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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Johanne GAUTHIER

MORIN, R., J. GAUTHIER, M. FOWLER, 2011. Recovery Potential Assessment of the Maritime Designatable Unit of American Plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2005/043, 30 p .

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MORIN, R., J. GAUTHIER, FOWLER, M., 2011. Évaluation du potentiel de rétablissement de la plie canadienne (Hippoglossoides platessoides) de l'unité désignable des maritimes. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2011/043, 34 P .

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ARCHAMBAULT, D., H. BOURDAGES, B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, J. LAMBERT, L. SAVARD, 2011. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2011 dans l’estuaire et le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey in August 2011 in the Estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2011/112, 108 p .

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In 2011, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the Estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted from August 1st to 29th onboard the CCGS Teleost. One of the primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the main groundfish species (cod, Greenland halibut, Atlantic halibut and redfishes – Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella -), and for the Northern shrimp, and to identify the spatial distribution and biological characteristics of these species. The two other main objectives of the survey included monitoring the biodiversity of the Estuary and the northern Gulf, and describing oceanographic conditions observed in August for the sampling area. This report describes preliminary results on the catch rates and distribution of 25 taxa, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with results from the historical survey series that began in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI to the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. In 2011, the abundance and biomass indices of many species were stable or decreased compared to 2010. In fact, the two redfish species, cod, black dogfish and longfin hake showed index values below their respective means calculated for the comparative period of 1990-2010. Even if Atlantic halibut, witch, thorny skate, hagfish, northern shrimp and snow crab indices decreased from 2010 to 2011, they were comparable or higher than the mean estimated for the 1990-2010 period. Five species (Greenland halibut, white hake, American plaice, capelin and herring) showed an increase for their indices in 2011. Except for white hake, the indices for these species were similar or higher than the 1990-2010 period means. The geographic distributions of catches recorded for the different species in 2011 showed the same pattern as in previous years. Finally, the size distributions ranges determined for each species remains relatively stable for the entire time of the historical series. However, for some species (Greenland halibut, thorny skate, white hake, witch, American plaice, hagfish and northern shrimp), some size classes observed in 2011 were clearly dominant, and their abundance well above the calculated average for the comparative period.

NOZERES, C., D. ARCHAMBAULT, P.-M. CHOUINARD, J. GAUTHIER, R. MILLER, E. PARENT, P. SCHWAB, L. SAVARD, J.-D. DUTIL, 2010. Guide d'identification des poissons marins de l'estuaire et du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent et protocoles suivis pour leur échantillonnage lors des releves par chalut entre 2004 et 2008 ; Identification guide for marine fishes of the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and sampling protocols used during trawl surveys between 2004 and 2008. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2866, 168 p .

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The annual survey that scientists conduct on large research trawlers is an important source of information on the status of marine resources harvested in the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The main objective of the survey is to estimate the abundance and biomass of five commercially important species, i.e., Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), Acadian (Sebastes fasciatus) and deepwater (Sebastes mentella) redfish, and northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis). For several years, biologists have sought to improve the integration of stock status and ecosystem information, which has required a greater effort to better describe catches of other species of fish and invertebrates. The long-used sampling and observation protocol has evolved into a much more complex, detailed model. However, in implementing this protocol, difficulties have been encountered in accurately identifying ten or so species caught at each trawling station. This report provides a guide to the identification of fish species likely to be caught in surveys in the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. This visual guide is designed as a practical tool for training staff and ensuring the quality of data collected. This report also describes the sampling and examination protocol for fish catches used for surveys conducted aboard the CGSS Teleost between 2004 and 2008 and presents a brief descriptive analysis of fish catches during this period.

BOURDAGES, H., ARCHAMBAULT, D., BERNIER, B., FRECHET, A. GAUTHIER, J. GREGOIRE, F, LAMBERT, J, L. SAVARD, 2010. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2010 dans l’estuaire et le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey in August 2010 in the Estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series, 2010/107, 98 p .

