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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Michel HARVEY

LICANDRO, P., E. HEAD, A. GISLASON, M.C. BENFIELD, M. HARVEY, P. MARGONSKI, J. SILKE, 2011. Overview of trends in plankton communities. Pages 103-122 in P.C. Reid, L. Valdés (ed.). ICES status report on climate change in the North Atlantic (ICES Coop. Res. Rep., 310) .

DUFOUR, R., H. BENOIT, M. CASTONGUAY, J. CHASSÉ, L. DEVINE, P. GALBRAITH, M. HARVEY, P. LAROUCHE, S. LESSARD, B. PETRIE, L. SAVARD, C. SAVENKOFF, L. ST-AMAND, M. STARR, 2010. 2010 Canadian marine ecosystem status and trends report. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2010/030(Revised), 38 p .

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DUFOUR, R., H. BENOIT, M. CASTONGUAY, J. CHASSÉ, L. DEVINE, P. GALBRAITH, M. HARVEY, P. LAROUCHE, S. LESSARD, B. PETRIE, L. SAVARD, C. SAVENKOFF, L. ST-AMAND, M. STARR, 2010. Rapport sur l'état et les tendances des écosystèmes marins canadiens en 2010. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2010/030(révisé), 43 p .

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DUFOUR, R., H. BENOIT, M. CASTONGUAY, J. CHASSÉ, L. DEVINE, P. GALBRAITH, M. HARVEY, P. LAROUCHE, S. LESSARD, B. PETRIE, L. SAVARD, C. SAVENKOFF, L. ST-AMAND, M. STARR, 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence ecozone. Rapport sur l’état et les tendances des écosystèmes : écozone de l’estuaire et du golfe du Saint Laurent. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche; 2010/030, 193 p .

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This document was produced under the umbrella of the national ecosystem status and trends report program and deal with the estuary and gulf of St.Lawrence ecozone. It is structured around the status and trends of some important marine species and physico-chemical variables of the ecosystem. The national ecosystem status and trends report will support prioruty-setting for a national biodiversity agenda and will integrate national and provincial exosystem-bases information. It will report on many large terrestrial and marine ecozones.

ARCHAMBAULT, P., P.V.R. SNELGROVE, J.A.D. FISHER, J.M. GAGNON, D.J. GARBARY, M. HARVEY, E.L. KENCHINGTON, V. LESAGE, M. LEVESQUE, C. LOVEJOY, D.L. MACKAS, C.W. MCKINDSEY, J.R. NELSON, P. PEPIN, L. PICHE, M. POULIN, 2010. From Sea to Sea: Canada's Three Oceans of biodiversity. PLoS ONE, 5(8): 1-26 .

Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas) constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea), and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to serve as a biodiversity baseline for a new program on marine biodiversity, the Canadian Healthy Ocean Network. A major effort needs to be undertaken to establish a complete baseline of Canadian marine biodiversity of all taxonomic groups, especially if we are to understand and conserve this part of Canada's natural heritage.©2010PLoS one.

HARVEY, M., L. DEVINE, 2010. Nine years of zooplankton monitoring in the St.Lawrence Marine System (2001-2009). AZMP Bull. PMZA, 10: 32-36 .

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SIMARD, Y., M. HARVEY, 2010. Predation on Northern Krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars). Adv. Mar. Biol., 57: 277-306 .

We consider predation as a function of prey concentration with a focus on how this interaction is influenced by biological–physical interactions, and wider oceanographic processes. In particular, we examine how the anti-predation behaviour of Northern krill interacts with ocean-circulation process to influence its vulnerability to predation. We describe how three-dimensional (3D) circulation interacts with in situ light levels to modulate predator–prey interactions from small to large scales, and illustrate how the stability of the predator–prey system is sometimes perturbed as a consequence. Northern krill predators include a wide range of species from the pelagic and benthic strata, as well as birds. Many exhibit adaptations in their feeding strategy to take advantage of the dynamic physical–biological processes that determine the distribution, concentration and vulnerability of Northern krill. Among them, baleen whales appear to have developed particularly efficient predation strategies. A literature search indicates that Northern krill are a major contributor to ecosystem function throughout its distributional range, and a key species with respect to the flow of energy to upper trophic levels. A list of future research needed to fill gaps in our understanding of Northern krill predator–prey interaction is provided.©2010 Elsevier Ltd.

HARVEY, M., P. GALBRAITH, 2009. Macrozooplankton diel migration in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence : links to abiotic factors. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 8: 28-35 .

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HARVEY, M., L. DEVINE, 2009. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2008 : zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l’estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 2008 : zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2009/083, 60 p .

