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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Sylvain HURTUBISE

DUTIL, J. -D., S. PROULX, S. HURTUBISE, J. GAUTHIER, 2010. Recent findingl on the life history and catches of wolffish (Anarhichas sp.) in research surveys and in the Sentinel Fisheries and Observer Program for the Estuary and Gulf of St-Lawrence Nouvelles données sur la biologie et les captures de loups (Anarhichas sp.)dans les relevés de recherche, et dans les Pêches sentinelles et le Programme des observateurs pour l’estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2010/126, 81 p .

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The three species of wolffish that inhabit the eastern Canadian Coast are considered as being at risk. Two species are listed as threatened (Anarhichas denticulatus, Anarhichas minor) whereas the third species (Anarhichas lupus) is listed as being of special concern. Since 2000 and 2001 when the status of those species was first assessed, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans has taken steps to facilitate their recovery. From a research and monitoring perspective, concrete actions included collecting more data and better data on which to base conservation measures in the future, as well as supporting research on life history, distribution and habitat associations of all three species. The present report reviews recent projects and publications on wolffish based on material collected in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and addressing the following topics: fish species assemblages to which wolffish are associated, use of shelters by juvenile spotted wolffish, diving and towed camera surveys, metabolism, growth and reproductive biology, including new tools for fish identification and critical reviews of fish identifications on research surveys. Catch and effort data were aggregated using a grid made up of 100 km2 square cells. The probability of catching wolffish of a given species in a set and within a cell (relative occurrence) was calculated as the ratio of the number of sets in which a species was recorded and the total number of sets made. This method allows the mapping of catch and effort for numerous time series based on data from different programs in both the whole study area (research surveys and Sentinel Fisheries using bottom trawls and a random stratified design) or in specific areas within the Gulf. The method also allows an estimate of surface areas occupied by each species and lends itself to matching area of occupancy and characteristics of the habitat. The data suggest no temporal trend in abundance. Wolffish represent a small biomass compared to other demersal species, with northern wolffish being very rare. The west coast of Newfoundland appears to be a hot spot for the distribution of spotted and striped wolffish in the Gulf.

SCALLON-CHOUINARD, P.-M., J.-D. DUTIL, S. HURTUBISE, 2007. Liste des espèces de poissons inventoriés dans l’estuaire maritime du Saint-Laurent entre 1930 et 2005. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2719, 64 p .

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Data concerning species of fish that inhabit the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, i.e., the section between Ile Rouge and Pointe des Monts, are fragmentary particularly for those species not harvested commercially. There is no account of each species distribution in the area, not to mention their life history. The present report provides an exhaustive list of fish species reported in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary. Three sources of information were examined, primary publications and reports, and two data bases, DFO’s At-Sea Observer Program data base (landings, 1991-2005) and DFO’s annual groundfish and northern shrimp abundance survey for the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence area (1978 - 2003). The lower St. Lawrence Estuary has a diversified fish fauna: reliable or multiple data sources have recorded and confirmed 99 species. These species belong to 80 different genus and 41 different families. Many of those species may reside in the study area whereas others are rare or occasional visitors or transit through the area en route to freshwater or the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Only 25 of those species were reported for the Manicouagan marine protected area during the same period

LESAGE, V., J. KEAYS, S. TURGEON, S. HURTUBISE, 2006. Bycatch of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the gillnet fishery of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, 2000-2002. J. Cetacean Res. Manage., 8(1): 67-78 .

