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We evaluated the efficacy of two ballast water exchange (BWE) methods during two transoceanic voyages of a bulk carrier in September 1999 and October 2000 between Rotterdam (The Netherlands) and Sept-Iles (Canada). The experimental design accounted for the uptake of new species during exchanges by considering only those taxa observed prior to BWE (initial taxa). To account for natural decreases due to mortality in the tanks, communities in exchanged ballast tanks were compared with those in control tanks, thus allowing the net BWE efficacyof the procedures to be determined. The efficacy of the removal of organisms varied among BWE methods, plankton communities (microplankton and zooplankton) and taxonomic groups. BWE efficacy was greater for zooplankton (72–90%) than microplankton (49–80%). When the fairly high natural mortality observed in control tanks was considered in the calculation of BWE efficacy (net BWE efficacy), much lower efficacy was observed (microplankton: 29–40%; zooplankton: 23–54%). The 300% flow-through method (FT) is the most effective BWE method (net efficacy) for removing initial microplankton taxa (1999 and 2000), whereas the FT was either similarly (1999) or less than (2000) effective compared with the procedure normally carried out on board this vessel (NORM method) for the zooplankton community. However, BWE was more efficient in removing microplankton than zooplankton in 1999 while the opposite pattern occurred in 2000. The seasonal timing of voyages and the BWE site influenced the density and composition of species introduced to tanks during BWE.©2011 Oxford University Press.
DUFOUR, R., M. GILBERT, M. LANTEIGNE, N. TEMPLEMAN, 2009. Conservation objectives for the ecologically and biologically significant areas (EBSA) of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2009/049, 10 p .
DUFOUR, R., M. GILBERT, M. LANTEIGNE, N. TEMPLEMAN, 2009. Objectifs de conservation pour les zones d'importance écologique et biologique (ZIEB) de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2009/049, 10 p .
GILBERT, M., P. BÉLAND, C. MORRY, 2007. Élaboration d'objectifs de conservation pour la gestion intégrée dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent (GIGSL) : du 27 février au 1er mars 2007, Montréal, Qc ; Development of conservation objectives for integrated management in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (GOSLIM) : February 27 to March 1, 2007, Montréal, Qc. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series, 2007/007, 88 p .
A Zonal Advisory Process Workshop was held in Montréal, Québec, from February 27 to March 1, 2007, in order to develop conservation priorities and objectives to aid in the integrated management of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL). The purpose of this process is to provide necessary advice on Conservation Objectives to permit sound decision-making on both management action and research under integrated management (IM) planning frameworks established for each Large Ocean Management Area (LOMA) in Canada. The methodology for the selection and prioritisation of conservation priorities and the evolution of these into Conservation Objectives has been defined by a Science Advisory Process carried out in January 20072. Scientists and oceans management specialists, from within DFO and externally, representing all marine disciplines and with extensive knowledge of the EGSL met over the two and a half days of the workshop. Their first task was to rank into two categories (primary and secondary orders of priority) all Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) in the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. These 10 EBSAs were previously defined by an earlier Zonal Advisory Process and associated scientific workshops. The list of EBSAs was not added to nor diminished at this meeting, but was simply ranked in order of primary or secondary priority. Once this initial process was completed, refinements were made to these preliminary conservation priorities in order to ensure that all three of the other elements of importance to conservation (depleted and rare species, ecologically significant species and community properties, and degraded areas) were adequately reflected in the objectives. Some areas were accorded a higher level of priority when it was agreed that they either occupied a place of prominence in more than one of the above three elements, or that they served multiple functions of ecological importance. Finally, to ensure that the conservation priorities were at the same time comprehensive and easily rendered into Conservation Objectives that would be practical to apply, an additional refinement was made by giving prominence to species, areas and processes for which a large amount of scientific information exists clearly demonstrating their importance to the ecosystem. It was agreed that a number of other species, areas and processes that are believed to play an important and widespread ecological role but for which limited scientific information now exists to support this assumption would be made priorities for future research. However, there was limited unanimity among the four discussion groups in this process, largely due to the distribution of expertise among the groups. Having established solid conservation priorities for the EBSAs and some preliminary priorities for species, on the final day of the workshop an attempt was made to phrase these conservation priorities as Conservation Objectives in a form that would be suitable for management purposes, following the methods given in the Guidance Document referenced above. This meant adding descriptors of the desired state of the ecosystem and measures that could be applied to judge whether progress was being made in meeting the Conservation Objectives. The outcome was not completed at the meeting and will require further refinement. A number of critical observations emerged from the workshop concerning the methods for prioritising areas and species and setting Conservation Objectives for special attention by management: - By and large, it was felt that coastal areas are not well covered by the existing EBSA selection protocols and require their own process for setting Conservation objectives - Large scale physical processes such as climate change and freshwater inflow to the EGSL may indeed be beyond the control of local management but nevertheless their impact on the ecosystem must be highlighted in some way and recognised in IM planning - The relationship between ESS, ESCP, Degraded Areas, and Rare and Depleted Species in the setting of Conservation Objectives for EBSAs is not transparent and the instructions to be used in processes such as these require refinement - EBSA boundaries are by nature ill-defined because the processes they encompass are transient over time and space; nevertheless Conservation Objectives need to be defined that have identifiable geographic limits in order to be of value to the integrated management process - In order to adopt a true ecosystem approach to IM in the EGSL, priorities and objectives must look beyond the limits of EBSAs and recognise movement of migratory species as well as energy flows and other structural features on the larger ecosystem scale and beyond 2 DFO 2007 (In Press) Guidance Document on Identifying Conservation Priorities and Phrasing Conservation Objectives for Large Ocean Management Areas. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Science Advisory Rep. (Unpublished Final Draft, January 2007)
GOLLASCH, S., H. ROSENTHAL, H. BOTNEN, M. CRNCEVIC, M. GILBERT, J. HAMER, N. HULSMANN, ..., M.C. VILLAC, 2003. Species richness and invasion vectors: sampling techniques and biases. Biol. Invasions, 5(4):365-377 .