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This document provides an overview of the temporal variability of zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition in 2008 at four fixed stations and seven sections of the AZMP as well as an overview of the interannual variability of the macrozooplankton species composition, abundance, and biomass in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence (NWGSL) from 1994 to 2008. Compared to the 1999–2007 average, the state of the zooplankton at the four Québec fixed stations in 2008 was estimated as lower than normal (zooplankton biomass) and above normal (total non-copepod abundance, total copepod abundance, Calanus finmarchicus abundance, Pseudocalanus spp. Abundance) at AG and GC; lower than normal (zooplankton biomass), normal (total non-copepod abundance, total copepod abundance, Pseudocalanus spp. Abundance), and above normal (C. finmarchicus abundance) at RS; and normal (zooplankton biomass, C. finmarchicus abundance, Pseudocalanus spp. Abundance) and above normal (total non-copepod abundance, total copepod abundance) at SV. In addition, some changes in the zooplankton community structure were observed over the time series, including some changes in the rank of the top ten taxa and the appearance of new taxa in the dominant species (top ten): Temora spp. And appendicularians at AG; Temora spp., cladocera, and bivalve larvae at GC; Paraeuchaeta norvegica and Calanus glacialis at SV; and polychaete larvae at RS. The biomass indices of Calanus hyperboreus and the mesozooplankton along the seven Québec sections in spring and fall 2008 were estimated to be normal or below normal except in the LSLE (TESL), where the C. hyperboreus biomass was evaluated as above normal. For the nine zooplankton abundance indices, most were evaluated as normal or above normal in spring 2008 except that below normal abundances were found for copepod nauplii along the TESL and TIDM sections, for mesozooplankton (excluding copepods) in the centre and the northeast GSL (TCEN, TBB), and for krill larvae in Cabot Strait (TDC). The situation was very different for the fall period: some of the abundance indices were still evaluated as normal or above normal (total copepods, copepod nauplii, small copepods, carnivorous zooplankton, mesozooplankton excluding copepods, krill larvae) and some others as normal or below normal (large copepods, C. finmarchicus CIV–CV, meroplankton). In addition, some changes in zooplankton composition were observed over the time series in each region, including some changes in the rank order of the top ten taxa and the appearance of new taxa in the top ten species: Eurytemora spp. And C. Glacialis in the LSLE (TESL); Temora spp. And copepod eggs in the northwest GSL (TSI); copepod eggs southwest of Anticosti Island (TASO); Paraeuchaeta norvegica and C. glacialis in the centre GSL (TCEN); C. glacialis in the northeast and southern GSL (TBB, TIDM); and Ostracoda in Cabot Strait (TDC). The mean mesozooplankton biomass observed in November 2008 in the LSLE and in the NWGSL was 1.8 and 1.4 times higher than in 2006 and 2007, respectively. This corresponds to the second highest value observed in the last 15 years in the study area. The mean macrozooplankton biomass decreased from 15.4 ww g/m2 in 2005 to 5.9 (2006), 8.6 (2007), and 6.2 (2008). The macrozooplankton biomass values observed in 2006, 2007, and 2008 correspond to the lowest values observed over the last 15 years. The most notable feature observed in the LSLE and NWGSL was the sharp decrease in the abundance of Thysanoessa raschii, which was 5.3 times less abundant in 2006, 2007, and 2008 compared to the previous 15 years. In addition, the mean abundance of the hyperiid amphipod Themisto libellula estimated in both regions in 2006, 2007, and 2008 corresponds to the lowest value observed over the previous last 15 years (except 2000).

HARVEY, M., P.S. GALBRAITH, A. DESCROIX, 2009. Vertical distribution and diel migration of macrozooplankton in the St. Lawrence marine system (Canada) in relation with the cold intermediate layer thermal properties. Prog. Oceanogr., 80(1-2): 1-21 .

Vertical distribution of various species and stages of macrozooplankton (euphausiacea, chaetognatha, cnidaria, mysidacea, amphipoda) were determined for different times of the day and related to the physical environment. Stratified sampling with the BIONESS was carried out during seven cruises in spring and fall 1998, 2000, and 2001, and fall 1999, in two different habitats in the St. Lawrence marine system: the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and the NW Gulf of St. Lawrence. Our results indicate that the various macrozooplankton species were distributed throughout the whole water column including the surface layer, the cold intermediate layer (CIL), and the deep layer at different times of day and night in both areas during all periods. Moreover, three types of migrational patterns were observed within this zooplanktonic community: (1) nocturnal ascent by the whole population, (2) segregation into two groups; one which performed nocturnal accent and another which remained in the deep, and (3) no detectable migration. We also observed that the diel vertical migration (DVM) amplitude in most of the macrozooplankton species varied as a function of physical factors, in particular the spatio-temporal variations of the CIL thermal properties, including the upper and the lower limits of the CIL and the depth of the CIL core temperature. Finally, the different DVM patterns coupled with estuarine circulation patterns and bottom topography could place animals in different flow regimes by night and by day and contribute to their retention (aggregation) and/or dispersion in different areas, time of the day, and seasons. Crown Copyright ©2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

MARION, A., M. HARVEY, D. CHABOT, J.-C. BRÊTHES, 2008. Feeding ecology and predation impact of the recently established amphipod, Themisto libellula, in the St. Lawrence marine system, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 373: 53-70 .

Themisto libellula was virtually absent from the St. Lawrence marine system (SLMS) before 1990. Since then, it has become an abundant, full-time resident of this system. Hyperiid amphipods of the genus Themisto are principally carnivorous and represent an essential link in the trophic pathway from secondary production to higher trophic levels. Sampling of T. libellula was carried out in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence (NWGSL) in the fall of 1998, 2003 and 2004 to study the feeding dynamics and predation impact of this species on mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton communities. Our results showed that T. libellula was an opportunistic predator with a circadian feeding cycle; activity was higher during the second part of the night and the sunrise period. Stomach content analyses showed that these amphipods consumed chiefly copepods, in particular, the copepodite stages CIV and CV of Calanus finmarchicus. Euphausiids, chaetognaths, amphipods and mysids constituted other important prey. Digestion time was estimated at 13 h. The daily ingestion rate of T. libellula was estimated using 2 approaches: (1) stomach fullness index and (2) mean number of prey removed per unit of time and converted to prey biomass using the stage-species dry masses of each prey item. We found that the daily ingestion rate of T. libellula ranged from 6.32 to 16.82 % of body dry mass per day in both study areas (LSLE and NWGSL). Concerning predation impact, T. libellula consumed between 0.14 and 1.79 % of the combined mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton standing stock per day and between 0.43 and 2.48 % of the C. finmarchicus standing stock. Themisto libellula may thus exert a significant control on the mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton communities in the SLMS through direct predation.©2008 Inter-Research

HARVEY, M., L. DEVINE, 2008. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2007 : zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 2007 : zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2008/037, 39 p .