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In 2010, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the Estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted from August 2nd to September 1st onboard the CCGS Teleost. One of the primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the main groundfish species (particularly cod, Greenland halibut, Atlantic halibut and redfishes - fasciatus and mentella-), and for the Northern shrimp, and to identify the spatial distribution and biological characteristics of these species. Other objectives included monitoring the biodiversity of Estuary and the northern Gulf and describing oceanographic conditions observed in August. This report describes preliminary results on the catch rates and distribution of 18 taxa, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with results from the historical survey series that began in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert the data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI to the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. In 2010, the abundance and biomass indices of many species were stable or decreased compared to 2009. In fact, the two redfish species (Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella), cod, black dogfish, white hake and longfin hake show index values below the historical series means. Even if the Northern shrimp and snow crab indices presented a small decrease, they were in the range of the historical series means. Six species (Atlantic Halibut, Greenland Halibut, hagfish, American Plaice, witch, thorny skate) showed an increase for their indices in 2010. Except for Greenland Halibut, the indices for these species were among the highest values of their respective historical series. Besides the fact that no fishing activities took place along the southwestern part of Newfoundland due to mechanical problems, the geographic distributions of catches recorded for the different species in 2010 showed the same pattern as in previous years.

DUTIL, J. -D., S. PROULX, S. HURTUBISE, J. GAUTHIER, 2010. Recent findingl on the life history and catches of wolffish (Anarhichas sp.) in research surveys and in the Sentinel Fisheries and Observer Program for the Estuary and Gulf of St-Lawrence Nouvelles données sur la biologie et les captures de loups (Anarhichas sp.)dans les relevés de recherche, et dans les Pêches sentinelles et le Programme des observateurs pour l’estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2010/126, 81 p .

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The three species of wolffish that inhabit the eastern Canadian Coast are considered as being at risk. Two species are listed as threatened (Anarhichas denticulatus, Anarhichas minor) whereas the third species (Anarhichas lupus) is listed as being of special concern. Since 2000 and 2001 when the status of those species was first assessed, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans has taken steps to facilitate their recovery. From a research and monitoring perspective, concrete actions included collecting more data and better data on which to base conservation measures in the future, as well as supporting research on life history, distribution and habitat associations of all three species. The present report reviews recent projects and publications on wolffish based on material collected in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and addressing the following topics: fish species assemblages to which wolffish are associated, use of shelters by juvenile spotted wolffish, diving and towed camera surveys, metabolism, growth and reproductive biology, including new tools for fish identification and critical reviews of fish identifications on research surveys. Catch and effort data were aggregated using a grid made up of 100 km2 square cells. The probability of catching wolffish of a given species in a set and within a cell (relative occurrence) was calculated as the ratio of the number of sets in which a species was recorded and the total number of sets made. This method allows the mapping of catch and effort for numerous time series based on data from different programs in both the whole study area (research surveys and Sentinel Fisheries using bottom trawls and a random stratified design) or in specific areas within the Gulf. The method also allows an estimate of surface areas occupied by each species and lends itself to matching area of occupancy and characteristics of the habitat. The data suggest no temporal trend in abundance. Wolffish represent a small biomass compared to other demersal species, with northern wolffish being very rare. The west coast of Newfoundland appears to be a hot spot for the distribution of spotted and striped wolffish in the Gulf.

GAUTHIER, J., M. CASTONGUAY, D. POWER, K. DWYER, 2010. Assessment of redfish stocks (Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella) in Units 1 and 2 in 2009. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2010/037, 20 p .

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GAUTHIER, J., M. CASTONGUAY, POWER, D., K. DWYER, 2010. Évaluation des stocks de sébastes (Sebastes fasciatus et S. mentella) des unités 1 et 2 en 2009. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2010/037, 22 p .

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BOURDAGES, H., D. ARCHAMBAULT, D. BERNIER, A. FRECHET, J. GAUTHIER, F. GREGOIRE, J. LAMBERT, L. SAVARD, 2010. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d'août 2009 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey in August 2009 in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Rapp. stat. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1226, 84 p. .

