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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Patrice GOUDREAU

BOURDAGE, H., P. GOUDREAU, 2010. Évaluation des stocks de pétoncles des eaux côtières du Québec en 2009 : données de la pêche commerciale ; Stock assessment on scallops of the inshore waters of Quebec in 2009: commercial fishery data. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2010/068, viii + 69 p .

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This document presents the commercial fishery index used for the Quebec inshore waters scallops stocks assessment following the 2007-2009 fishing seasons. This review process was held on January 26, 2010 at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute in Mont-Joli. During this meeting, the assembly reviewed the status of the scallop stocks commercially exploited in the Quebec Region. This ocument presents methodologies and data used during the review of the fishery statistics and commercial catches sampling

BOURDAGES, H., P. GOUDREAU, 2010. Stock assessment on scallop of the inshore waters of Quebec in 2009. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat ;Science Advisory Report 2010/044 .

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BOURDAGES, H., P. GOUDREAU, 2010. Évaluation des stocks de pétoncles des eaux côtières du Québec en 2009. Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique Avis scientifique 2010/044 .

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ARCHAMBAULT, P., P. GOUDREAU, 2006. Effet de la pêche commerciale sur le gisement de pétoncles d'Islande (Chlamys islandica) de l'Ile Rouge dans l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent : impact sur les pétoncles et la communauté benthique ; Effect of the commercial fishery on the Ile Rouge Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) bed in the St. Lawrence estuary : assessment of the impacts on scallops and the benthic community. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document , 2006/079, 22 p .

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Many studies have shown that scallop dredging seriously disturb marine substratum. This study was done to evaluate the dredging impact on scallop and benthic communities on the Ile Rouge Icelandic scallop bed, in Saguenay-St-Lawrence Marine Park. The results of photographic sampling and experimental dredging did not showed effects of dredging on benthic communities on this highly dynamic ecosystem (high velocity currents, upwelling zone, etc.). Furthermore, there is no evident sign of a decline in the size of scallops, contrary to many studies around the world and this could be the result of a relatively low fishing effort. The study site, a sandy-gravel substrate with high velocity currents recover in a few months from the impacts of dredging gear.

ARSENEAU, M.J., P. ARCHAMBAULT, P. GOUDREAU, 2003. Effets de la pêche commerciale sur le gisement de pétoncles d’Islande (Chlamys islandica) de l’île Rouge dans l’estuaire du Saint-Laurent: évaluation des impacts sur le pétoncle et la communauté benthique associée. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2512, 38 p .

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Many studies have shown that scallop dredging seriously disturb marine substratum. This study is conducted to evaluate the dredging impact on scallop and benthic communities on the Ile Rouge scallop bed, in Saguenay-St-Lawrence Marine Park. Photographic sampling and experimental dredging do not document effects of dredging on benthic communities. However, a decrease in scallop size at landing suggests that dredging could have an impact on the scallop population. The study site, a sandy-gravel substrat with high velocity currents recover in a few mounths from the impacts of dredging gear.

GIGUÈRE, M., S. BRULOTTE, P. GOUDREAU, 2000. État des stocks de pétoncles des eaux côtières du Québec. MPO, Secrétariat canadien pour l'évaluation des stocks, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2000/086, 57 p .

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This area is subdivided into 16 management units comprising the Îles-de-la-Madeleine, the Gaspé and the North Shore. In 1999, there were 82 regular licences in operation. In Québec, commercial harvesting is directed at both the Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and the sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus). Landings normally consist of the meat (adductor muscle) or whole scallops. In 1999, preliminary landings in Québec amounted to nearly 331 t of meat (2 747 t live weight), with the North Shore contributing 65 %, the Gaspé 26 % and the Îles-de-la-Madeleine 9 % of this figure. The Îles-de-la-Madeleine landings stood at about 31 t in 1999, down 27 % from 1998. Two new fairly abundant cohorts of pre-recruits were present in 1999; they will be recruited to the fishery in 2000 and 2001. Commercial yields hit an all-time low in 1998 and 1999. The catches in the Gaspé are made primarily in Chaleur Bay (19A) and around Anticosti Island (18B and 18C). In area 19A, where landings have been on the rise since 1994, a total of nearly 36 t of meat was landed in 1999. Catches per unit effort of sea scallops have been small but stable since 1995. In 1998 and 1999, fishers directed their fishing effort at Iceland scallops because of the low abundance of sea scallops on fishing grounds. Harvesting activities in 1999 included a new scallop bed (Red Island) located at the western limit of area 17A. The yields recorded there are the highest for all of Quebec. The exploitation rate has been estimated at 15 %. Areas 18B and 18C are still under development. In 1999, the North Shore catch totalled some 214 t of meat. Landings in area 16A have increased owing to exploitation of the new Red Island scallop bed. The status of the scallop resource in areas 16B and 16C appears to be stable. The landings in areas 16D, 16E, 16F, 16G and 18A stood at about 142 t in 1999. Harvesting in areas 16D and 16G is still being developed. In area 16E, the 1999 catch totalled 57.2 t of muscle and the catches per unit effort held steady. In area 16F, the landings were stable but fishing effort increased by 22 % in 1999 over the 1998 level. Between 1994 and 1997, the yields were stable but in 1998 they showed a marked decline. In area 18A, landings and catches per unit effort have been on the rise since 1997. The exploitation rate was estimated at 4 % in 1999. There have been few landings in area 16H since 1996. In area 15, landings have dropped by 53% from 1998, mainly as a result of a decrease in effort.