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Zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition in the DFO Quebec Region (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary [LSLE] and the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during 2007 are reviewed and compared to the eight previous observations (1999-2006) at the Anticosti Gyre (AG), the Gaspe Current (GC), and the Shediac Valley (SV) stations and to the two previous years (2005-2006) at the Rimouski (RS) station. In addition, this report gives an overview of the interannual variability in the mesozooplankton biomass and macrozooplankton species composition, abundance, and biomass in the LSLE and northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence (NWGSL) as measured in the fall of each year between 1994 and 2007. The state of the zooplankton at the four Quebec’s fixed stations in 2007 was considered as normal (zooplankton total abundance and copepod total abundance) and lower than normal (zooplankton biomass and Calanus finmarchicus abundance) at the AG station; normal (zooplankton biomass, zooplankton total abundance, and copepod total abundance) and above normal (C. finmarchicus abundance) at the GC station; and normal (C. finmarchicus abundance), lower than normal (zooplankton biomass), and above normal (zooplankton and copepod abundance) at the SV station. The average abundance of C. finmarchicus at RS in 2007 was 2.6 times higher than during the two previous years. In addition, some changes in the zooplankton community structure were observed over the time series at AG, GC, SV and RS including some variations in the rank of the top ten taxa and the appearance for the first time of some new taxa in the dominant species (top ten): appendicularians and Oncaea spp. at AG, echinoderm and bivalve larvae at GC, euphausiids (eggs, nauplii, juveniles) and Calanus glacialis at the RS station, and echinoderm and polychaete larvae at SV. Zooplankton biomass along the seven Quebec sections in spring 2007 was estimated as higher than normal along the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (TESL), Sept-Îles (TSI), Cabot Strait (TDC), and Îles-de-la-Madeleine (TIDM) sections; normal along the southwest Anticosti (TASO) section; and lower than normal along the Centre Gulf of St. Lawrence (TCEN) and the Bonne Bay (TBB) sections. Concerning the total zooplankton abundance, anomalies were above normal for all sections except for TSI, TDC, and TIDM, where the total abundance of zooplankton was evaluated as normal. On the other hand, during fall, both the total zooplankton biomass and total zooplankton abundance anomalies were normal for all sections except TESL, TSI, and TASO, where these were evaluated as above normal, and along TCEN, where the total biomass was evaluated as lower than normal. In addition, some changes in the zooplankton composition were observed over the time series in each region, including some changes in the rank order of the top ten taxa and the appearance of new taxa in the top ten species: appendicularians, echinoderm larvae, and ostracods in LSLE and the NWGSL, C. glacialis in the NEGSL, pteropods and Oncaea spp. in the southern GSL, and pteropods and Metridia spp. in Cabot Strait. The mean mesozooplankton biomass observed in November 2007 in the LSLE and NWGSL was 1.4 times higher than in 2006 and corresponds to the fourth highest value observed over the last 14 years in the study area. The mean macrozooplankton biomass decreased from 15.4 in 2005 to 5.9 and 8.6 wet weight (g/m²) in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The macrozooplankton biomass values observed in 2006 and 2007 correspond to the lowest values observed over the last 14 years. The most notable feature observed in the LSLE and NWGSL was that 2006-2007 had the lowest mean biomass of euphausiids in our dataset due to a strong decrease in the abundance of Thysanoessa raschii, which was 5.3 times less abundant in 2006-2007 compared to the last 14 years. In addition, the mean abundance of the hyperiid amphipod Themisto libellula estimated in both regions in 2007 corresponds to the lowest value observed over the last 14 years.

HARVEY, M., L. DEVINE, 2007. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2006 : zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l’estuaire et le golfe du St-Laurent en 2006 : zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2007/049, 40 p .

