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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Jean-Yves COUTURE

COUTURE, J.-Y., N. SIMARD, 2007. Évaluation préliminaire des risques potentiels d'introduction d'espèces non indigènes dans les eaux de la côte est canadienne par l'intermédiaire des caissons de prise d'eau des navires. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2824, 25 p .

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Between October 2005 and February 2006, the sea chests and strainers of 15 ships visiting Eastern Canadian ports were sampled to evaluate if they can be vectors for the introduction of nonindigenous species in Canadian waters. A total of 43 marine species were collected, of which one species was already known to be exotic and present in Canadian waters (Membranipora membranacea), 38 were native and 4 were nonindigenous species (Sargasum natans, Sargassum fluitans, Lepas pectinata and Stereotheca elongata). Although the risks of survival of these species in Canadian waters seem to be relatively low because of cold waters; these observations suggest that nonindigenous species can be transported be sea chests and potentially discharged in these waters. M. Membranacea is currently expanding its range in Eastern Canadian waters and shipping traffic may contribute to this through sea chest transport.

LEVASSEUR, M., J.-Y. COUTURE, A.M. WEISE, S. MICHAUD, M. ELBRACHTER, G. SAUVÉ, E. BONNEAU, 2003. Pelagic and epiphytic summer distributions of prorocentrum lima and P. mexicanum at two mussel farms in the Gulf of St.Lawrence, Canada. Aquat. Microbiol. Ecol., 30: 283-293 .

BONNEAU, E., J.-Y. COUTURE, M. LEVASSEUR, 2002. Le programme de monitorage des algues toxiques de la région du Québec: un outil précieux pour le développement des connaissances. AZMP Bull. PMZA, 2: 24-25 .

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The Toxic Algae Monitoring Program (TAMP) of the Quebec Region covers the entire maritime area of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with a network of 11 coastal stations sampled between May and October over the last 13 years. The primary objective of this program is to provide complementary information for the biotoxin monitoring program on shellfish that is carried out each year by the Canadien Food Inspection Agency. TAMP provides identification and counts of toxic algae and also allows the acquisition of new knowledge of new on the dynamics of these algae and on the environmental conditions that favour their growth and development. In this context, the living material and/or the data that have been obtained via TAMP have been used for many other research projects that have already produced several scientific publications. This mutually beneficial relationship between monitoring and research activities has demonstrated a great scientific efficiency and we hope that this approach will be exploited to its full potential in the future. For the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program of the Quebec Region, TAMP represents an essential association to allow the acquisition of environmental information in the near-shore zone.

COUTURE, J.Y., M. LEVASSEUR, E. BONNEAU, C. DESJARDINS, G. SAUVÉ, S.S. BATES, C. LÉGER, R. GAGNON, S. MICHAUD, 2001. Spatial and temporal variation of domoic acid in molluscs and of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in the St. Lawrence from 1998 to 2000. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2375, 24 p .

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The presence of domoic acid (the toxin responsilbe for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning - ASP) in shellfish has been monitored in the estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence since 1997 by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The results indicate a spatial and temporal evolution of domoic acid contamination between 1998 and 2000. Trace amounts of this toxin were first detected in the gonads of sea scallops from fishing areas offshore of the Iles-de-la-Madeleine in the summer of 1998. In 1999, the concentration of domoic acid in the digestive glands of sea scallops from the same area reached 585 ug g -1, whereas the adductor muscles were not contaminated. At the same time, concentrations of domoic acid close to 25 ug g -1 digestive gland were measured in sea scallops from the Havre-aux-Maisons lagoon while trace amounts were measured for the first time in soft-shell clams collected on the Lower North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In 2000, the digestive glands of sea scallops from the Iles-de-la-Madeleine remained toxic and trace amounts of domoic acid were measured in shellfish all along the North Shore, from Tadoussac to Havre-Saint-Pierre. In addition to the CFIA data, the Harmful Algae Monitoring Program of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute (Fisheries and Oceans Canada) revealed the presence of two potentially domoic-acid-producing diatoms in the St. Lawrence: Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and Pseudo-nitzschi delicatissima. Analysis of data showed a link between domoic acid in some shellfish from the Iles-de-la-Madeleine and North Shore and the presence of Pseudo-nitzschia seriata. Dense blooms of P. delicatissima (with no P. seriata) did not cause toxicity. Laboratory analyses performed on a P. seriata strain isolated from the St. Lawrence estuary during a toxic event showed the ability of P. seriata to produce domoic acid whereas all attempts made with P. delicatissima from other regions of eastern Canada have so far been negative. These new results show that P. seriata blooms in the St. Lawrence and the resulting shellfish toxicity due to domoic acid represent a potential risk that needs to be considered in the future.

