame, so the net count was 284. Fifty of 197 (25 %) appeared from their small size to be juveniles. The resulting estimate of visible belugas was 568 (sampling S.E. 94.0). A 15 % visibility correction gave an estimated index for the St. Lawrence of 653.2 (S.E. 108.1). The counts were not corrected for sun glare reflected from the water surface and appearing on the photo frames. On the simultaneous visual survy of the Saguenay Fjord, 51 more belugas were seen at baie Ste-Marguerite and one further upstream; these counts were not corrected for visibility. The final total estimated population index, including the Saguenay, was 705.2. This index estimate is 34 % than the value of 525 obtained on a windier day in 1992 using the same methods, and a 16 % increase over the 1990 estimate.

STENSON, G.B., B. SJARE, W.G. WARREN, R.A. MYERS, M.O. HAMMILL, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1996. 1994 Pup production of the Northwest Atlantic harp seal, Phoca groenlandica. NAFO Sci. Counc. Stud., 26: 47-61 .

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STENSON, G.B., M.O. HAMMILL, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, B. SJARE, W.G. WARREN, R.A. MYERS, 1995. Pup production of harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, in the Northwest Atlantic during 1994. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/20, 32 p .

LESAGE, V., M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1995. Bilan des connaissances de la population de bélugas (Delphinapterus leucas) du Saint-Laurent. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2041, 51 p .

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The St. Lawrence population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) is much reduced, numbering now about 500-600 individuals. Although the population is not exploited, its growth rate is apparently small. Reduced genetic variability within the population, and the rarity of beluga sightings outside the limit of distribution in the Gulf suggest that it forms a geographically and genetically isolated population. In the St. Lawrence, the belugas show reproductive rates, survival rates at age and population age structure similar to those of other populations. It has been suggested that the high levels of some organochlorines recorded in the St. Lawrence belugas may induce immunitary and reproductive deficiencies. Although the ovarian activity of St. Lawrence beluga appear similar to that observed for other beluga populations, further work is needed to verify this hypothesis.

HAMMILL, M.O., M.C.S. KINGSLEY, G.G. BECK, T.G. SMITH, 1995. Growth and condition in the Northwest Atlantic harp seal. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 52: 478-488 .

FONTAINE, P.-M., C. BARRETTE, M.O. HAMMILL, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1994. Incidental catches of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Québec, Canada. Pages 159-163 in W.F. Perrin, G.P. Donovan & J. Barlow (ed.). Gillnets and cetaceans. International Whaling Commission, Cambridge (Report of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue, 15) .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1994. Recensement, tendance et statut de la population de bélugas du Saint-Laurent en 1992. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1938, 41 p .

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On 12 Septembre 1992 a survey flight was carried out to estimate the size of the St. Lawrence population of belugas. Two aircraft, each equipped with a metric mapping camera shooting 9" x 9" frames through a 6" lens, flew at 4000 feet over a systematic grid of northwest-southeast-aligned transects that stretched from the ile aux Coudres to the ile du Bic. The transects were spaced 2 nautical miles apart, giving a 50 % coverage of the estuary. The film was analyzed on a light table using low-power microscopy. Two hundred and twenty-seven belugas were counted on 55 frames; 45 (20 %) of them appeared from their small size to be juveniles. The resulting estimates of visible belugas was 454 (S.E. 61.8). A 15 % visibility correction gave an estimate of 522 (S.E. 71.1). The correction for sun glare on the photo frames was zero for all transects where belugas were seen. On the simultaneous visual survey of the Saguenay Fjord, three more belugas were seen at baie Ste-Marguerite, resulting in a total estimate of 525 for the population.

MARTIN, A.R., M.C.S. KINGSLEY, M.A. RAMSAY, 1994. Diving behaviour of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) on their summer grounds. Can. J. Zool., 72: 118-125 .