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Zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition in the Québec Region (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary [LSLE] and the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during 2006 are reviewed and compared to previous observations (1999-2005). In addition, this report gives an overview of the interannual variability in the mesozooplankton biomass and the macrozooplankton species composition, abundance, and biomass in the LSLE and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence (NWGSL) as measured in the fall of each year between 1994 and 2006. The state of the zooplankton at the three Québec fixed stations in 2006 was estimated as normal (zooplankton biomass, zooplankton total abundance, and copepod total abundance) and above normal (Calanus finmarchicus abundance) at Anticosti Gyre (AG), normal at Gaspé Current (GC), and normal (zooplankton biomass, zooplankton abundance, C. finmarchicus abundance) and lower than normal (copepod abundance) at Shediac Valley (SV). In addition, some changes in the zooplankton community structure were observed over the time series at AG and GC, including some changes in the rank of the top ten taxa and the appearance for the first time of some new taxa in the dominant species (top ten): Temora spp at GC and echinoderm larvae and larvacea at AG. Likewise, the zooplankton biomass along the seven Québec sections in 2006 was estimated as lower than normal along the Sept-Îles (TSI) and Bonne Bay (TBB) sections, normal along the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (TESL) and the Centre Gulf of St. Lawrence (TCEN) sections, and above normal along the southwest Anticosti (TASO), Îles-de-la-Madeleine (TIDM), and Cabot Strait (TDC) sections. Concerning the total zooplankton abundance, anomalies were positive for all sections except along the Bonne Bay (TBB) section, where the total abundance of zooplankton was evaluated as normal. In addition, some changes in the zooplankton composition were observed over the time series in each region, including some changes in the rank order of the top ten taxa and the appearance of new taxa in the top ten species: Temora spp and Oncea sp in the LSLE; echinoderm larvae, larvacea, and Temora spp in the NWGSL; and Cladocera in Cabot Strait. The mean mesozooplankton biomass observed in November 2006 in the LSLE and NWGSL was 1.4 times lower than in 2005 and corresponds to the third lowest value observed over the last 13 years in the study area. Likewise, the mean macrozooplankton biomass decreased from 15.4 in 2005 to 5.9 ww g/m2 in 2006; this corresponds to the lowest value observed over the last 13 years. The most notable feature observed in the LSLE and NWGSL was that 2006 had the lowest mean biomass of euphausiids of the last 13 years due to a strong decrease in the abundance of Thysanoessa raschii, which was 4.3 times less abundant in 2006 than over the last 13 years. In addition, the mean abundance of the hyperiid amphipod Themisto libellula estimated in both regions in 2006 corresponds to the lowest value observed over the last 13 years.

HARVEY, M., M. STARR, J.-C. THERRIAULT, F. SAUCIER, M. GOSSELIN, 2006. MERICA-nord program: monitoring and research in the Hudson Bay complex. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 5: 27-32 .

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[Abstract only available in French]
Le complexe de la baie d’Hudson (comprenant la baie d’Hudson, le détroit d’Hudson ainsi que le bassin de Foxe) représente probablement le plus grand estuaire nordique du monde. Cet estuaire est une composante importante du courant du Labrador qui exerce une influence prédominante sur le climat de la partie est de l’Amérique du Nord. La dynamique de circulation des masses d’eau dans cette région nordique est fortement influencée par les écoulements d’eau douce provenant notamment des bassins de drainage de la baie d’Hudson et de l’arctique. Cette région abrite près de la moitié des populations Inuits du Nunavut et du Nunavik, et est caractérisée par une forte biodiversité reflétant l’influence significative des eaux arctiques et subarctiques de l’Atlantique Nord. Cet écosystème nordique a été identifié comme un « point chaud » pour la conservation de la biodiversité marine, mais aussi comme l’une des régions les plus sensibles aux changements et à la variabilité climatique. Afin de pouvoir détecter, comprendre, suivre et prédire les changements environnementaux dans cette région nordique, les scientifiques du MPO, région du Québec, ont initié en 2003 un programme de monitorage appelé MERICA-nord (pour études des MERs Intérieures du CAnada). Ce programme de monitorage complémente celui effectué dans la mer intérieure du golfe du Saint-Laurent (MERICA-sud). Dans sa conception, sa réalisation et son échantillonnage de base, ce programme de monitorage s’inspire du Programme de Monitorage de la Zone Atlantique. Il accommode en plus plusieurs programmes de recherche associés qui sont effectués par des partenaires tant à l’interne qu’à l’externe du MPO, comme par exemple le secteur universitaire. MERICA-nord est supporté par le Centre national d’excellence pour la recherche aquatique dans l’Arctique (N-CAARE en anglais). Un élément clé du programme est l’intégration des besoins des scientifiques avec l’expertise et la capacité de support logistique de la Garde côtière canadienne; ce programme a en effet profité jusqu’à maintenant de temps de navire offert par la Garde côtière canadienne sur une base d’opportunité. MERICA-nord permet finalement au MPO d’assumer ses obligations nationales et internationales de base en ce qui concerne l’étude des milieux marins nordiques, afin de répondre aux enjeux sociaux et globaux émergents que soulèvent l’impact de l’activité humaine (ex., les développements hydroélectriques) ou encore des changements climatiques. Dans ce contexte, l’environnement du complexe de la baie d’Hudson est encore bien peu connu.

HERMAN, A.W., M. HARVEY, 2006. Application of normalized biomass size spectra to laser optical plankton counter net intercomparisons of zooplankton distributions. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 111, art. no C05S05, 9 p .

The optical plankton counter (OPC) and recently the laser OPC (LOPC) have been used primarily in two measurement applications: (1) identification of specific zooplankton species and (2) changes in zooplankton community structure using size-based spectral measurements. The normalized biomass size spectra (NBSS) are one representation of the size-based approach. The present study is based on utilizing the NBSS to describe the conditions or characteristics of the zooplankton community that allow a reasonable intercomparison of net samples and LOPC measurements made simultaneously for data collected during two oceanographic cruises carried out in the Lower Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in spring 2001 and 2002, respectively. NBSS linear slopes <-0.7 indicate the presence of additional plankton material such as diatom aggregates and gelatinous material (present during or immediately following blooms) that are less present in nets and are not intercomparable with LOPC measurements. Conversely, slopes >-0.7, or more "blue water" conditions, indicate the potential for reasonable intercomparison of the two methods. This observation applies to smaller-sized zooplankton such as copepodites of Calanus spp. With equivalent spherical diameter <900 μm. The measurement of larger Calanus spp. Stages (IV-VI) did not seem affected by the presence of additional aggregates or gelatinous material and reasonable intercomparisons between LOPC and net were obtained for both sampling years. The LOPC signals produced by Calanus spp. (IV-VI) were larger and more easily separated.©2006 American Geophysical Union

PEPIN, P., B. PETRIE, J.-C. THERRIAULT, S. NARAYANAN, G. HARRISON, J. CHASSÉ, E. COLBOURNE, D. GILBERT, D. GREGORY, M. HARVEY, G. MAILLET, M. MITCHEL, M. STARR, 2005. The Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) : review of 1998-2003. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci., 242, 87 p .