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In 2009, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted from July 31 to August 31 onboard the CCGS Teleost. One of the primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the mam groundfish species (particularly cod, Greenland halibut and redfish), and for the Northern shrimp, and to identify the spatial distribution and biological characteristics of these species. Other objectives included monitoring the biodiversity of the nOlthern Gulf and describing oceanographic conditions obser.ved in August. This report describes preliminary results on the catch rate and distribution of 15 taxa, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with results from the historical survey series that began in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert the data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI with the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. In 2009, the abundance and biomass indices of many species have decreased compared to the previous years. In fact, the redfish, black dogfish and longfin hake indices are among the lowest values of the series. Greenland halibut, for which indices decreased by about 30 %, shows values similar to the early 2000's. However, the indices observed in 2009 for the other species (cod, Northern shrimp, Atlantic halibut, thorny skate, white hake, American plaice, witch flounder and snow crab) are comparable to the means of the last five years even though a decrease was observed compared to last year. The geographic distributions of catches recorded for the different species in 2009 show the same pattern as we have seen over the previous seven years

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, Y. LAMBERT, A. Le BRIS, C. TOURNOIS, M. WAY, F. COLLIER, 2009. L’état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2008 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2008. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2009/090, 100 p .

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The commercial landings for the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) reached a maximum of 106,000 tons in 1983 while the spawning biomass reached a maximum of 351,000 tons in 1983. The stock was reduced to a historic minimum mature biomass of 8,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 26,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gillnets and handlines). Despite the low fishing effort and a second moratorium in 2003, the mature biomass of this stock remains low at only 32,000 t in 2009. The stock has thus increased from 1994 to 1996 but since then has remained stable because the fishery takes the total stock production. The limit reference point was recalculated at 140,000 t of spawning stock biomass.

WORCESTER, T., J. BRATTEY, G.A. CHOUINARD, D. CLARK, K.J. CLARK, J. DEAULT, M. FOWLER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, B. HEALEY, Y. LAMBERT, D. MADDOCK PARSONS, R. MOHN, M.J. MORGAN, E.F. MURPHY, D. POWER, H. POWLES, P. SCHWAB, D.P. SWAIN, M. TREBLE, 2009. Status of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in 2008 ; État des stocks de morue franche (Gadus morhua) en 2008. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2009/027, 173 p .

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The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) is expected to review the status of all Designatable Units (Dus) of Atlantic cod in 2009. This report was prepared to consolidate Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) information and analyses relevant to the COSEWIC review. Information on cod stock structure, status and trends, area of occupancy, changes in lifehistory characteristics, and threats on each of the Dus (Arctic, Newfoundland and Labrador, Laurentian North, and Maritimes) was presented and discussed at a pre-COSEWIC meeting held 3-5 November 2008 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It was concluded that Atlantic cod populations continue to remain at very low levels, with some stocks in the Maritimes DU (4TVn, 4X5Y) experiencing further decline to their lowest levels on record. Natural mortality is currently high in the Maritimes DU, but it appears to have decreased from highs in other areas (3Pn4RS and 2J3KL). Age at maturity appears to have decreased by 1-2 years from historical values in some stocks. Length-at-age is also at lower than historical values for cod stocks in 3Pn4RS, 4TVn, 4Vn, and 4VsW. While length-at-age has not declined for 4X5Y cod, weight-at-age for the portion found on the Scotian Shelf has declined during 2003-2007. Threats to Atlantic cod vary by area but continue to include fishing mortality, changes in productivity, and natural mortality. Several sources of mortality have not yet been quantified, including some recreational fisheries, commercial by-catch, and the impact of predators such as seals. Further work is required to evaluate the relative impact of unaccounted for sources of mortality on the current status of Atlantic cod and its potential for recovery.

BOURDAGES, H., D. ARCHAMBAULT, B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, J. LAMBERT, L. SAVARD, 2008. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2007 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey from August 2007 in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2008/046, 77 p .