Three adult female narwhals from the population that summers in the sheltered waters of northern Baffin Island, Canada, were fitted with satellite-linked UHF radio packages. The units logged and transmitted diving and swim-speed data and revealed the location of the study animals for periods of up to 19 days. Most diving activity was in the top 40 m and bottom 40 m of the water column. Shallow dives were characterized by low rates of descent and ascent (<0.5 m.s–1), short submersions, and frequent changes of vertical direction. Deep dives were normally to, or near to, the seabed in depths of up to 257 m, and involved both faster rates of vertical movement (1–2 m.s-1) and longer periods underwater (up to 15.1 min). Midwater dives were intermediate in all respects. Deeper dives were of a characteristic "square" profile and provided an average of 7 min at the chosen depth, representing 57 % of the time submerged. No dives were demonstrably longer than the estimated aerobic dive limit for this species. Activity at depth, including rapid swimming and many changes of vertical direction, was indicative of foraging and consistent with a diet of many small prey items. Overall, a relatively small proportion of time was devoted to presumed foraging activity, suggesting either that feeding is a low priority at this time of year or that the whales' nutritional needs could be easily met by the food stocks available.©1994 National Research Council Canada

PATENAUDE, N.J., J.S. QUINN, P. BELAND, M. KINGSLEY, B.N. WHITE, 1994. Genetic variation of the St. Lawrence beluga whale population assessed by DNA fingerprinting. Mol. Ecol., 3: 375-381 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., H.J. CLEATOR, M.A. RAMSAY, 1994. Summer distribution and movements of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Eclipse Sound and adjacent waters, North Baffin Island, N.W.T. Medd. Groenl. Bioscience, 39: 163-174 .

FONTAINE, P.-M., M.O. HAMMILL, C. BARRETTE, M.C. KINGSLEY, 1994. Summer diet of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 51: 172-178 .

BREAR, K., J.D. CURREY, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, M. RAMSAY, 1993. The mechanical design of the tusk of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros : Cetacea). J. Zool., 230: 411-423 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1993. Census, trend, and status of the St. Lawrence beluga population in 1992. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1938, 17 p .

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On 12 September 1992 a survey flight was carried out to estimate the size of the St. Lawrence population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). 227 belugas were counted on 55 frames; 45 (20 %) of them appeared from their small size to be juveniles. The resulting estimate of visible belugas was 454 (S.E. 61.8). A 15 % visibility correction gave an estimate of 522 (S.E. 71.1). The correction for sun glare on the photo frames was zero for all transects where belugas were seen. On the simultaneous visual survey of the Saguenay Fjord, three more belugas were seen at Baie Ste-Marguerite, resulting in a total estimate of 525 for the population.

STENSON, G.B., R.A. MYERS, M.O. HAMMILL, I.-H. NI, W.G. WARREN, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1993. Pup production of harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, in the Northwest Atlantic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50: 2429-2439 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1993. Effects of aquatic toxicity on the belugas of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Pages 186-200 in E.G. Baddaloo, S. Ramamoorthy & J.W. Moore (ed.). Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, October 4-7, 1992, Edmonton, Alberta (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1942) .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., M.O. HAMMILL, 1991. Photographic census survey of the St. Lawrence beluga population, 1988 and 1990. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1776, 19 p .

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Photographic aerial surveys were flown to estimate the size of the population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the estuary of the St. Lawrence River, Canada, on 31 August 1988 and on 12 Sept 1990. The surveys were systematic strip transect surveys, with sample coverage over the main area of beluga habitat of 37.5 % to 50 %, and 12.5 % over an extension area. The cameras used were 9" x 9" aerial mapping cameras. The population estimate obtained in 1988 (corrected for sun glare on the film, but not for submerged animals) was 427 belugas, with a standard error of 60. The 1990 result was 527 (std err. 268). Counts of juveniles were higher in 1990 than in 1988; 23 closely associated cow-calf pairs were identified, compared with 3 in 1988.

STENSON, G.B., I.-H. NI, R.A. MYERS, M.O. HAMMILL, W.G. WARREN, M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1991. Aerial survey estimates of pup production of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and off Newfoundland during March 1990. CAFSAC Res. Doc., 91/83, 38 p .