We outline the results of the self-assessment by the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) based on the milestrones set out in the original proposal and on a series of key issues identified during the Fifth Annual General Meeting of the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program and supported by the Atlantic Science Directors. The report is divided into 12 sections which aim at providing an overview of the program's accomplishments, progress to date as well as identifying key concerns about maintaining current program activities and future developments. The report is capped with four sections that outline some of the benefits in the understanding and predictability of marine systems that have been derived from continued long-term monitoring activities.

HARVEY, M., M. STARR, 2005. État de l'océan en 2003: les conditions chimiques et biologiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2005/053, 20 p .

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HARVEY, M., J.-F. ST-PIERRE, L. DEVINE, A. GAGNÉ, Y. GAGNON, M.F. BEAULIEU, 2005. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2004 : zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l’estuaire et le golfe du St-Laurent en 2004 : zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2005/043, 22 p .

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Zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition in the Québec Region (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence) during 2004 are reviewed and related to conditions during the preceding years and over the longer term where applicable. In addition, this report gives an overview of the interannual variability of the mesozooplankton biomass and the macrozooplankton species composition, abundance, and biomass in the Lower Estuary (LE) and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence (NWGSL) as measured in fall of each year between 1994 and 2004. Even with only four zooplankton samples collected in February, March, June and November 2004, at both Québec fixed stations in 2004, we can see that the zooplankton biomass follow the same temporal variations pattern then during the 5 previous years (1999-2003). Furthermore, the zooplankton biomass observed in February, March, June and November were comparable to the one observed previously (1999-2003) at the same period of the year except in June and November in the Anticosti gyre were the zooplankton biomass was ca 2 times lower than normal. Hierarchical community analysis revealed that copepods continue to numerically dominate the zooplankton year-round at both Québec fixed station in 2004. The depth-integrated abundance of the different Calanus finmarchicus stages reveled that the reproductive success of C. finmarchicus seems to have been lower in 2004 than during the previous years at both fixed stations. The overall abundance and biomass of zooplankton observed in 2004 along all sections in spring and fall were comparable to observations made since 2000. The mean mesozooplankton biomass observed in November 2004 in the LE and the NWGSL was 1.3 times lower than in 2003 and corresponded to the second lowest value observed since the last 10 years in the study area. On the other hand, the mean macrozooplankton biomass observed in 2004 was 1.2 times higher than in 2003. The most notable feature observed in the LE and the NW GSL was that 2004 had the lowest mean biomass of euphausiids in the last decade and that for the first time the mean biomass of the hyperiid amphipod T. libellula was higher than the mean biomass of euphausiids. Finally, the mean abundance of both the chaetognaths and the jellyfish observed in 2004 corresponded to the highest value of the time series and were up 8.5 and 10.5 times higher than the average value of the last ten years respectively.

DESCROIX, A., M. HARVEY, S. ROY, P.S. GALBRAITH, 2005. Macrozooplankton community patterns driven by water circulation in the St. Lawrence marine system, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 302: 103-119 .

Six cruises were carried out in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) and the NW Gulf of St. Lawrence (NW GSL) in spring and fall 1998, 2000, and 2001 to study the species composition, abundance, and distribution of macrozooplankton in relation to the physical environment. Our results confirm that the LSLE and the NW GSL represent 2 different physical environments. These differences are likely due to different circulation patterns observed between the 2 regions: the estuarine circulation in the LSLE and a quasi-permanent cyclonic gyre in the NW GSL. The dominant species found in both environments (LSLE and NW GSL) is the mysid Boreomysis arctica, but we observed no significant regional and interannual variations in its abundance. In contrast, 2 distinct groups characterized the LSLE and the NW GSL when we examined the other macrozooplankton groups. Two euphausiid species, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa raschii, dominated in the LSLE. Their abundances were 6 and 15 times higher in the LSLE than in the NW GSL, respectively. On the other hand, the NW GSL was dominated by chaetognaths, hyperiid amphipods, and siphonophores. These groups were twice as abundant in the NW GSL as in the LSLE. Such interregional variations were attributed to different circulation patterns and different trophic systems. Furthermore, important interannual variations in the abundance of the major macrozooplankton species were also observed between 1998 and 2001 in the LSLE and the NW GSL. In the NW GSL, the arctic and boreo-arctic species were more abundant in 1998 than in 2000 and 2001. In contrast, their abundance was lowest in 1998, and highest in 2000 and 2001 in the LSLE. We hypothesize that stronger inflow of Labrador Shelf waters in the GSL via the Strait of Belle Isle may increase the advection of macrozooplankton into the LSLE.©2005 Inter-Research

HARVEY, M., M. STARR, 2005. 2003 state of the ocean: chemical and biological oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2005/053, 20 p .