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In 2007, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the Quebec region was conducted from August 3rd to September 1st in the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence on board the CCGS Teleost. One of its primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the main groundfish species, including the three species targeted by the survey (cod, Greenland halibut, redfish) and Northern shrimp (also targeted by the survey), identify spatial distribution and their biological characteristics. Among the other objectives, the survey aimed at providing a concurrent portrait of environmental conditions in the Gulf for 7 of the Gulf’s 8 geographic regions considered in the assessment of the Gulf’s physical conditions. This report describes for 14 species the preliminary results for catch rate and distribution, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with the results from the historical survey series introduced in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert the data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI with the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. None of the species showed much variation compared with the two previous years, except for Atlantic halibut with a still increasing abundance index in 2007. The geographic distribution of catches recorded for the different species in 2007 can be compared to the five previous years. In 2007, the temperatures recorded for surface waters and for the cold intermediate layer (CIL) were generally colder for the entire covered area compared with the temperatures recorded in 2006. The layers <1°C and <0°C of the CIL were much thicker in 2007 than in 2006. However, the temperatures recorded for deep water (300+m) were similar during these two years. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Estuary waters were still considered hypoxic in 2007.

BOURDAGES, H., D. ARCHAMBAULT, B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, J. LAMBERT, L. SAVARD, 2008. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d'août 2008 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey from August 2007 in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Rapp. stat. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1210, 84 p. .

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In 2008, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted from July 24th to August 25th onboard the CCGS Teleost. One of the primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the principal groundfish species, including the three fish species targeted by the survey (cod, Greenland halibut and redfish), and for the Northern shrimp, identify for each of them their spatial distribution and biological characteristics. One of the other objectives, the survey aimed at providing a concurrent portrait of environmental conditions observed in August in the Gulf. This report describes for 14 species the preliminary results for their catch rate and distribution, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with results from the historical survey series that began in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert the data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI with the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. While the biomass index in 2008 is still increasing for Atlantic halibut, the indices obtained for the other species are comparable to the means of the last three years. The geographic distributions of catches recorded for the different species in 2008 show the same pattern as for the five previous years.

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, H. BOURDAGES, C. TOURNOIS, J. SPINGLE, M. WAY, F. COLLIER, 2007. L’état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2006 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2006. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2007/068, 89 p .

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The commercial landings for the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) have reached a maximum of 106,000 tons in 1983 while the spawning biomass has reached a maximum of 378,000 tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a historic minimum mature biomass of 11,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 26,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gillnets and handlines). Despite the low fishing effort and a second moratorium in 2003, the mature biomass of this stock remains low at only 44,000 t in 2007.

KULKA, D.W., D. SWAIN, M.R. SIMPSON, C.M. MIRI, J. SIMON, J. GAUTHIER, R. McPHIE, J. SULIKOWSKI, L. HAMILTON, 2006. Distribution, abundance, and life history of Malacoraja senta (smooth skate) in Canadian Atlantic waters with reference to its global distribution ; Répartition, abondance et cycle biologique de Malacoraja senta (raie à queue de velours) dans les eaux atlantiques canadiennes par rapport à sa répartition globale. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2006/093, 136 p .

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Under the Canadian Species At Risk Act (SARA), the Committee On the Status of Endangered Wildlife In Canada (COSEWIC) is responsible for assessing extinction risk of terrestrial and aquatic species that occur within Canada including in the surrounding oceans within jurisdictional limits. As part of the initial process of assessing extinction risk for an aquatic species, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada examines pertinent data for which they are the custodian. Available information is reviewed regarding the taxonomy, distribution, abundance, life history and ecology of Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate) in Canadian Atlantic shelf waters as well as anthropogenic influences. Our study also includes adjacent USA waters to encompass the global range of the species. M. senta ranges from Lat 40 deg, southern Georges Bank to Lat. 56.5 deg in the Hopedale Channel on the Labrador Shelf. It most commonly occurs in the troughs separating banks within a depth range of 70-480 m, considerably shallower than it four congeners. It commonly occupies a temperature range of 2.7-10 deg;C, seldom found in <0 deg;C. It occupied 585,000 km2 (total area where it was observed between 1971 and 2005). It occurred in five distinct areas (treated here as Designatable Units or DU’s) separated by large areas where none were observed. It is uncertain whether the five DU’s constituted separate reproductive, genetically distinct units. Each of the five concentrations underwent changes in abundance to varying degrees and the largest decline occurred in the Funk Island Deep.

FRÉCHET, A., C. SAVENKOFF, J. GAUTHIER, 2006. Mise à jour concernant les mortalités par pêche non comptabilisées ; Updates concerning unaccounted fishing mortalities. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2006/086, 17 p .

