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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Myriam D. CALLIER

CALLIER, M.D., M. RICHARD, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2009. Responses of benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical fluxes to various levels of mussel biodeposition : an in situ "benthocosm" experiment. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 58(10): 1544-1553 .

An in situ experiment was done to evaluate the dose-dependent response of mussel biodeposition on benthic communities and biogeochemical fluxes. Natural benthic communities were exposed to 7 different levels of mussel biodeposition (equivalent to that produced by 0–764 mussels m-2) over 50 days. Benthic communities responded as predicted from the Pearson, T.H., Rosenberg, R., 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 16, 229–311 model of organic enrichment. Total abundance and species richness decreased with increasing biodeposition. The abundance and biomass of opportunistic species (Capitella spp.) increased in the mesocosms subject to the greatest biodeposition. Sensitive species Tellina agilis and Pherusa plumosa tended to decrease in abundance and biomass with increasing biodeposition. The biotic index M-AMBI responded clearly to increased biodeposition and may be a useful tool for assessing the effect of mussel biodeposition on the benthic environment. These results are important for the construction of predictive models for determining environmental carrying capacity for bivalve aquaculture. Crown Copyright ©2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

WEISE, A.M., C.J. CROMEY, M.D. CALLIER, P. ARCHAMBAULT, J. CHAMBERLAIN, C.W. McKINDSEY, 2009. Shellfish-DEPOMOD : modelling the biodeposition from suspended shellfish aquaculture and assessing benthic effects. Aquaculture, 288(3-4): 239-253 .

By predicting the dispersal of particulate aquaculture wastes around farm sites, numerical modelling can provide an effective tool to assess the spatial extent of environmental effects. The present paper describes how the aquaculture waste model DEPOMOD (Cromey, C.J., Nickell, T.D., Black, K.D. 2002a. DEPOMOD – modelling the deposition and biological effects of waste solids from marine cage farms. Aquaculture 214, 211-239.), originally developed for finfish aquaculture sites, was adapted and validated for suspended shellfish aquaculture. Field data were collected for species-specific model input parameters (mussel biodeposition rates and particle settling velocities) and several finfish model parameters (farm representation and calculation of aquaculture wastes) were adjusted for the shellfish scenario. Shellfish-DEPOMOD was tested at three coastal mussel Mytilus edulis farms with differing hydrodynamic regimes in Quebec, Canada. For each site, model predictions were compared to observed deposition measured in situ with sediment traps. Sedimentation rates under the three mussel culture sites were ca. Two to five times those observed at corresponding reference sites. Mussel biodeposits were predicted to accumulate within 30 m of the farms in the shallow depositional sites while being dispersed more than 90 m in the deeper dispersive site. At the farm site in Great-Entry Lagoon, model predictions agreed well with field data for the 0+ and 1+ mussel cohorts when the maximum biodeposit production parameter was used. At the farm site in House-Harbour Lagoon, model predictions did not agree with observed sedimentation rates, due most likely to the resuspension and advection of non farm-derived material and complex hydrodynamics. The model correctly predicted the pattern of waste dispersal at the third farm site in Cascapedia Bay, although it underestimated biodeposition. Predicted fluxes may have been underestimated at this site because biodeposits from biofouling communities were not included in the calculation of aquaculture wastes. The relationship between modelled long-term biodeposition and benthic descriptors was assessed for the three farms. Alterations to the benthic community were observed at high biodeposition rates (>15 g m-2d-1). At the most disturbed site, predicted fluxes were best correlated with the Infaunal Trophic Index (ITI) (R=-0.79, P<0.001), followed by AZTI's marine disturbance index (AMBI) (R=0.64, Pb0.001). The potential application of Shellfish-DEPOMOD in terms of the management of shellfish aquaculture sites is discussed.©2008 Elsevier B.V.

CALLIER, M.D., C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2008. Evaluation of indicators used to detect mussel farm influence on the benthos : two case studies in the Magdalen Islands, Eastern Canada. Aquaculture, 278(1-4): 77-88 .

