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Brianna G. CLYNICK
CLYNICK, B.J., 2008. Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses. Aquat. Conserv.: Mar. Freshwat. Ecosyst., 18(5):483-492 .
1. Artificial structures are becoming increasingly important in conserving biodiversity in urban ecosystems, by providing habitat for endangered or rare species. Their role in providing habitat for such species has, however, been largely unexplored. 2. In Sydney Harbour, Australia, seahorses were observed among the netting used to keep sharks out of swimming enclosures. Over a 2-year period, the relative densities of two species of seahorses observed on netting was measured at swimming enclosures with permanent netting and at swimming areas that were only enclosed with netting during the summer months. 3. The rate of colonization by seahorses to new netting was also examined over a period of 10 months. 4. Numbers of seahorses on permanent swimming enclosures were 10 to 100 times greater than numbers present on swimming enclosures that were only set up during the summer months. 5. This large difference may have been attributed to the slow rate of colonization of seahorses to new habitat. Seahorses were not observed at experimental nets that were deployed in two areas in the harbour until at least 4 months after the netting was deployed. 6. Swimming pool nets are a habitat for species of seahorses in Sydney Harbour and, consequently, the removal or disturbance of swimming nets may impact the survival of these fish. Management of these artificial habitats may therefore best be focused on providing a permanent habitat that may help to compensate for the loss of netting during winter months.©2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
CLYNICK, B.G., C.W. McKINDSEY, P. ARCHAMBAULT, 2008. Distribution and productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates in mussel aquaculture sites in the Magdalen islands (Que´bec, Canada). Aquaculture, 283: 203-210 .
Aquaculture structures may function in a manner analogous to artificial reefs, in that they provide a complex three-dimensional habitat for marine organisms and/or modify the surrounding environment. Further, aquaculture structures may increase the productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates similarly to natural complex habitats, such as seagrass beds. This research tested the general hypothesis that suspended bivalve culture increases the abundance and productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates. The study was done at two mussel farms in the Magdalen Islands, eastern Canada. Fish and macroinvertebrates were sampled in different areas within farms sites and in adjacent natural vegetated and unvegetated habitats. The instantaneous growth rates of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and the rock crab (Cancer irroratus) were estimated using physiological indicators (RNA/DNA ratios). The results demonstrated that mussel sites are not equivalent to natural structurally complex seagrass beds with respect to fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Several species were abundant in mussel farms, including winter flounder and rock crab. This work, however, provided little evidence to suggest that there was greater productivity of these fish and macroinvertebrates at mussel farms, as growth rates were usually equivalent in different habitats. This study, to our knowledge, is the first attempt to determine changes in productivity brought about by aquaculture. As future development of mussel aquaculture increases in many regions around the world, the methods presented here will provide baseline information on the abundance and productivity of fish and macroinvertebrates associated with aquaculture sites.©2008 Elsevier B.V.
CLYNICK, B.G., M.G. CHAPMAN, A.J. UNDERWOOD, 2007. Effects of epibiota on assemblages of fish associated with urban structures. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 332 : 201-210 .
The increasing number of artificial structures in shallow marine waters has provoked research on the ecological function of artificial habitats. The aim of the present study was to investigate interactions between fish and sessile biota growing on urban structures in coastal waterways. The biota growing on subtidal hard substrata is thought to have a large effect on the composition and distribution of associated fish. Hence, in Sydney Harbour, Australia, experiments were done to test interactions between fish and epibiota sampled on pilings at 4 marinas. The abundance and diversity of fish were strongly positively correlated with the amount of foliose algae, mussels and solitary ascidians on pilings. This correlative evidence was further investigated by experimental manipulations of the amount of conspicuous epibiota on pilings. Removal of these organisms showed a marked decrease in the numbers of many types of fish. Conversely, the addition of mussels to pilings increased the abundance and diversity of associated fish. The cover of complex epibiota on pilings at marinas may strongly affect the abundance of many species of fish and therefore influence the types of fish that recruit to these artificial habitats. Such knowledge on the ecological processes occurring in marinas is an important step in recognising the value of these artificial structures as habitat for marine organisms. ©2007 Inter-Research
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