The incidental catch of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the gillnet fishery of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, was examined using: (1) questionnaires mailed to fishermen inquiring about bycatches in 2000 and 2001 (n=2,277 or 44 % of the fishermen with valid licenses); and (2) using data from an at-sea observer programme and sentinel fishery programme in 2001 and 2002. The questionnaire survey had a low response rate (22 %) and provided bycatch estimates of 2,215 (95 % CI 1,151-3,662) and 2,394 (95 % CI 1,440-3,348) porpoises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The low number of hauls monitored by at-sea observers prevented the estimation of bycatch levels for several zones and the study area as a whole, and provided only imprecise estimates for all other zones. The results from questionnaires indicated a 24-63 % reduction in harbour porpoise bycatches since the late 1980s, whereas the at-sea observer programme provided bycatch levels for 2001 and 2002 that were unreliable and underestimated, approaching one quarter of those documented in the late 1980s. Although both indices indicated a decrease in bycatches since the late 1980s, the magnitude of this change remains uncertain given the weaknesses associated with the two approaches. Considering the maximum population rate of increase (Rmax) for harbour porpoises as 4 % and the lower and upper 95 % confidence limits (1,440-3,348) of our most reliable estimate of bycatches (i.e. the 2001 questionnaire survey results), the harbour porpoise population in the Gulf of St. Lawrence would need to be at least 36,000-83,700 individuals for current incidental catches to be sustainable. If the rate of increase is less than maximal, e.g. 0.5Rmax or 2 %, then 72,000-167,400 harbour porpoises would be needed to attain sustainability. Kingsley and Reeves (1998) estimated that an average 36,000 to 125,000 porpoises occupied the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summers of 1995 and 1996. Although the trajectory of the population since it was last surveyed in 1996 is uncertain, these findings suggest that bycatch levels might remain a cause for concern for the harbour porpoise population in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The results from the comparison between the sentinel fishery and the commercial fishery subjected and not subjected to at-sea observations suggest that fine-scale temporal and spatial changes in fishing activities may greatly affect harbour porpoise bycatch levels. ©2006 International Whaling Commission

LESAGE, V., J. KEAYS, S. TURGEON, S. HURTUBISE, 2004. Incidental catches of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the gillnet fishery of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2000-2002. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2552, 37p .

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The incidental catch of harbour porpoises as a by-catch of the gillnet fishery of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence was evaluated using questionnaires to fishermen in 2000 and 2001, and At-sea Observers and Sentinel Fisheries programs in 2001 and 2002. Of the 2277 fishermen receiving the by-catch questionnaire, 215 (9 %) responded, and 165 reported being actively fishing in 2000 or 2001. Of these, 34 (23%nbsp;%) and 45 (27 %) fishermen recorded having taken a total of 181 and 291 harbour porpoises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The largest takes were in July and August from zones 4R, Miscou and the North Shore. These takes resulted in mean by-catch rates of 1.25 (SD = 5.0) and 1.76 (SD = 4.7) porpoises per reporting fisherman in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Extrapolation of these by-catch rates to the entire gillnet fishing fleet resulted in an estimated total by-catch of 2180 (95 % CI 1012-3802) and 2478 (95 % CI 1591-3464) porpoises for the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2000 and 2001, respectively. For 2001 and 2002, a total of 786 and 882 bottom-set gillnet hauls that were monitored by At-sea observers recorded harbour porpoise by-catches of 4 and 6 individuals, respectively. At-sea observer activities were conducted in close conjunction with the Atlantic cod and Greenland halibut commercial fishery. However, the low number of hauls that were monitored by At-sea observers prevented the calculation of by-catch estimates for several zones and the study area as a whole, and provided only imprecise estimates for all other zones. Sentinel fisheries resulted in 86 and 77 by-catches in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Depending on the year, incidental takes of harbour porpoises by this fishery peaked in late August or early September, even though their activity peaked earlier, in late July to late August in 2001 and 2002, respectively. The number of takes per haul for the Sentinel fishery was higher than that reported through the At-sea Observer program, even though the former was spread over a longer period, when target species of the fishery might have been less abundant. Significant differences in fishing behaviour were observed between commercial fisheries, commercial fisheries with At-sea observers on board, and Sentinel fisheries. Specifically, Sentinel fisheries soaked nets of similar length but of smaller mesh, at deeper depths, for longer periods, and for a lesser quantity of landed fish than was the case for commercial fisheries with an observer on board. In addition, plotting the fishing locations in the Miscou area (NAFO 4Tn) indicated that at least in August and early September 2001, not only was there no overlap in fishing location between Sentinel fisheries and commercial fisheries under the At-Sea Observer program, but there was also no overlap between commercial fisheries with observers on board and commercial fisheries not subject to an at-sea observation. Commercial and Sentinel fisheries generally followed the 60-m isobath, whereas fishing activities with At-sea observers on board occurred in shallower waters, inside Miscou bank. In 2002, periods of activity by At-sea Observer and Sentinel fisheries in Area 4Tn did not overlap in time, but did overlap spatially.