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HARVEY, M., J.-F. ST-PIERRE, L. DEVINE, A. GAGNÉ, Y. GAGNON, M.F. BEAULIEU, 2004. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2003: zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l’estuaire et le golfe Saint-Laurent en 2003: zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2004/061, 31 p .

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Zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition in the Québec Region (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence) during 2003 are reviewed and related to conditions during the preceding years and over the longer term where applicable. In addition, this report gives an overview of the interannual variability of the mesozooplankton biomass and the macrozooplankton species composition, abundance, and biomass in the Lower Estuary and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence as measured in September of each year between 1994 and 2003. The zooplankton biomass and abundance at the Québec fixed stations in 2003 were slightly higher than observations made in 2000, 2001, and 2002 at both stations. The relative proportion of copepods vs. the other groups of mesozooplankton increased from 70 to 95 % between 1999 and 2003 in the Gaspé Current (GC) and from 70 to 85 % between 1999 and 2001 in the Anticosti Gyre (AG). No larvacea were found at both fixed stations in 2003. The depth-integrated abundance of the Calanus finmarchicus stage composition showed that there were two periods of reproduction for this species at both stations in 2003. Reproduction occurred in summer (June-July) and fall (September-October) and was synchronized at both stations. The same situation was observed in 2000, 2001, and 2002. In 2003, the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus reached record high level since 1999 at both fixed stations (GC and AG). The zooplankton biomasses and abundances observed in early spring, late spring, and fall 2003 along the six AZMP sections were comparable to observations made in 2002, 2001, and 2000. The mesozooplankton biomass in the Lower Estuary and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2003 was slightly higher than in 2002 while the macrozooplankton biomass was comparable to the 2002 level. The year 2003 was characterized by a significant increase in the mean abundance of the pelagic amphipod Themisto libellula and the mysid Boreomysis arctica and a significant decrease in the mean abundance of the chaetognath Sagitta elegans and the gelatinous zooplankton Aglantha digitale, Obelia spp., and Boreo spp. The significant relationships between the mean annual abundance of the hyperiid amphipod T. libellula and the percentage of Labrador Shelf water supported the hypothesis that the significant increase in the mean abundance of this species observed in 2001, 2002, and 2003 in the Lower Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence is associated with the intrusion of the cold Labrador Shelf water into the Gulf of St. Lawrence via the Strait of Belle Isle (Harvey et al 2003).

SAUCIER, F.-J., M. STARR, M. HARVEY, J.-C. THERRIAULT, 2003. Expédition Mérica 2003. Suivi et étude du climat et de la productivité de la baie d’Hudson. Naturaliste Can., 128(1): 108-110 .

HARVEY, M., M. STARR, 2003. 2002 state of the ocean : chemical and biological oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Science, Ecosystem Status Report, 2003/007, 13 p .

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OUELLET, P., F. GRÉGOIRE, M. HARVEY, E. HEAD, B. MORIN, G. ROBERT, L. SAVARD, S. SMITH, M. STARR, D. SWAIN, 2003. Exceptional environmental conditions in 1999 in eastern Canadian waters and the possible consequences for some fish and invertebrate stocks. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 3: 21-27 .

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[Abstract only available in French]
Plusieurs indicateurs des conditions atmosphériques indiquent que des températures de l’air anormalement élevées en 1999 ont entraîné une réduction de la glace de mer en hiver et au printemps sur les plateaux continentaux de Terre-Neuve, du Labrador et de la Nouvelle-Écosse et une augmentation des températures de l’eau de surface sur l’ensemble de la zone Atlantique. Également, d’autres indices indiquent que le cycle de production biologique (la floraison du phytoplancton) a été initié plus tôt en 1999 dans la plupart des régions de la zone. Ces conditions océanographiques exceptionnelles auraient eu des conséquences positives sur la production (ex. recrutement, croissance) de nombreux stocks de poissons et d’invertébrés dans l’Est du Canada.

HARVEY, M., J.-F. ST-PIERRE, A. GAGNÉ, M.F. BEAULIEU, Y. GAGNON, 2003. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2002 : zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l’estuaire et le golfe du St-Laurent en 2002 : zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2003/077, 23 p .

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Zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition in the Québec region (Lower St.Lawrence Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence) during 2002 are reviewed and related to conditions during the preceding year and over the longer-term where applicable. In addition, this report gives an overview of the interannual variability of the mesozooplankton biomass and the macrozooplankton species composition, abundance, and biomass in the Lower Estuary and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence as measured in September in each year between 1994 and 2002. The zooplankton biomass and abundance in the Québec fixed stations in 2002 were comparable to conditions observed in previous years except in the Gaspé current were the mean integrated zooplankton biomass was 1.5 times higher in 2002 than in 2001 and 2000. Copepod eggs, juveniles, and adults were clearly dominant, accounting for more than 80% of the zooplankton community for all sampling dates in the Anticosti Gyre and the Gaspé Current. The depthintegrated abundance of the stage composition of Calanus finmarchicus showed that in 2002 there was two periods of reproduction for this species in both stations. The first and the second period of reproduction occurred in summer (June-July) and fall (September-October) respectively and were synchronized in both stations. The same situation was observed in 2001 and 2000. The zooplankton biomasses observed in spring and fall 2002 along the six AZMP sections were comparable with observations made in 2001 and 2000. The zooplankton abundance was higher than in 2001 in both the LSLE and the Gulf of St. Lawrence but comparable to the levels observed in 2000. The mesozooplankton biomass in the Lower Estuary and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2002 was slightly higher than in 2001 while the macrozooplankton biomass was comparable to the level of 2001. The year 2002 was characterized by a significant increase of the mean abundance the chaetognath Sagitta elegans, the gelatinous zooplankton Aglantha digitale, Obelia sp., and Boreo sp., and the pelagic amphipod Themisto abyssorum and a significant decrease of the mean abundance of the mysid Boreomysis arctica.