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This paper covers a number of items related to unaccounted fishing mortalities: 1. Definition of the various categories of unaccounted fishing mortalities 2. A simulation of potential negative impacts of a change in mesh size 3. Three ghost fishing gear recovery programs in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 4. Fish survival experiments by gear type 5. By-catch in the shrimp fishery 6. Indirect evidence of unaccounted fishing mortality in ecosystem modelling These issues are raised in order to increase the awareness to the existence, monitoring, and research on unaccounted fishing mortalities in the Quebec region. Of relevance to the impact of the use of mobile bottom fishing gear is the issue of post-selection (or escape) mortality. Recent research in this field showed that such mortalities can be significant for some groundfish species. A better understanding of post selection mortality could allow assessing the mortality on targeted and non targeted species for the various fishing gears used. Also, such knowledge may improve the accuracy of stock assessments. No field research on this topic is currently being undertaken.

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, F. COLLIER, J. SPINGLE, 2006. Marquage de la lompe (Cyclopterus lumpus) dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent de 2004 à 2006 ; Tagging of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence from 2005 to 2006. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2006/084, 15 p .

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GAUTHIER, J., M. CASTONGUAY, 2005. Flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2004. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2005/012, 9 p .

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LEE, K., S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, 2005. Evaluating the addition of fine particles to enhance oil degradation. Pages 2699-2704 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005 .

Natural biodegradation rates of oil within the marine environment are partly controlled by surface availability, as microbial attack primarily occurs at the oilwater interface. Therefore, increasing the surface area of residual oil by the addition of fine oleophilic particles may prove to be an effective bioremediation strategy. Considering commercial availability and cost, heat-treated peat was identified to be a promising particle source as it has high oil absorption properties and does not compete with oil as an alternative carbon source to oil-degrading bacteria. A preliminary laboratory experiment conducted with a respirometry system demonstrated the feasibility of nutrient and peat additions to enhance the metabolic activity of bacteria within oil-contaminated sand beach sediments. Field trials were conducted with similar peat and nutrient concentrations in a north-temperate beach environment with weathered Scotian Light crude oil over a 138-day period. The rates of microbial respiration and productivity were enhanced significantly above unoiled and oiled control sediments with the addition of inorganic nutrients with and without peat amendments. Treatment of sediments with inorganic nutrients and peat did not increase the toxicity of the residual oil. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis was used to quantify bioremediation success by normalizing the loss of individual components to the conserved marker 17α(H), 21β(H)-hopane. While there is evidence of a stimulatory effect with the addition of peat, results suggest that nutrient availability in the interstitial water limited optimal rates of oil bioremediation.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

GAUTHIER, J., M. CASTONGUAY, 2005. Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) Greenland halibut in 2004. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2005/012, 9 p .

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LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, S.E. COBANLI, M. GRIFFIN, 2005. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation : a paradox between laboratory and field results. Pages 626-634 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference : prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, May 15-19, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida .

In both shaker-flask and mesocosm-scale experiments, a commercial oleophilic bioremediation agent containing biostimulation (nutrients) and bioaugmentation (bacterial inocula) properties was more effective in enhancing oil biodegradation rates than that of no treatment and/or periodic inorganic nutrient addition. However, similar results were not obtained from subsequent 129-days field trial conducted in a sand beach environment. In this case, periodic additions of inorganic nutrients, with and without the commercial bioremediation agent, enhanced the number of heterotrophic bacteria and microbial respiration rates within the oiled sediments. The commercial product appeared to elevate the number of oil-degrading bacteria within the oiled sediment between days 17 and 89. However, the addition of inorganic nutrients alone, on a periodic basis, was the most effective means of enhancing the extent of oil biodegradation within the residual oil and of reducing sediment toxicity. By retaining residual oil and altering the physical and chemical characteristics of the treated sediment, the oleophilic product suppressed both the rate and extent of oil loss by tidal activity and biodegradation. This is not to say that the use of the product was ineffective in protecting the environment or was detrimental to it; the product does enhance natural biodegradation rates, and it limits the transport of beached oil to more sensitive areas. This study clearly illustrates the complexity associated with the selection of bioremediation agents, the need for improved experimental protocols for evaluating the performance and toxicity of bioremediation agents, and the potential of nutrient enrichment as a bioremediation strategy.©2005 The Authors

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, L. PAGEAU, C. SAVENKOFF, M. CASTONGUAY, D. CHABOT, C. TOURNOIS, J.-F. LUSSIER, J. SPINGLE, F. COLLIER, 2005. L’état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2004 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2004. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2005/060, 72 p .

