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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Sophie COMTOIS

GIGUÈRE, N., P. NELLIS, G.H. TREMBLAY, M. GIANGIOPPI, H.-F. ELLEFSEN, A. MAGASSOUBA, S. COMTOIS, C. SAVENKOFF, R. DUFOUR, 2011. Démarche d’évaluation du risque : développement d’outils et application à la zone de fraie et d’alevinage du capelan. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2947, 45 p .

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This pilot project is linked to current national work and applies the theoretical notions of a risk analysis in the context of a real situation: capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. While phase I resulted in the identification and the formulation of the problem through the development of Pathways of Effects (PoE) models, phase II, presented in this report, focusses on the development of a proposed risk assessment procedure and associated tools to be applied. The procedure is composed of four types of analysis: analyses of predicted conditions, measured conditions, and desired conditions, and a comparative analysis of conditions. The human activities and stressors identified in PoE models that potentially affect the capelin spawning / larval retention area were used to develop and apply the tools. To do this, Gallix beach, located in the region of Sept-Îles (Quebec, Canada), was selected as the ecological unit of reference. The proposed risk assessment procedure contributed to the development of a tool to analyze the predicted conditions. To carry out the three remaining types of analysis, other avenues were explored. All in all, the second phase of the pilot project demonstrated that tools can be developed to be versatile, flexible, and to perform well when used in a real context. Lastly, the work confirmed that risk assessment within a risk analysis process can help decision makers define priorities and subsequently focus their efforts on the management and regulation of activities that have greater potential social, cultural, or economic impacts.

GIGUÈRE, N., P. NELLIS, G.H. TREMBLAY, M. GIANGIOPPI, H.-F. ELLEFSEN, A. MAGASSOUBA, S. COMTOIS, C. SAVENKOFF, R.DUFOUR, 2011. Risk assessment procedure : development of tools and application in the capelin spawning. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,2947, 44 p .

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This pilot project is linked to current national work and applies the theoretical notions of a risk analysis in the context of a real situation: capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. While phase I resulted in the identification and the formulation of the problem through the development of Pathways of Effects (PoE) models, phase II, presented in this report, focusses on the development of a proposed risk assessment procedure and associated tools to be applied. The procedure is composed of four types of analysis: analyses of predicted conditions, measured conditions, and desired conditions, and a comparative analysis of conditions. The human activities and stressors identified in PoE models that potentially affect the capelin spawning / larval retention area were used to develop and apply the tools. To do this, Gallix beach, located in the region of Sept-Îles (Quebec, Canada), was selected as the ecological unit of reference. The proposed risk assessment procedure contributed to the development of a tool to analyze the predicted conditions. To carry out the three remaining types of analysis, other avenues were explored. All in all, the second phase of the pilot project demonstrated that tools can be developed to be versatile, flexible, and to perform well when used in a real context. Lastly, the work confirmed that risk assessment within a risk analysis process can help decision makers define priorities and subsequently focus their efforts on the management and regulation of activities that have greater potential social, cultural, or economic impacts.

GIGUÈRE, N., L. PERREAULT, P. NELLIS, C. SAVENKOFF, F.BILODEAU, M. GIANGIOPPI, G.H. TREMBLAY, R. DUFOUR, S. COMTOIS, F. GRÉGOIRE, 2011. Pathways of effects (PoE) model development for capelin conservation as part of a risk analysis process. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2934, 78 p .

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The purpose of the first phase of this pilot project was to create Pathways of Effects (PoE) models for capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence as part of a risk analysis process. When conducting this type of analysis, the PoE is created during the identification and problem formulation phase, the goal being to identify the potential relationships that exist between human activities, the stressors generated, and their impacts on a component of the ecosystem, and consequently on the communities that depend on this component. This project is related to the current national work on risk analysis and applies the theoretical notions established in the earlier work in the context of a real situation. In this context, capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence was identified for this project, since capelin is a key species in the marine food chain. During this phase, six PoE models were developed, each illustrating one view of capelin conservation that is either general or specific. Together, these models serve illustrate the relationships that exist between the ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural components as well as such key ecological parameters as the quantity and quality of capelin spawning / larval retention habitat and capelin abundance. The development and application of PoE models using a real situation have confirmed their usefulness as tools for integrating knowledge and for communication; PoEs also play a role in providing support for decision-making and guidance for subsequent steps in the risk analysis process.

GIGUÈRE, N., L. PERREAULT, P. NELLIS, C. SAVENKOFF, F. BILODEAU, M. GIANGIOPPI, G.H. TREMBLAY, R. DUFOUR, S. COMTOIS, F. GRÉGOIRE, 2011. Réalisation de modèles de séquence des effets (SdE) appliqués à la conservation du capelan dans le cadre d'une approche d'analyse de risque. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2934, 83 p .

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The purpose of the first phase of this pilot project was to create Pathways of Effects (PoE) models for capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence as part of a risk analysis process. When conducting this type of analysis, the PoE is created during the identification and problem formulation phase, the goal being to identify the potential relationships that exist between human activities, the stressors generated, and their impacts on a component of the ecosystem, and consequently on the communities that depend on this component. This project is related to the current national work on risk analysis and applies the theoretical notions established in the earlier work in the context of a real situation. In this context, capelin conservation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence was identified for this project, since capelin is a key species in the marine food chain. During this phase, six PoE models were developed, each illustrating one view of capelin conservation that is either general or specific. Together, these models serve illustrate the relationships that exist between the ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural components as well as such key ecological parameters as the quantity and quality of capelin spawning / larval retention habitat and capelin abundance. The development and application of PoE models using a real situation have confirmed their usefulness as tools for integrating knowledge and for communication; PoEs also play a role in providing support for decision-making and guidance for subsequent steps in the risk analysis process.

COMTOIS, S., C. SAVENKOFF, M.-N. BOURASSA, J.-C. BRÊTHES, R. SEARS, 2010. Regional distribution and abundance of Blue and Humpback Whales in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2877, 46 p .

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Blue whale sightings have been monitored in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) by the Mingan Island Cetacean Study (MICS) since 1979. More than 400 individuals with a heterogeneous GSL distribution have been identified to date. This report aims to qualitatively describe the distribution, dispersal, and relative abundance of blue whales on temporal and spatial scales. Information gathered on humpback whales is also described. Results confirm the general nomadic behaviour of blue whales and suggest that the GSL represents only a portion of the broad summer feeding range. Results also indicate that individual behaviours on site fidelity vary considerably: occasional vs. regular visitors and cosmopolitan vs. exclusive animals. In addition, we were able to distinguish between several areas of significant blue whale sightings based on temporal trends in the site’s frequentation. While the lower Estuary seems to be the area where blue whales are most often sighted, the Mingan region has seen its blue whale frequentation decrease to such an extent that observations are now rare. Conversely, an increasing number of humpback whales have been observed in the Mingan region each year. Because many questions on their general ecology remain unanswered, the aim of this study was to increase our knowledge on the habitat use and behaviour of these rorquals. Furthermore, since marine mammals have been proposed as ecosystem sentinels, long-term monitoring can detect spatial or temporal trends that could reflect changing processes in the environment