HARVEY, M., G. MORRIER, 2003. Laboratory feeding experiments on zoea of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis fed with natural zooplankton. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 265: 165-174 .

HARVEY, M., M. STARR, 2003. État de l'océan en 2002 : les conditions océanographiques chimiques et biologiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent. Rapport sur l'état des écosystèmes, 2003/007, 14 p .

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HARVEY, M., M. STARR, 2002. État de l'océan en 2001 : les conditions chimiques et biologiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent. Rapport sur l'état des stocks, G4-03, 14 p .

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HARVEY, M., M. STARR, 2002. 2001 State of the ocean : chemical and biological oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Science, Stock Status Report, G4-03, 12 p .

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HARVEY, M., J.-F. ST-PIERRE, P. JOLY, G. MORRIER, 2002. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2001 : zooplankton ; Conditions océanographiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du St-Laurent en 2001 : zooplancton. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2002/046, 30 p .

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This report: 1) describes the results on the temporal variability of the zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition at two fixed stations and six transects of the Atlantic Zonal Monitoring Program (AZMP; Anticosti Gyre and Gaspé Current) in 2001 and 2) gives an overview of the interannual variability of the macrozooplankton species composition, abundance, and biomass in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) as measured in September in each year between 1994 and 2001. We focus on the conditions during 2001 but compare those observations with previous information from 1999 and 2000 for the AZMP results and from 1994 to 2001 for the macrozooplankton results.

STARR, M., M. HARVEY, P.S. GALBRAITH, D. GILBERT, D. CHABOT, J.-C. THERRIAULT, 2002. Recent intrusion of Labrador Shelf waters into the Gulf of St. Lawrence and its influence on the plankton community and higher trophic levels. ICES C.M., 2002/N:16, 10 p .

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THERRIAULT, J.-C., P.S. GALBRAITH, M. STARR, M. HARVEY, 2002. Intrusions of Labrador shelf waters into the Gulf of St. Lawrence and their potential influence on the plankton. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 2: 12-15 .

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[Abstract only available in French]
Des données hydrographiques obtenues dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent (GSL) depuis 1996 suggèrent que les années 2001 et 2002 sont caractérisées par des intrusions particulièrement importantes d'eaux denses et froides provenant des côtes du Labrador. Ces intrusions ont significativement contribué aux températures estivales particulièrement basses de la couche intermédiaire froide (CIF) dans le GSL, en dépit de conditions hivernales relativement chaudes. Plusieurs changements dans la communauté planctonique peuvent être associés à ces intrusions d'eaux froides dans le Golfe. Le plus remarquable en 2001 est sans doute la première apparition en grande abondance de la diatomée Neodenticula seminae dans presque toutes les régions du Golfe. Ceci est très inhabituel parce que cette diatomée est normalement retrouvée dans le Pacifique Nord, et non pas dans le nord Atlantique. En raison de sa présence simultanée sur la côte du Labrador et dans le Golfe, il est fort probable que cette espèce du Pacifique ait été introduite dans le Golfe via le détroit de Belle-Isle par des processus d'advection à travers l'Arctique, en empruntant le courant du Labrador. Une autre observation qui supporte l'hypothèse d'une importante intrusion d'eaux froides dans le Golfe en 2001 est l'augmentation significative de l'abondance de l'amphipode arctique Themisto libellula. En effet, leur nombre qui passe de 0.17 ind.m-2 en septembre 2000 à 10 ind.m-2 en septembre 2001, ne peut être facilement expliqué que par cette intrusion. Ces introductions régulières d'espèces planctoniques arctiques dans le GSL ont probablement un impact significatif sur les niveaux supérieurs de la chaîne trophique tel que suggéré par la relation significative observée entre l'abondance annuelle moyenne de T. libellula et sa présence relative dans la diète de la morue entre 1996 et 2001.

STARR, M., M. HARVEY, 2002. L'état du plancton dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 2001. Nouvelles de l'IML, 13(8): 3-7 .

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B. PETRIE, J.-C. THERRIAULT, G. HARRISON, V. SOUKHOVTSEV, P. PEPIN, M. HARVEY, M. STARR, P. LAROUCHE, S. SAMEOTO, 2001. The Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program;Le programme de monitorage de la zone atlantique. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 1: 1-12 .

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HARVEY, M., J.-C. THERRIAULT, N. SIMARD, 2001. Hydrodynamic control of late summer species composition and abundance of zooplankton in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (Canada). J. Plankton Res., 23(5): 481-496 .

HARVEY, M., M. STARR, M. LEVASSEUR, 2001. L'état du plancton dans l'estuaire maritime et le golfe du Saint-Laurent en 1999. Naturaliste can., 125(1): 68-70 .

HARVEY, M., J.A. RUNGE, J.-F. ST-PIERRE, P. JOLY, 2000. Oceanographic conditions in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1999 : zooplankton. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2000/117, 19 p .