SAUCIER, F.J., R. ROY, D. GILBERT, P. PELLERIN, H. RITCHIE, 2003. Modeling the formation and circulation processes of water masses and sea ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 108(C8): 3269-3289 .
BOURGEOIS, M., M. GILBERT, B. CUSSON, 2001. Évolution du trafic maritime en provenance de l'étranger dans le Saint-Laurent de 1978 à 1996 et implications pour les risques d'introduction d'espèces aquatiques non indigènes. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2338, 34 p .
The maritime traffic from foreign countries bound for fresh and marine water ports of the St. Lawrence river, estuary and gulf was analyzed from the Transport Canada ECAREG-VTS (Eastern Canada Region-Vessel Traffic Service) data base, with the objective of determining its pattern and tendencies between 1978 and 1996. Some temporal trends have been detected, the most significant being the increase in the ballast capacity of the fleet, which reached ca 30 MT in 1996, approximately twice the 1978 value. This increase is primarily related to the ships' size. On the marginal sea routes, which require longer transits, the traffic had increased from 7 % to 12 % of the total traffic into the St. Lawrence between 1978 and 1996, with most of the increase occurring during the later years of the study. Since 1978, thirty countries have been added to the 137 found on the ships' origin list. In terms of foreign maritime traffic, Montreal Harbour is the largest of the whole St. Lawrence/Great Lakes system, with an average of 735 annual visits. On another hand, the ports at Baie-Comeau, Sept-Îles and Port-Cartier receive annually from foreign ships a quantity of ballast water estimated at nearly 9,75 MT, exceeding by three times the quantity carried towards all the other ports of the St. Lawrence/Great Lakes system. A marked increase in foreign traffic occurred in the southern gulf between 1978 and 1996. The maritime traffic pattern in the St. Lawrence, and its various tendencies, are discussed relative to the potential risk of introducing nonindigenous species through ballast water discharges.
HARVEY, M., M. GILBERT, D. GAUTHIER, D.M. REID, 1999. A preliminary assessment of risks for the ballast water-mediated introduction of nonindigenous marine organisms in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2268, 56 p .
Risks for the introduction of nonindigenous marine species into the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL) by foreign commercial shipping activities were evaluated by conducting three different surveys to characterize 1) the vessel traffic of foreign origin in the EGSL, 2) ballasting operations of foreign vessels entering ports of the EGSL, and 3) the biodiversity and species richness of protistan and metazoan taxa found in ballast water and sediment of incoming foreign vessels.
GILBERT, M., R. ALEXANDER, J. ARSENAULT, W.R. ERNST, W. FAIRCHILD, P. HENNIGAR, G. JULIEN, T. KING, M. LEBEUF, D. LEFAIVRE, 1998. Contamination par les BPC des sédiments et du crabe des neiges aux environs du site du naufrage de la barge Irving Whale après son renflouage ; PCB contamination of sediments and snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) around the site of the sinking of the Irving Whale barge after its recovery. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2204, 32 p .