The aim of this study was to identify appropriate indicators to determine the influence of mussel aquaculture on the benthic environment. Both sediment [particle size, sediment profile imaging (SPI), % OM] and benthic community (abundance, biomass, number of species, Margalef’s species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity, Pielou’s eveness, individual body mass, trophic group, a biotic index — AMBI, and community structure) characteristics were evaluated at two mussel farms in Great-Entry (GE) and Havre-aux-Maisons (HAM) lagoons in the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada). Sampling stations were positioned directly beneath the outer-most mussel lines (0 m) and at distances of 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 m and at a control site (at either 300 or 500 m) along a transect leading from each farm. Contrasting patterns were observed. At GE, sediment characteristics and benthic communities did not vary among stations and were characterized by low diversity, abundance and biomass. At HAM, % OM decreased and macrofaunal diversity and abundance increased with increasing distance from the farm. Biomass was low under the mussel line, increased between 3 and 30 m and was low again at 300 m. This was explained by the abundance of the polychaete Pectinaria granulata, which seems to have benefited from a moderate organic loading associated with the mussel farm. The mean individual biomass of the second-order opportunistic deposit feeders P. granulata and Heteromastus filiformis decreased with distance from the farm, whereas that of the pollution-sensitive suspension feeder Ensis directus and deposit feeder Tellina agilis increased with increasing distance from the farm. At HAM, the effects of mussel farming were restricted to the vicinity of the farm, while at GE the pattern was less clear. The GE mussel farm had either little effect on the local environment or else larger-scale but diffuse effects. The study showed that the a priori choice of the sampling stations and indicators may influence the interpretation of the results. Community structure and SPI were the most efficient indices for detecting both small- and broader-scale influences at both studied mussel farms.©2008 Elsevier B.V.

CALLIER, M.D., C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2007. Multi-scale spatial variations in benthic sediment geochemistry and macrofaunal communities under a suspended mussel culture. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 348: 103-115 .

The chemical and biological effects of biodeposition from a mussel culture were evaluated at multiple spatial scales during the summer of 2003 in Great-Entry Lagoon, eastern Canada. Sediment samples were collected directly under and between mussel lines (positions 10 m apart: 10 m scale) from multiple sites (located ca. 100 m apart: 100 m scale) in each of 3 zones: reference ®, 0+ and 1+ mussel cohort zones (located at least 500 m apart: km scale). In general, redox potential decreased and sulphide concentration increased with sediment depth but did not differ among zones or positions. A clear difference in macrofaunal community structure was observed among R, 0+ and 1+ zones, as well as between the positions directly under mussel lines in 1+ sites (1+ under) and those between 1+ mussel lines (1+between). The benthic community at 1+under positions was dominated by an opportunistic species (Capitella capitata) and had the lowest diversity and biomass. 0+ sites were characterised by the greatest number of species and biomass, suggesting that some species have benefited from a moderate organic loading from the 0+ mussels. Historical data indicate that the deeper part of the lagoon was a naturally enriched environment. The mussel farm probably contributes to local organic enrichment. Comparison of benthic communities from the present study (>20 yr after the initiation of mussel aquaculture) in the site to similar historical data from 3 periods (1975 and 1978, before mussel farming; 1982, at the start of farming activities; and 2004, after the 1+ mussel harvest) showed that community structure differed largely because of the greater abundance of deposit feeders in 2003. However, among these 3 periods the differences in benthic community structure were no greater than differences observed between years within the periods.©2007 Inter-Research

CRANFORD, P.J., R. ANDERSON, P. ARCHAMBAULT, T. BALCH, S.S. BATES, G. BUGDEN, M.D. CALLIER, C. CARVER, L.A. COMEAU, B. HARGRAVE, W.G. HARRISON, E. HORNE, P.E. KEPKAY, W.K.W. LI, A. MALLET, M. OUELLETTE, P. STRAIN, 2006. Indicators and thresholds for use in assessing shellfish aquaculture impacts on fish habitat ; Indicateurs et seuils pour l'évaluation des effets de la conchyliculture sur l'habitat du poisson. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 2006/034, 116 p .