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This report describes : 1) an overview of the spatial variability of the mesozooplankton and krill biomass in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and the northwest Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) measured in September in each year between 1994-1999 and 2) results on the temporal variability of the zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition at two fixed stations of the Atlantic Zonal Monitoring Program (AZMP; Anticosti Gyre and Gaspé Current) in 1999. Within the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and the northwest GSL, the biomass of mesozooplankton and krill was not evenly distributed and showed very high interannual variability. The estimated average wet biomass of mesozooplankton varied between 106.5 and 209.2 t km-2 from 1994 to 1999 with the highest and the lowest values found in 1994 and 1996 respectively. From 1994 to 1999, the overall average biomass of mesozooplankton for the whole lower St. Lawrence Estuary and northwest GSL was estimated at 1.6 106 ±  0.3 106 t. Likewise, the estimated average biomass of krill varied between 7.2 and 38.1 t km-2 from 1994 to 1999 with the highest and the lowest values found in 1994 and 1996 respectively. The overall average biomass of krill for the whole lower St. Lawrence Estuary and northwest GSL was estimated to be 1.7 105 ± 0.9 105 t. The temporal variability of the zooplankton biomass, abundance, and species composition at the two AZMP fixed stations (Anticosti Gyre and Gaspé Current) showed that copepods were clearly dominant at all sampling dates in 1999, accounting for more than 80 % of the zooplankton community for both stations. Small copepods (Oithona similis, Oncea borealis) dominated in abundance at all sampling dates at both stations except in the Gaspé Current in July and August, where larger species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, Metridia longa) were more abundant. Total zooplankton biomass was much higher in the Anticosti Gyre than in the Gaspé Current for all seasons in 1999 except in May, when the biomass was equal at both stations. The integrated copepod abundance showed the same pattern of variation with season at both stations, with a maximum abundance of copepod eggs in spring and a maximum abundance of adult copepods and copepodite stages (CI-CV) in late fall. The total integrated abundance of adult copepods and copepodite stages (CI-CV) did not vary significantly between stations for all seasons. Finally, all proposed indices describing the state of the zooplankton community at each station in 1999 varied with season and their annual mean values varied between stations. However, it is too soon to say if they will be useful to describe the interannual variability of the zooplankton community or to detect any changes of the environmental conditions.

STARR, M., M. HARVEY, 2000. State of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the Estuary and northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence during 1999. Science, Stock Status Report, C4-18, 8 p .

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STARR, M., M. HARVEY, 2000. État du phytoplancton et du zooplancton dans l'estuaire et le nord-ouest du golfe du Saint-Laurent en 1999. Rapport sur l'état des stocks, C4-18, 9 p .

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HARVEY, M., M. GILBERT, D. GAUTHIER, D.M. REID, 1999. A preliminary assessment of risks for the ballast water-mediated introduction of nonindigenous marine organisms in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2268, 56 p .

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Risks for the introduction of nonindigenous marine species into the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL) by foreign commercial shipping activities were evaluated by conducting three different surveys to characterize 1) the vessel traffic of foreign origin in the EGSL, 2) ballasting operations of foreign vessels entering ports of the EGSL, and 3) the biodiversity and species richness of protistan and metazoan taxa found in ballast water and sediment of incoming foreign vessels.

BOURGET, E., M. HARVEY, 1998. Spatial analysis of recruitment of marine invertebrates on arborescent substrata. Biofouling, 12(1-3): 45-55 .

HARVEY, M., D. GAUTHIER, J. MUNRO, 1998. Temporal changes in the composition and abundance of the macro-benthic invertebrate communities at dredged material disposal sites in the Anse a Beaufils, Baie des Chaleurs, Eastern Canada. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 36: 41-55 .

HARVEY, M., E. BOURGET, 1997. Recruitment of marine invertebrates onto arborescent epibenthic structures: active and passive processes acting at different spatial scales. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 153(1-3): 203-215 .

HARVEY, M., J.-C. THERRIAULT, N. SIMARD, 1997. Late-summer distribution of phytoplankton in relation to water mass characteristics in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (Canada). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54: 1937-1952 .

Descriptive and multivariate analytical methods were used to analyze the early September (1993) abundance and species composition of phytoplankton in relation to water mass characteristics in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. Four groups of stations distributed along well-defined environmental gradients characterizing the distribution of physical and chemical variables were identified. The first group, located in the most southern region of Hudson Bay, was strongly influenced by freshwater runoffs from James Bay and from the other major rivers around the bay and was characterized by a relatively phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a (Chl a > 1.0 µg.L-1 in the near-surface waters and by a phytoplankton assemblage equally dominated by small flagellates and dinoflagellates. The second group, located in an area northwest of the Belcher and Sleeper islands, was characterized by relatively well-mixed conditions where small diatoms composed about 50 % of the phytoplankton assemblage. The third group occupied the upper part of the bay and the entrance of the strait and was characterized by the lowest surface nutrient concentrations encounterd. A clear subsurface chlorophyll maximum dominated by small flagellates (>55 % of the assemblage) was observed in this region. The fourth group was located in the central part of the strait where the highest surface nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass values Chl a > 2.0 µg.L-1 were observed. The phytoplankton assemblage there was clearly dominated by small diatoms (<80 %). These conditions are related to the presence of more intense tidal mixing in this region. The phytoplankton standing crop within this area was comparable with that observed during an autumn bloom situation in the most temperate regions of the world's oceans.