In the spring and early summer of 1997, sediment and snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) samples were collected around the site where the barge Irving Whale had sunk and been recovered in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The objectives of this sampling program were to : 1) assess changes in the local PCB contamination since the recovery of the barge, and 2) better determine potential impacts on the snow crab fishery in the southern Gulf. In addition, PCB concentrations and congener composition patterns were determined in various compartments of the Gulf ecosystem to provide insight into the fate of the missing PCBs that were lost from the barge and dispersed in the environment. PCB concentrations in sediments within contamination hotspots around the barge footprint decreased since the recovery of the barge and some spatial spreading of PCBs was observed, possibly as a result of local sediment movements during the winter. Although estimates of the total PCB load in sediments within an area of 20,000 m2 southeast of the barge footprint suggest a decrease from 119 kg in October 1996 to 76 kg in the spring of 1997, any apparent loss of PCBs from the site over the winter cannot be clearly established at present. The local PCB contamination of snow crab also decreased since the recovery of the barge, mainly in the concentration of less persistent low chlorinated PCB congeners that are typically found in the Aroclor 1242 PCB mixture of the barge. As a result, no crab samples collected around the Irving Whale site in 1997 had PCB concentrations exceeding the Canadian guideline for human consumption. Potential impacts of the local PCB contamination on the snow crab fishery in the southern Gulf are believed to be negligible, but the current fishing exclusion zone around the site should be maintained to ensure the quality of the fishery and to prevent the resuspension of locally-contaminated sediments.
FORTIER, L., M. GILBERT, D. PONTON, R.G. INGRAM, B. ROBINEAU, L. LEGENDRE, 1996. Impact of freshwater on a subarctic coastal ecosystem under seasonal sea ice (southeastern Hudson Bay, Canada). III. Feeding success of marine fish larvae. J. Mar. Syst., 7: 251-265 .
GILBERT, M., G. WALSH (éd.), 1996. Conséquences potentielles d'un déversement de BPC provenant de la barge Irving Whale sur le milieu marin du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Potential consequences of a PCB spill from the barge Irvin Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2113, 62 p .
This report describes the potential consequences of a possible PCB spill from the barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The description of impacts is based on : 1) the physical characteristics and fisheries resources present in the Gulf of St. Law-rence and more specifically in the vicinity of the barge; 2) the physical and chemical characteristics of PCBs as well as their bioaccumulation and toxicity in the marine environment; 3) known accidental spills of PCBs in the aquatic environment; 4) their distribution and mass budget in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence; 5) the location of PCBs in the barge and the associated current levels of contamination of sediments and organisms near the Irving Whale; and 6) the modelling of the potential behaviour and dispersion of PCBs when large quantities are spilled in the enviroment. Potential impacts are examined according to three different hypothetical scenarios of a PCB spill : a slow intermittent or continuous leak of PCBs contained in the barge and major spills of PCBs close to the bottom or close to the surface during the lifting operations of the Irving Whale. Finally, general orientations are proposed for an eventual monitoring program in light of the available information and research needs on PCBs in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and in the vicinity of the barge.
GILBERT, M., D. GAUTHIER, J.A. GAGNÉ, Y. GRATTON, P. LAROUCHE, B. MORIN, R. MORIN, J.A. PERCY, T.G. SMITH, G.-H. TREMBLAY, G. WALSH, 1996. Hypothèses reliées aux effets environnementaux du projet Grande Baleine sur l'écosystème marin côtier du sud-est de la baie d'Hudson. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2127, 67 p .
The possible realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric development project could have significant biophysical impacts on the coastal marine environment of southeastern Hudson Bay.This document presents the results of discussions held within a working group composed of scientific personnel of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans - Laurentian Region that defined, in the form of hypotheses and research proposals, the environmental aspects related to the realization of the Grande Baleine hydroelectric project. These aspects mainly concern the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of southeastern Hudson Bay as well as the biology of some important species of fish and marine mammals inhabiting this region. A brief description of the actual and planned hydroelectric developments in the hydrographic basin of James and Hudson bays, as well as a synthesis of ongoing research activities and knowledge acquired to date on the marine environment of this region, are also presented.
MAURICE LAMONTAGNE INSTITUTE. SCIENCE BRANCH, GULF FISHERIES CENTRE, SCIENCE BRANCH, BEDFORD INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY, 1996. Potential consequences of a PCB spill from the barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Gulf Fisheries Centre & Bedford Institute of Oceanography, 51 p .
This document provides scientific advice on the potential impacts of s PCB spill from the barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Although all available information was collected to assess the potential impacts of a PCB spill, the paucity of data on PCBs in the Gulf as well as the limitations of the models used mean that it is the order of magnitude of the results which should be focuses on, and not the numbers thermselsves. Two independent approaches were used to build a PCB mass budget for the Estuary and Gulf system. The resulting estimate of the present total load of PCBs in the Estuary and Gulf is in the order of 72 - 85 metric tonnes (T), more than 80 % of the total load being associated with sediments. PCBs initially contained in the barge (7.25 T) would then represent about 8 - 10 % of the estimated total load. Three different scenarios for a possible PCB spill from the Irving Whale were examined : 1) a slow intermittent or continuous leak of PCBs from the barge; 2) a large release of PCBs from the barge near the bottom; and 3) a large release pf PCBs from the barge in surface waters. While the first scenario could occur if the barge is left unremediated, the secon and third scenarios are largely related to salvage operations. The report examines the possible fate of PCBs and their potential impacts for each of these scenarios.