Pup population of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) in the Northwest Atlantic has not been assessed since early 1980's even though there has been a large reduction in the numbers of animals taken in the commercial harvest since that time. aerial photographic and visual surveys were conducted in March 1990 to estimate pup production in the Front and Gulf of St. Lawrence whelping concentrations. Data obtained on the proportion of pups in identifiable age-dependent developmental stages were used to correct the estimates for pups which may not have been present at the time of the survey. Three whelping concentrations were located at the Front while two were located in the Gulf. At the Front, total pup production in the concentrations, based on visual surveys, was estimated be 467,200 harp seal pups (SE=31,200). The total pup production for both concentrations and scattered pups estimated from aerial photographic survey was 536,400 pups (SE=115,300), although this was not considered to be as reliable as the visual estimate due to the assumptions involved in combining surveys. Pup production in the Gulf (Magdalen Islands and Mecatina patches) was estimated to be 110,600 (SE=23,000). Thus, total pup production in the Northwest Atlantic, based on visual estimates at the Front and photographic estimates in the Gulf, is 577,900 (SE=38,000).

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1991. Compte rendu du Symposium et de l'Atelier de travail sur le plan de recherches sur le béluga du Saint-Laurent, 5 et 6 mars 1991. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2126, 48 p .

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Within the framework of the programme of research on the beluga of the St. Lawrence, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Québec Region) organized a symposium to present results obtained since 1988. Following the symposium, a workshop on the programme of research was held with the collaboration of researchers from governmental agencies, universities and the private sector. Various options were proposed to orient the research programme for the next two years.

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., I. STIRLING, 1991. Haul-out behaviour of ringed and bearded seals in relation to defence against surface predators. Can. J. Zool., 69: 1857-1861 .

The ringed seal, Phoca hispida, hauls out at the edge of self-maintained breathing holes or narrow cracks, either in fast ice or in the centre of large floes in pack ice, apparently because this reduces its vulnerability to capture by polar bears, Ursus maritimus. Antipredator behaviour of ringed seals at haul-out sites also includes lying facing both their breathing hole and downwind, and vigilance. The much larger bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, hauls out on the edges of wide leads or large holes in the ice, or on the points of small ice floes, and also faces both the water and downwind. Ice-associated seals which are not threatened by surface predators do not show these behaviour patterns.©1991 National Research Council Canada

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1991. Proceedings of the Symposium and Workshop on the Research Plan for the Beluga of the St. Lawrence, March 5 and 6, 1991. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2126, 44 p .

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Within the framework of the programme of research on the beluga of the St. Lawrence, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Québec Region) organized a symposium to present results obtained since 1988. Following the symposium, a workshop on the programme of research was held with the collaboration of researchers from governmental agencies, universities and the private sector. Various options were proposed to orient the research programme for the next two years.

THERRIAULT, J.-C., J. PAINCHAUD, P. HODSON, M. CASTONGUAY, G. WALSH, J. GEARING, M. KINGSLEY, B. TESSIER, 1990. Le plan d'action Saint-Laurent à la Direction des sciences, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne : orientations et objectifs. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2055, 15 p .

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The authors from the Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Quebec, Canada, present a research plan that will add to their knowledge of the causes and effects of the chemical pollution of the St. Lawrence River.

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., M.O. HAMMILL, B.P. KELLY, 1990. Infrared sensing of the under-snow lairs of the ringed seal. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 6: 339-347 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1990. Status of the ringed seal, Phoca hispida, in Canada. Can. Field-Nat., 104: 138-145 .

KINGSLEY, M., 1990. The narwhal. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Underwater World, 61), 8 p .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1990. Polar bear attack on a juvenile narwhal. Fauna Norv. Ser., A11: 57-58 .

KINGSLEY, M., 1990. Le narval. Ministère des pêches et des océans (Le monde sous-marin, 61), 8 p .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1990. Counting whales. Pages 75-78 in J. Prescott & M. Gauquelin (ed.). For the future of the beluga : proceedings of the International Forum for the Future of the Beluga. Presses de l'Université du Québec, Sillery, Québec .

BYERS, T.W., M.C.S. KINGSLEY, 1990. Extrauterine pregnancy in a ringed seal, Phoca hispida, from Thesiger Bay, Northwest Territories. Mar. Mamm. Sci., 6: 243-247 .

KINGSLEY, M., 1989. Population dynamics of the narwhal Monodon monoceros : an initial assessment (Odontoceti : Monodontidae). J. Zool., 219: 201-208 .

KINGSLEY, M.C.S., 1989. The distribution of hauled-out ringed seals and an interpretation of Taylor's law. Oecologia, 79: 106-110 .