LEVASSEUR, M., J.-Y. COUTURE, G. SAUVÉ, S. MICHAUD, 2001. Contamination des mollusques du Québec par les phycotoxines diarrhéiques (DSP) et amnestiques (ASP) et recherche des sources potentielles de phycotoxines DSP. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2350, 41 p .

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This study was initiated following the detection for the first time of DSP and ASP phycotoxins in shellfish (blue mussel and scallop) from the Magdalen Islands during the summer of 1998. Our objectives were 1) to determine if Prorocentrum lima may be the source of DSP in cultured mussels from the Magdalen Islands and 2) to evaluate the extent of the contamination by DSP and ASP of molluscs from different areas in Quebec. Our sampling, carried out at two cultured mussel sites in the Magdalen Islands, revealed the regular presence of P. lima fixed on the epibionts growing on the mussel socks. P. lima was frequently found in the digestive glands of the mussels, but apparently in concentrations too low to cause contamination during our study. In other regions of Quebec, 9.5 % of the 252 shellfish analysed (mostly mussels) showed low levels of DTX with a maximum of 0.4 mug/g in the digestive gland. During the sampling conducted in the Magdalen Islands, we also identified, for the first time in Eastern Canada, another toxic microalga: Prorocentrum mexicanum, P. mexicanum is known to produce DSP-type toxins, but different from those produced by P. lima. These toxins were not measured during our study but could represent a risk that needs to be evaluated. Finally, elevated concentrations of ASP (up to 550 mug/g) were measured in the digestive glands of scallops from the Magdalen Islands. The source of these toxins and the importance of the contamination remain to be determined.

COUTURE, J.Y., M. LEVASSEUR, E. BONNEAU, C. DESJARDINS, G. SAUVÉ, S.S. BATES, C. LÉGER, R. GAGNON, S. MICHAUD, 2001. Variations spatiales et temporelles des concentrations d'acide domoïque dans les mollusques et des abondances de Pseudo-nitzschia spp. dans le Saint-Laurent de 1998 à 2000. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2375, 25 p .

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The presence of domoic acid (the toxin responsilbe for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning - ASP) in shellfish has been monitored in the estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence since 1997 by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The results indicate a spatial and temporal evolution of domoic acid contamination between 1998 and 2000. Trace amounts of this toxin were first detected in the gonads of sea scallops from fishing areas offshore of the Iles-de-la-Madeleine in the summer of 1998. In 1999, the concentration of domoic acid in the digestive glands of sea scallops from the same area reached 585 ug g -1, whereas the adductor muscles were not contaminated. At the same time, concentrations of domoic acid close to 25 ug g -1 digestive gland were measured in sea scallops from the Havre-aux-Maisons lagoon while trace amounts were measured for the first time in soft-shell clams collected on the Lower North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In 2000, the digestive glands of sea scallops from the Iles-de-la-Madeleine remained toxic and trace amounts of domoic acid were measured in shellfish all along the North Shore, from Tadoussac to Havre-Saint-Pierre. In addition to the CFIA data, the Harmful Algae Monitoring Program of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute (Fisheries and Oceans Canada) revealed the presence of two potentially domoic-acid-producing diatoms in the St. Lawrence: Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and Pseudo-nitzschi delicatissima. Analysis of data showed a link between domoic acid in some shellfish from the Iles-de-la-Madeleine and North Shore and the presence of Pseudo-nitzschia seriata. Dense blooms of P. delicatissima (with no P. seriata) did not cause toxicity. Laboratory analyses performed on a P. seriata strain isolated from the St. Lawrence estuary during a toxic event showed the ability of P. seriata to produce domoic acid whereas all attempts made with P. delicatissima from other regions of eastern Canada have so far been negative. These new results show that P. seriata blooms in the St. Lawrence and the resulting shellfish toxicity due to domoic acid represent a potential risk that needs to be considered in the future.