INSTITUT MAURICE-LAMONTAGNE. DIRECTION DES SCIENCES; CENTRE DES PÊCHES DU GOLFE, DIRECTION DES SCIENCES, INSTITUT OCÉANOGRAPHIQUE DE BEDFORD, 1996. Conséquences potentielles d'un déversement de BPC provenant de la barge Irving Whale sur le milieu marin du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Direction des sciences; Centre des pêches du Golfe, Direction des sciences et Institut océanographique de Bedford, 53 p .
This document provides scientific advice on the potential impacts of s PCB spill from deht barge Irving Whale on the marine environment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Although all available information was collected to assess the potential impacts of a PCB spill, the paucity of data on PCBs in the Gulf as well as the limitations of the models used mean that it is the order of magnitude of the results which should be focuses on, and not the numbers thermselsves. Two independent approaches were used to build a PCB mass budget for the Estuary and Gulf system. The resulting estimate of the present total load of PCBs in the Estuary and Gulf is in the order of 72 - 85 metric tonnes (T), more than 80 % of the total load being associated with sediments. PCBs initially contained in the barge (7.25 T) would then represent about 8 -10 % of the estimated total load. Three different scenarios for a possible PCB spill from the Irving Whale were examined : 1) a slow intermittent or continuous leak of PCBs from the barge; 2) a large release of PCBs from the barge near the bottom; and 3) a large release pf PCBs from the barge in surface waters. While the first scenario could occur if the barge is left unremediated, the secon and third scenarios are largely related to salvage operations. The report examines the possible fate of PCBs and their potential impacts for each of these scenarios.
GILBERT, M., 1996. Mortalités de sébastes dans la région de la Baie des Ha! Ha!, fjord du Saguenay : un choc thermique. Naturaliste can., 120(1): 61-64 .
GILBERT, M., C.M. COUILLARD, 1995. Observations de mortalités de sébastes (Sebastes sp.) dans la région de la baie des Ha!Ha!, fjord du Saguenay : examen des causes possibles. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2278, 15 p .
In 1993 and 1994, redfish mortalities were reported on five occasions between July and October in the area of Baie des Ha! Ha!, in the Saguenay Fjord. The similar circumstances in which all these mortalities occurred indicate that they are related to a single cause. Low concentrations of heavy metals and organochlorines in tissues of individuals examined indicate that a long term bioaccumulation of contaminants is unlikely to have caused the observed mortalities. Mortalities resulting from epizootics, dismissed fisheries catches, or an acute intoxication caused by the presence of pollutants or toxic phytoplanktonic algae are all possible, although the observed events are not typical of such mortality causes. All mortalities were observed during the same phase of the tidal cycle, indicating a possible link with physicochemical and hydrodynamic conditions in the area of baie des Ha! Ha!. Redfish mortalities thus could have resulted from an anoxic, osmotic or thermal stress caused by increased local water mass movements during spring tides. Unusually cold summer conditions in the deep water mass of the baie des Ha! Ha! area, following particularly severe winters in 1993 and 1994, then would have induced the observed mortalities. However, additional information on the environmental conditions in which redfish mortalities occur, the characteristics and health status of affected individuals, as well as on the tolerance and acclimation limits of redfish to low temperature, is needed in order to determine with certainty their exact cause of mortality.
FORTIER, L., PONTON, D., M. GILBERT, 1995. The match/mismatch hypothesis and the feeding success of fish larvae in ice-covered southeastern Hudson Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 120: 11-27 .
GILBERT, M., L. FORTIER, D. PONTON, R. DROLET, 1992. Feeding ecology of marine fish larvae across the Great Whale River plume in seasonally ice-covered southeastern Hudson Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 84: 19-30 .
GILBERT, M., D. GASCON, 1987. Consommation de crevettes nordiques (Pandalus borealis Kroyer) par la morue (Gadus morhua L.) dans le nord-ouest du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Naturaliste can., 114: 203-209 .
The intensity of predation and size selectivity by cod (Gadus morhua) on northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were examined in relation to depth (depth zones of 146-183 m and 183-220 m) in the northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Shrimp is a major component of the cod diet, and its abundance in the stomach contents increases with the size of the predator. However, the size distribution of ingested shrimp did not differ with cod length. Predation is more intense in the deep zone and appears to be more related to prey abundance than to selection of large shrimps by cod.©1987 Université Laval
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