MORIN, B., S. HURTUBISE, 2003. Shrimp fishery bycatches of redfish and review of the possible causes of the disappearance of the 1988 year-class. Pages 95-98 in Gascon, D. (ed.). Redfish Multidisciplinary Research Zonal Program (1995-1998): Final Report. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2462, 139 p .

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LESAGE, V., J. KEAYS, S. TURGEON, S. HURTUBISE, 2003. Incidental mortality of harbour porpoises in the gillnet fishery of the Estuary and Gulf of St Lawrence in 2000-2002 ; Prises accidentelles de marsouins communs associées aux pêcheries au filet maillant de l'estuaire du golfe et du Saint-Laurent en 2000-2002. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2003/069, 34 p .

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The incidental mortality of harbour porpoises as a by-catch of the gillnet fishery of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence was evaluated using questionnaires to fishermen in 2000 and 2001, and At-sea Observers and Sentinel Fisheries programs in 2001 and 2002. Of the 2277 fishermen receiving the by-catch questionnaire, 215 (9 %) responded, and 165 reported being actively fishing in 2000 or 2001. Of these, 34 (23%) and 45 (27 %) fishermen recorded having taken a total of 181 and 291 harbour porpoises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The largest takes were in July and August from zones 4R, Miscou and the North Shore. These takes resulted in mean by-catch rates of 1.25 (SD = 5.0) and 1.76 (SD = 4.7) porpoises per reporting fisherman in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Extrapolation of these by-catch rates to the entire gillnet fishing fleet resulted in an estimated total by-catch of 2180 (95 % CI 1012-3802) and 2478 (95 % CI 1591-3464) porpoises for the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2000 and 2001, respectively. For 2001 and 2002, a total of 786 and 882 bottom-set gillnet hauls that were monitored by At-sea observers recorded harbour porpoise by-catches of 4 and 6 individuals, respectively. At-sea observer activities were conducted in close conjunction with the Atlantic cod and Greenland halibut commercial fishery. However, the low number of hauls that were monitored by At-sea observers prevented the calculation of by-catch estimates for several zones and the study area as a whole, and provided only imprecise estimates for all other zones. Sentinel fisheries resulted in 86 and 77 by-catches in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Depending on the year, incidental takes of harbour porpoises by this fishery peaked in late August or early September, even though their activity peaked earlier, in late July to late August in 2001 and 2002, respectively. The number of takes per haul for the Sentinel fishery was higher than that reported through the At-sea Observer program, even though the former was spread over a longer period, when target species of the fishery might have been less abundant. Significant differences in fishing behaviour were observed between commercial fisheries, commercial fisheries with At-sea observers on board, and Sentinel fisheries. Specifically, Sentinel fisheries soaked nets of similar length but of smaller mesh, at deeper depths, for longer periods, and for a lesser quantity of landed fish than was the case for commercial fisheries with an observer on board. In addition, plotting the fishing locations in the Miscou area (NAFO 4Tn) indicated that at least in August and early September 2001, not only was there no overlap in fishing location between Sentinel fisheries and commercial fisheries under the At-Sea Observer program, but there was also no overlap between commercial fisheries with observers on board and commercial fisheries not subject to an at-sea observation. Commercial and Sentinel fisheries generally followed the 60-m isobath, whereas fishing activities with At-sea observers on board occurred in shallower waters, inside Miscou bank. In 2002, periods of activity by At-sea Observer and Sentinel fisheries in Area 4Tn did not overlap in time, but did overlap spatially.