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The commercial landings for the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) have reached a maximum of 106,000 tons while the spawning biomass has reached a maximum of 378,000 tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a minimum mature biomass of 9,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 26,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gillnets and handlines). Despite the low fishing effort and a second moratorium in 2003, the mature biomass remains low at 38,000 tons in 2005

DUTIL, J.-D., J. GAUTHIER, A. FRÉCHET, M. CASTONGUAY, Y. LAMBERT, P. OUELLET, 2005. Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (NAFO 3Pn and 4RS). Pages 105-113 in K. Brander (ed.). Spawning and life history information for North Atlantic cod stocks. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES Coop. Res. Rep., 274) .

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THOMAS JOHNSON, B., J.D. PETTY, J.N. HUCKINS, K. LEE, J. GAUTHIER, 2004. Hazard assessment of a simulated oil spill on intertidal areas of the St. Lawrence River with SPMD-TOX. Environ. Toxicol., 19(4): 329-335 .

Phytoremediation in a simulated crude oil spill was studied with a minimalistic approach. The SPMD-TOX paradigm - a miniature passive sorptive device to collect and concentrate chemicals and microscale tests to detect toxicity - was used to monitor over time the bioavailability and potential toxicity of an oil spill. A simulated crude oil spill was initiated on an intertidal freshwater grass-wetland along the St. Lawrence River southwest of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Several phytoremediation treatments were investigated; to dissipate and ameliorate the spill, treatments included nutrient amendments with inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate) and phosphate (super triple phosphate) with and without cut plants, with natural attenuation (no phytoremedial treatment) as a control. Sequestered oil residues were bioavailable in all oil-treated plots in Weeks 1 and 2. Interestingly, the samples were colored and fluoresced under ultraviolet light. In addition, microscale tests showed that sequestered residues were acutely toxic and genotoxic, as well as that they induced hepatic P450 enzymes. Analysis of these data suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were among the bioavailable residues sequestered. In addition, these findings suggested that the toxic bioavailable fractions of the oil spill and degradation products dissipated rapidly over time because after the second week the water column contained no oil or detectable degradation products in this riverine intertidal wetland. SPMD-TOX revealed no evidence of bioavailable oil products in Weeks 4, 6, 8, and 12. All phytoremediation efforts appeared to be ineffective in changing either the dissipation rate or the ability to ameliorate the oil toxicity. SPMD-TOX analysis of the water columns from these riverine experimental plots profiled the occurrence, dissipation, and influence of phytoremediation on the bioavailability and toxicity of oil products (parent or degradation products).©2004; Wiley Periodicals Inc.

FRECHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, H. BOURDAGES, D. CHABOT, F. COLLIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, Y. LAMBERT, G. MOREAULT, L. PAGEAU, J. SPINGLE, 2003. L'état du stock de morue du Nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2002 ; The status of cod in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence (3Pn, 4RS) in 2002. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2003/065, 90 p .

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The commercial landings for this stock have reached a maximum of 106,000 tons while the stock had reached its maximum mature biomass of 462,000 tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a minimum mature biomass of 21,000 tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 58,000 tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gill nets and hand lines). Despite the low fishing effort, the mature biomass remains stable at the same low level as when the fishery was reopened in 1997.

DUTIL, J.-D., J. GAUTHIER, A. FRÉCHET, D. CHABOT, 2003. Cod stocks rebuilding and fish bioenergetics: low productivity hypothesis ; Le rétablissement des stocks de morue et la bio-énergique des poissons: l'hypothèse d'une faible productivité. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2003/060, 39 p .