LAMBERT, J., P. GOUDREAU, 1999. Indices de croissance de la mactre de Stimpson (Mactromeris polynyma). Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2269, 39 p .

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Individual growth indices for Stimpson's surf clams (Mactromeris polynyma) on the middle north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence were obtained by three different methods : by examining growth rings on the shells or chondrophores, by following the growth of surf clams kept in tanks and by following the growth of clams in their natural habitat. Estimates of length at age, using growth ring age determinations, suggest that Stimpson's surf clams in the Moisie and Riviere-au-Tonnerre areas reach a length of 80 mm only after an average of 13 and 14 years, respectively. The average growth rate of clams from the same beds kept in tanks was higher than that observed for clams captured from the beds and aged by the number of growth rings. Growth rate of clams in tanks was strongly affected by density and biomass. In following clams in tanks, the formation of two growth rings in a single year was observed on several occasions, which would result in over-estimating their age by examining the number of rings. Differences were also observed for individuals between 70 and 90 mm in comparing the growth rates of clams in their natural habitat with the results of growth ring aging. Clams of this size from the natural habitat grew an average of 5 mm per year, while growth ring aging indicates a more pronounced slowing of growth rate at this size.

GIGUÈRE, M., S. BRULOTTE, P. GOUDREAU, 1998. État des stocks de pétoncles des eaux côtières du Québec. MPO, Secrétariat canadien pour l'évaluation des stocks, Document de recherche, 98/73, 38 p .

This report presents data used in to assess the scallop populations in the coastal waters Quebec. In Quebec, there are 17 management units for the scallop fishery covering the areas around Îles-de-la-Madeleine, the Gaspé peninsula and along the North Shore. In 1997, 82 regular permits were issued. Scallops from the Gaspé peninsula and the North Shore were assessed using commercial indices. Scallops from Îles-de-la-Madeleine and area 16De on the North Shore were assessed using both commercial indices and research survey indices. In Quebec, Iceland scallops and sea scallops are harvested indiscriminately. The landings are usually in the form of meat. In 1997, scallop landings in Quebec amounted to 260 t meat, of which 69 % was from the North Shore, 16 % from the Gaspé peninsula and 15 % from Îles-de-la-Madeleine. Scallop landings in Îles-de-la-Madeleine were around 39 t in 1997, which is 17 % lower than in 1996. A new cohort of prerecruits was present in 1997, but it is weak. After the 1997 fishing season, almost all scallop beds were decimated and the harvestable biomass was at its lowest level since 1984. No improvement in recruitment to the fishery is expected before the year 2000. Fishing intensity in Îles-de-la-Madeleine is disproportionately high considering the availability of scallops. Landings from the Gaspé peninsula are mostly from Chaleur Bay (19A) and Anticosti Island (18B). Area 19A landings have been stable since 1986, except for 1990 and 1997. In 1997, landings reached 21,4 t of meat, the highest level since 1987. Catches per unit effort showed minor fluctuations over that period, including a slight increase in 1997. Increased fishing effort over the last few years may be detrimental for the scallop populaiton of area 19A. The situation in areas 17A (northern shore of the Gaspé peninsula) and 18B is not worrisome for the moment, since fishing intensity in these areas is low. In 1997, around 180 t of scallop meat were landed on the North Shore of Quebec. The fishery in areas 16A, 16B and 16C on the Upper North Shore is unstable. Pas exploratory fishing and the present status of the fishery indicate a limited potential in areas 16A and 16B. There has been a strong increase in fishing effort in area 16C. Harvesting must be carefully controlled in order to avoid overfishing. In 1997, scallop landings in areas 16Do, 16De, 16G, 16E and 18A amounted to about 143 t, coming mostly from area 16De. These areas are presently the most productive in Quebec. Catches per unit effort decreased almost everywhere except in 16Do and 16G. From 1993 to 1996, natural mortality increased considerably in areas 16De, 16G and 18A. In 1997, however, mortality rates were at most 24 % in these areas. The increasing mortality rate in these areas up until 1996, and the decreasing catch rates in areas 16De, 16G and 18A indicate that vigilance is necessary. In 1997, landings increased in area 15, but there were very little or no landings in areas 16F and 16H. The future of the Iceland scallop fishery in area 15 is uncertain.

LAMBERT, J., P. GOUDREAU, 1997. Biologie et exploitation de la mactre de Stimpson (Mactromeris polynyma) sur les côtes du Québec. MPO, Secrétariat canadien pour l'évaluation des stocks, Document de recherche, 97/101, 44 p .

Stimpson's surf clam (Mactromeris polynyma) has been exploited in Quebec since the beginning of the 1990s. Thirteen fishers has access to the resource in 1996 and the total allowable catch was set at 903 tons. Landings have fluctuated greatly and the highest catch was recorded in 1994 at 639 tons. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) has remained high since 1993 on the main exploited beds. Twelve surf clam beds are fished so far and their areas vary from 2.5 to more than 30 km2. The mean density of clams on these beds is generally between 2 and 4 clams/m2. The mean size of comercially caught clams has remained high since the beginning of the fishery and varies between the beds from 93 to 117 mm. During scientific sampling using a lined hydraulic dredge, 8 to 22 % of the clams caught were prerecruits smaller than 50 mm. On the North Shore of Quebec, growth to 80 mm takes from 11 to 14 years. Reproduction in clams occurs mainly at 62 mm or larger. The sex ratio of clams larger than 80 mm shows a clear predominance of females.

LAMBERT, J., P. GOUDREAU, 1996. Performance of the New England hydraulic dredge for the harvest of Stimpson's surf clams (Mactromeris polynyma). Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 235, 28 p .

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The New England hydraulic dredge has been used recently in the commercial harvest of Stimpson's surf clams in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. We undertook a study to determine the harvesting efficiency of this fishing gear and its immediate impact on the mollusc populations.

LAMBERT, J., P. GOUDREAU, 1995. Stimpson's surf clams and razor clams on the Québec coast. Pages 90-99 in L. Savard (ed.). Status report on invertebrates in 1994 : crustaceans and molluscs on the Québec coast, northern shrimp and zooplankton in the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO (Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2323) .

LAMBERT, J., P. GOUDREAU, 1995. Mactre de Stimpson et couteau des côtes du Québec. Pages 93-103 in L. Savard (éd.). Rapport sur l'état des invertébrés en 1994 : crustacés et mollusques des côtes du Québec, crevette nordique et zooplancton de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent. MPO (Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2323) .

LAMBERT, J., P. GOUDREAU, 1995. Performance de la drague hydraulique de type Nouvelle-Angleterre pour la récolte de la mactre de Stimpson (Mactromeris polynyma). Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat., 235, 28 p .

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The New England hydraulic dredge has been used recently in the commercial harvest of Stimpson surf clam (Mactromeris polynyma) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. A study was undertaken to determine the harvesting efficiency of this type of fishing gear and its immediate impact on the mollusc populations. The study was carried out in two parts; first, in 1993, the experiment took place abord a commercial clamming boat. The second, in 1994, was conducted abord a research vesse1 of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. The sampling of each set has been done with an hydraulic dredge and with the assistance of a professional divers team. For both trips, Stimpson surf clams that were big enough to be retained in the hydraulic dredge bucket were harvested with an efficiency greater than 90 %. Of the clams that were left on the bottom, almost two-thirds were damaged by the dredge. A small percentage of other mollusc species that were not harvested were damaged. More than 20 % of the clams harvested by dredge showed signs of damage. Clams smaller than 66 mm were rare on the study site, thus it was not possible to assess gear selectivity or the effect of dredging on small individuals. However, by using a lining in the dredge, consisting of 19 mm mesh plastic vexatm netting, a better indication of the range of sizes of surf clams present in the area was obtained.