GRÉGOIRE, F., S. HURTUBISE, 1996. Les prises accessoires de capelan (Mallotus villosus) dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent entre 1990 et 1995. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 96/55, 59 p .

The present report describes the importance of the capelin catches in the shrimp and groundfish fisheries in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The data used for the analyses were collected through the Observer program conducted in the Gulf between 1990 and 1995. The sampling coverage of this program is important so the results obtained can be considered representative of the entire fleets. In the shrimpers case, one estimates that the accidental catches of capelin range from 500 t to 600 t annually. Nordmore grid does not exclude all capelin, but at least reduces its catch. Other species are also caught with capelin. Some of them are strongly linked together.

GRÉGOIRE, F., S. HURTUBISE, D. ARCHAMBAULT, R. MORNEAU, H. BOUCHARD, 1995. Analyses des données de pêche et de recherche sur le capelan (Mallotus villosus) du golfe du Saint-Laurent. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 95/55, 64 p .

Annual landings of capelin in Divisions 4RST remained stable and inferior to 2,000 t until 1977. The new market for ovigerous females is responsible for the recent increase. Landings increased to almost 10,000 t in 1978, 1979 and 1989 and have remained at over 6,000 t since then. During the last two years, the most significant subdivisions in terms of landings were 4Rc, 4Sw and 4Tp. Only two or three age groups dominate capelin catches by age in Division 4R. Also in this division, catches by length indicate a decrease in the size of male and female capelin caught over the last few years. Capelin bycatch during winter groundfish assessment surveys was especially significant in the Esquiman Channel. During summer surveys, capelin were caught all over the northern Gulf. However, greater concentrations were ovserved west and east of Anticosti Island and on the west coast of Newfoundland. At present, on account of limited resources, there are not sufficient data to carry out an assessment of capelin biomass in the Gulf. In the meantime, further study could be conducted on the capelin data obtained during annual groundfish and shrimp assessment surveys.

BOUDREAU, P., M.M. ROBERGE, S. HURTUBISE, J.-D. LAMBERT, 1994. Canadian research report for 1993. Section III, Quebec region. NAFO SCS Doc., 94/10: 16-24 .

HURTUBISE, S., 1994. Pêche et caractéristiques biologiques du capelan (Mallotus villosus) dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 94/28, 24 p .

HURTUBISE, S., 1993. Pêche et caractéristiques biologiques du capelan (Mallotus villosus) dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent 1984-1992. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 219, 25 p .

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Data gathered since 1984 from a commercial sampling program of capelin catches and shrimp-groundfish survey catches between 1990 and 1992 are analysed to update our knowledge of the fishery and biological characteristics of the species. Distributional patterns for the capelin in Gulf of St. Lawrence are relatively constant from year to year. The main length classes change from year to year but three year old fish are always predominant. Males are generally longer and heavier than females of the same age. For a given length, capelin from Division 4R weigh more than those from 4S and 4T Divisions. The fishery is based on the presence of only two age classes and ripe females are the main target. Therefore, landings fluctuate in response to recruitment variations. Results presented here may help those involved in this fishery when considering new market possibilities.

SAVARD, L., S. HURTUBISE, H. BOUCHARD, 1993. Évaluation des agrégations de crevettes nordiques (Pandalus borealis) du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (divisions 4RST de l'OPANO). MPO, Document de recherche sur les pêches dans l'Atlantique, 93/20, 41 p .

In 1992, the abundance of shrimp in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence returned to a level that seems comparable to that of the mid 1980s. The increase in the late 1980s was due to several successive years of good recruitment. Catch rates increased as these cohorts entered the fishery and changed sex to attain the sizes targeted by fishermen. Estimated fishery recruitment (male shrimp) in 1992 stands at the average that has been observed since 1982. In 1993 and subsequently, catch rates and abundance should stabilize or diminish in step with exploitation of the abundant cohorts.

SAVARD, L., S. HURTUBISE, J.-M. SÉVIGNY, 1993. Les nouvelles unités de gestion de la pêche à la crevette nordique (Pandalus borealis) dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent. MPO, Document de recherche sur les pêches dans l'Atlantique, 93/21, 32 p .

The management units for the shrimp fishery were set up in the early 1980s, on the basis of the sectors known and exploited by fishermen. However, the expansion of the fishery in the course of that decade has called into question certain of the boundaries between these management units. A restructuring of the management units is therefore proposed, to make for a better match between the shrimp aggregations they support and the sectors exploited by fishermen. The four sites where there is higher abundance of shrimp are well isolated from each other. The units support all stages of shrimp development; this is an indication of their capacity to ensure a certain level of recruitment to the fishery. The preliminary results of genetic analyses done on shrimp caught at different sites in the Gulf do not enable us to formally identify genetically distinct populations. Thus there is a mixing, which may be more or less significant, among the management units.

HURTUBISE, S., 1993. Fishery and biological characteristics of the capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 1984-1992. Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 219, 31 p .

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Data gathered since 1984 from a commercial sampling program of capelin catches and shrimp-groundfish survey catches between 1990 and 1992 are analysed to update our knowledge of the fishery and biological characteristics of the species. Distributional patterns for the capelin in Gulf of St. Lawrence are relatively constant from year to year. The main length classes change from year to year but three year old fish are always predominant. Males are generally longer and heavier than females of the same age. For a given length, capelin from Division 4R weigh more than those from 4S and 4T Divisions. The fishery is based on the presence of only two age classes and ripe females are the main target. Therefore, landings fluctuate in response to recruitment variations. Results presented here may help those involved in this fishery when considering new market possibilities.

HURTUBISE, S., P. GAGNON, 1993. Survey trawl research at Maurice Lamontagne Institute. Pages 37-39 in S.J. Walsh, P.A. Koeller & W.D. McKone (ed.). Proceedings of the International Workshop on Survey Trawl Mensuration, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre ...1991. Department of fisheries and oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1911) .

HURTUBISE, S., A. FRÉCHET, L. SAVARD, 1992. Les captures accessoires sur les crevettiers et les sébastiers du golfe du Saint-Laurent. CSCPCA doc. rech., 92/60, 14 p .

SIMARD, Y., J. BENOÎT, M. DESGAGNÉS, L. SAVARD, S. HURTUBISE, 1992. Atlas de la pêche à la crevette nordique (Pandalus borealis) dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent 1982-1991 : captures, effort, rendement, saison ; Atlas of the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishing in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 1982 - 1991 : catch, effort, yield, season. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1900, 73 p .

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The information gathered in the fishing logbooks of shrimp trawlers operating in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 1982 to 1991 inclusively is used to generate an atlas of this important fishing activity. The data are first checked for erroneous or incomplete records. The proportion of available valid information compared to the landings at the fish plants is calculated for each of the 5 fishing management units. Simple maps of weighted catch, of available effort and yields are then computed per year and per season; March-May and June– December. Maps of best significant annual yields, based on the available data, are then calculated. Summary maps joining the information of all years follow. They are maps of : total catch, mean catch and its standard deviation, for the whole fishing period or per season; mean monthly relative catch; weighted mean yield and its standard deviation over the whole fishing period or per season.

SAVARD, L., S. HURTUBISE, 1991. Évaluation des concentrations de crevettes nordiques (Pandalus borealis) du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (divisions 4RST de l'OPANO). CSCPCA doc. rech., 91/71, 35 p .

LABERGE, E., S. HURTUBISE, 1989. Évaluation du stock de sébaste (Sebastes spp.) des divisions 4RST de l'OPANO. CSCPCA doc. rech., 89/50, 47 p .