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The lack of response of several cod stocks and other species to management regulations expected to promote stock rebuilding is hypothesized to stem from a combined (multiplicative) effect of 3 factors : 1. natural intrinsic productivity is low; 2. natural intrinsic productivity has declined; 3. pressures on production associated with natural and fishing mortality have remained high or have increased relative to these stocks/species rates of production. Annual production per capita and per unit biomass varies among stocks, with northerly distributed stocks or stocks inhabiting cold and sometimes hypoxic environments being notably less productive than other stocks. Cod in less productive stocks grow slowly, recruit at an older age, become sexually mature at a later age and a smaller size and produce fewer eggs. Fish condition is on average lower and varies much more in these stocks compared to other stocks. Environmental conditions have changed progressively after the mid ‘80s with conditions during the moratorium not favorable to cod production in northern areas of the western North Atlantic. Fish stocks in these areas have thus become less productive and hence less resilient, i.e., less able to resist and respond to perturbations, whether man-made or environmental. There are several recent indications that individual performance has improved, but fishing pressure has not been relaxed sufficiently to offset increased predation pressures and low productivity associated with limiting environmental conditions. These stocks are unable to produce new biomass fast and as a result stock rebuilding is expected to take much longer than would be predicted for other stocks living in more favorable environments, particularly if exploited under enduring adverse environmental conditions. Strengths and weaknesses of this hypothesis are discussed.

LEE, K., S. COBANLI, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, A.D. VENOSA, M.T. SUIDAN, J. GAUTHIER, G.H. TREMBLAY, C.W. GREER, K.G. DOE, 2002. Habitat recovery in a crude oil-contaminated saltmarsh following biorestoration treatments. Pages 329-340 in Proceedings of the 25th the Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, Calgary, Alberta June 11-13 .

LEE, K., A.D. VENOSA, M.T. SUIDAN, C.W. GREER, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, C. COBANLI, G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, K. DOE, 2002. Monitoring recovery of a crude oil-contaminated saltmarsh following in-situ remediation treatments. Pages 127-139 in C.A. Brebbia (ed.). Coastal Environment: Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions IV .

FRÉCHET, A., J. GAUTHIER, P. SCHWAB, G. MOREAULT, L. PAGEAU, J. SPINGLE, L. PAGEAU, 2002. L'état du stock de morue du nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent (3Pn, 4RS) en 2001. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2002/083, 55 p .

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The commercial landings for this stock have reached a maximum of 106 thousand tons while the stock had reached its maximum mature biomass of 468 thousand tons in 1983. Afterwards, the stock was reduced to a minimum mature biomass of 19 thousand tons in 1994. The stock was under moratorium from 1994 to 1996 which allowed for a modest improvement of the mature biomass which was at 53 thousand tons at the reopening of the commercial fishery in 1997. Since 1997, the commercial fishery has been conducted by fixed gears only (longlines, gill nets and hand lines). Despite the low fishing effort, the mature biomass remains stable at the same level as the reopening of the fishery in 1997.

LEE, K., G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, A.D. VENOSA, L.E.J. LEE, M.T. SUIDAN, S. GARCIA-BLANCO, 2001. Monitoring habitat recovery and toxicity reduction in an oiled freshwater wetland to determine remediation success. Environ. Can. AMOP Proc., 24: 195-210 .

LEE, K., S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, 1999. Evaluating the addition of fine particles to enhance oil degradation. Pages 765-770 in Proceedings : 1999 International Oil Spill Conference (Beyond 2000, Balancing Perspectives), March 8-11, 1999, Seattle, Washington .

LEE, K., P. STOFFYN-EGLI, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, S.E. COBANLI, R. PRINCE, R.E. BARE, R.M. GARRETT, M.J. GROSSMAN, G. SERGY, E.H. OWENS, C.C. GUENETTE, T. JOHNSON, 1999. In-situ Treatment of Oiled Sediment Shorelines, Volume 4. Environmental Impact and Validation of Oil-Mineral Aggregate Formation. Environment Canada, 60 p + appendices .

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, S.E. COBANLI, M. GRIFFIN, 1997. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation : a paradox between laboratory and field results. Pages 697-705 in 1997 International Oil Spill Conference : improving environmental protection : progress, challenges, responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida .