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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Peter V. HODSON

COUILLARD, C.M., P.V. HODSON, 1996. Pigmented macrophage aggregates : a toxic response in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15: 1844-1854 .

COUILLARD, C., P.V. HODSON, P. GAGNON, J.J. DODSON, 1995. Lesions and parasites in white suckers, Catostomus commersoni, in bleached-kraft pulp mill-contaminated and reference rivers. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 14: 1051-1060 .

HODSON, P.V., M. CASTONGUAY, C.M. COUILLARD, C. DESJARDINS, E. PELLETIER, R. McLEOD, 1994. Spatial and temporal variations in chemical contamination of American eels, Anguilla rostrata, captured in the estuary of the St. Lawrence River. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 51: 464-478 .

HODSON, P.V., D. BUISSIÈRES, M.M. GAGNON, J.J. DODSON, C.M. COUILLARD, J.C. CAREY, 1992. Review of biochemical, physiological, pathological and population responses of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) to BKME in the St. Maurice River, Quebec. Pages 261-269 in A. Sodergren (ed.). Environmental fate and effects of bleached pulp mill effluents : proceedings of the International Conference, Stockholm, November, 1991 (Swedish EPA Report 4031) .

HODSON, P.V., M. McWHIRTER, K. RALPH, B. GRAY, D. THIVIERGE, J.H. CAREY, G. VAN DER KRAAK, D.M. WHITTLE, M.-C. LÉVESQUE, 1992. Effects of bleached kraft mill effluent on fish in the St. Maurice River, Quebec. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 11: 1635-1651 .

HODSON, P.V., C. DESJARDINS, É. PELLETIER, M. CASTONGUAY, R. McLEOD, C.M. COUILLARD, 1992. Baisse de la pollution chimique des anguilles d'Amérique (Anguilla rostrata) capturées dans l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 1876, 60 p .

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American eels, Anguilla rostrata, are catadromous, and grow to maturity in Lake Ontario and in tributaries to the St. Lawrence River. Concern for mass mortalities of adult eels, high levels of chemical contamination, and a recent decline of recruitment prompted a study of the role of contaminants in the health of eels, the role of eels as vectors of contaminants to Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and the changes in contamination since an earlier large scale survey in 1982. Mercury, PCB, mirex and pesticide levels were measured in migratory adult eels in Kamouraska, Québec. Similar analyses were conducted on two eel samples from fishermen in Cacouna and Saint-Irénée, and on a control eel sample from a small tributary of the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Dioxins, furans and PAH concentrations were also determined on a small number of fish. Results indicate that eels from the upper St. Lawrence River/Lake Ontario were much more contaminated with PCBs, mirex and pesticides than the control population; concentrations did not vary among sites on the St. Lawrence River. Levels of PCBs and mirex have declined by 68 and 56 % respectively since 1982. Only 36 % of eels analyzed exceeded the guidelines for PCBs in fish, compared to 80 % in 1982; for mirex, the percentage declined from 52 % in 1982 to 29 % in 1990. Levels of PCBs, mirex and pesticides varied among weeks with a slight trend of increasing concentrations towards the end of the migration. Concentrations of PAH, dioxins and furans were usually less than their detection limits, and well below any guidelines. These results suggest that the risk of organic chemical toxicity to Belugas from consuming eels is declining from year to year. Mercury levels were constant among sites and times, indicating that accumulation originates mostly from natural sources or atmospheric deposition.

HODSON, P.V., C. DESJARDINS, É. PELLETIER, M. CASTONGUAY, R. McLEOD, C.M. COUILLARD, 1992. Decrease in chemical contamination of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) captured in the Estuary of the St. Lawrence River. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1876, 57 p .

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American eels, Anguilla rostrata, are catadromous, and grow to maturity in Lake Ontario and in tributaries to the St. Lawrence River. Concern for mass mortalities of adult eels, high levels of chemical contamination, and a recent decline of recruitment prompted a study of the role of contaminants in the health of eels, the role of eels as vectors of contaminants to Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and the changes in contamination since an earlier large scale survey in 1982. Mercury, PCB, mirex and pesticide levels were measured in migratory adult eels in Kamouraska, Québec. Similar analyses were conducted on two eel samples from fishermen in Cacouna and Saint-Irénée, and on a control eel sample from a small tributary of the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Dioxins, furans and PAH concentrations were also determined on a small number of fish. Results indicate that eels from the upper St. Lawrence River/Lake Ontario were much more contaminated with PCBs, mirex and pesticides than the control population; concentrations did not vary among sites on the St. Lawrence River. Levels of PCBs and mirex have declined by 68 and 56 % respectively since 1982. Only 36 % of eels analyzed exceeded the guidelines for PCBs in fish, compared to 80 % in 1982; for mirex, the percentage declined from 52 % in 1982 to 29 % in 1990. Levels of PCBs, mirex and pesticides varied among weeks with a slight trend of increasing concentrations towards the end of the migration. Concentrations of PAH, dioxins and furans were usually less than their detection limits, and well below any guidelines. These results suggest that the risk of organic chemical toxicity to Belugas from consuming eels is declining from year to year. Mercury levels were constant among sites and times, indicating that accumulation originates mostly from natural sources or atmospheric deposition.

HODSON, P.V., R. PARISELLA, B. BLUNT, B. GRAY, K.L.E. KAISER, 1991. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for chronic toxicity of phenol, p-chlorophenol, 2-4 dichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, p-nitrophenol and 1, 2, 4, -trichlorobenzene to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1784, 55 p .

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Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to waterborne phenol, p-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, p-nitrophenol or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene for 85 days. This period included full egg development from the day of fertilization, plus hatching, yolk resorption and four weeks of feeding as freely-swimming fry. The primary effects of exposure were to reduce growth rate and to increase mortality rate. Growth inhibition was the most sensitive response since it occurred at exposure levels equal to or lower than those that increased mortality rates. Changes in development rate, growth efficiency and percent moisture were also observed after exposure to some chemicals. Changes within experiments due to treatment effects were generally larger than observed variations of control responses compared among experiments. Threshold exposure concentrations for the chronic toxicity of each chemical were calculated from regressions of the responses against the logarithms of exposure concentrations. The threshold was that concentration predicted to change a response by 25 % relative to the control responses. The orger of toxicity based on these thresholds was phenol < p-nitrophenol < p-chlorophenol < 2,4-dichlorophenol < 1, 2, 4-trichloro-benzene. Thresholds for pentachlorophenol were also calculated from a published study of chronic toxicity to give a larger data base. These data defined a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) between the logarithm of threshold effect concentrations and the logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient. This QSAR was parallel to a QSAR for the acute lethality of these same chemicals. Since the ratio of the slopes of the two QSARs was 0.10, the data suggests that there is a constant ratio of about 0.10 between chronic and acute toxicity.

HODSON, P.V., P.J. KLOEPPER-SAMS, K.R. MUNKITTRICK, W.L. LOCKHART, D.A. METNER, L. LUXON, I.R. SMITH, M.M. GAGNON, M. SERVOS, J.F. PAYNE, 1991. Protocols for measuring mixed function oxygenases of fish liver. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1829, 49 p .

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This document was prepared in response to requirements for protocols under Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) Programs proposed as part of revisions to Canada's Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations of the Federal Fisheries Act (1991). Field research programs in Scandinavia and North America consistently demonstrated that activity of liver mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes of fish reflected exposure to chemical inducers associated with effluents from pulp mills using chlorine bleaching. Induction of activity was strongly correlated to other important effects on fish and fish populations. Since the measurement of MFO activity was a logical addition to EEM programs, a workshop sponsored by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and by Environment Canada was convened at the Freshwater Institue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in November, 1990 to review the theoretical and practical aspects of MFO measurements. The participants agreed that measurements of MFO activity were suitable and useful indicators of chemical contamination from pulp mills using chlorine bleaching, and that a practical protocol could be prepared. This protocol is the direct result of that workshop and is intended for use by biologists with laboratory experience in biochemistry. This protocol should not be used in isolation, but should be an integral part of EEM programs, as an early step in tier-testing to direct further studies of chemical contamination and biological impacts.

THERRIAULT, J.-C., J. PAINCHAUD, P. HODSON, M. CASTONGUAY, G. WALSH, J. GEARING, M. KINGSLEY, B. TESSIER, 1990. Le plan d'action Saint-Laurent à la Direction des sciences, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne : orientations et objectifs. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2055, 15 p .

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The authors from the Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Quebec, Canada, present a research plan that will add to their knowledge of the causes and effects of the chemical pollution of the St. Lawrence River.

HODSON, P.V., 1990. Indicators of ecosystem health at the species level and the example of selenium effects on fish. Environ. Monit. Assess., 15: 241-254 .

HODSON, P.V., 1990. Commentary fish community health assessment : a useful concept?. J. Great Lakes Res., 16(4): 628-630 .