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The purpose of this research document is to provide science advice needed to allow DFO Habitat Management to make and justify management decisions related to the potential harmful alteration, disruption and destruction (HADD) of fish habitat by shellfish aquaculture. The overall goal of this exercise and of our recommendations is to promote the avoidance and mitigation of a HADD. Our specific objectives were the following: 1. identify, evaluate and make recommendations regarding a range of quantitative indicators (measures of habitat and ecosystem status) that could be used to monitor for potential shellfish aquaculture effects; and 2. provide science-based decision support for the development of an environmental monitoring framework, based on identification of predetermined impact limits (operational thresholds) intended to trigger management actions. A wide range of ecosystem and habitat status indicators and methodological approaches were identified to support industry management and each was initially screened based on habitat impact predictions and observations. Selected indicators were classified based on associated strengths and weaknesses using predefined criteria, including: availability of operational thresholds; regulatory needs; cultured species; scales of impact addressed; cost/benefit; and the needs of responsive management. A habitat assessment framework is recommended for shellfish aquaculture that addresses the need for a consistent and transparent decision-making approach that is science-based, and reflects both fish habitat and ecosystem concerns. The highly diverse Canadian shellfish aquaculture industry (e.g. species cultured, husbandry method, and stocking density) and regional differences in environmental impact risks (related primarily to geographic and hydrodynamic factors) were identified as important considerations for our evaluation of shellfish aquaculture impact assessment options. Recommendations are made towards establishment of an environmental monitoring framework that incorporates sufficient flexibility to be of use in a wide range of environmental settings and that is both effective and practical for current aquaculture operations that range from less than 0.5 to 500 hectares. A primary recommendation of this report is that habitat assessments could be based on a tiered approach that recognizes that an increased risk to fish habitat requires an increase in monitoring effort. Various levels of monitoring could be triggered based on assessments of environmental sensitivity and risk (e.g. dispersive vs. depositional environment and presence of sensitive habitat), the nature of the operation (e.g. size, species and husbandry), and previous measurement and verification of environmental impacts. Inherent within the recommended framework is that ongoing monitoring programs could be continually adaptive to changes in our state-of-knowledge on potential environmental impacts, indicators and related methodologies. It is important to maintain an ability to add or remove indicators to monitoring programs based on sound science. The recommended multi-tiered impact assessment approach addresses the potential for benthic marine habitat impacts in the immediate vicinity of each shellfish aquaculture lease and it therefore parallels science recommendations for finfish aquaculture monitoring in Canada. Scientifically defensible thresholds are available for benthic biogeochemical indicators (sulfides and redox potential) and these could be used to define the hypotheses that need to be addressed in an operational monitoring program. Effective measures are also available for mitigating benthic organic enrichment impacts, and these can be linked to the operational thresholds incorporated in a responsive management framework. Ecosystem-level interactions with dense shellfish aquaculture populations are more complex than for finfish culture and many potential and observed effects on fish habitat cannot be assessed using only site-specific benthic habitat indicators. Measurements with selected far-field impact indicators are needed under certain conditions to compliment benthic operational monitoring. The inability to fully define quantitative operational thresholds for many valid and highly relevant indicators of habitat and ecosystem status (particularly those describing the structure and dynamics of pelagic habitat), owing to present gaps in our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics, should not preclude their potential use. Surveillance sampling programs based on water column parameters are needed under conditions where environmental impact assessments and ongoing monitoring data indicate a relatively high risk that bay-scale impacts will occur. Of particular importance is the need to assess the impacts of longline mussel culture operations on suspended particle concentrations and distribution and the pelagic food web (micro-flora and fauna) in extensively leased coastal embayments. Industry shellfish stocking information for all farms within a management area is considered fundamental to assessments of shellfish aquaculture impacts on fish habitat. The use of sound science practices is required for the design of monitoring programs (statistically valid sampling approaches) and for the analysis of habitat status indicators and data (e.g. quality assurance/quality control).

CALLIER, M.D., A.M. WEISE, C.W. McKINDSEY, G. DESROSIERS, 2006. Sedimentation rates in a suspended mussel farm (Great-Entry Lagoon, Canada): biodeposit production and dispersion. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 322: 129-141 .

Experimental and field studies were carried out to characterise biodeposit dynamics in a suspended mussel Mytilus edulis L. farm in Great-Entry Lagoon, eastern Canada. We assessed: (1) the quantity and quality of biodeposits produced by different age classes of mussels, (2) the size-dependent sinking velocity of faeces and (3) the variation in sedimentation rates at different spatial and temporal scales. Individual 0+ mussels produced on average only 63 % of the mass of biodeposits (32.4 mg dry wt d-1 ind.-1 that 1+ mussels did (51.5 mg dry wt d-1 ind.-1. In contrast, the amount of biodeposits produced per unit body weight (dry weight of soft tissue) was greater for 0+ than for 1+ mussels. Faecal pellet sinking velocity ranged from 0.27 to 1.81 cm s-1 for mussels ranging in size from 3 to 7 cm, and was best correlated with faecal pellet width. Sedimentation rates were greater within the farm than at reference sites, supporting the hypothesis that mussel farming increases sedimentation rates. Variations in sedimentation were also observed at small spatial scales and through time. Prior to the harvesting of 1+ mussels, sedimentation rates directly under the 1+ mussel lines were about twice those 10 m distant, between the lines, and in other zones (reference sites and sites in the lease with 0+ mussels). These observations and sedimentation patterns along transects leading away from the mussel farm suggest that biodeposits from the farm are not dispersed broadly. The estimated initial dispersal of faecal pellets ranges from 0-7.4 m (1+ mussels) to 7-24.4 m (0+ mussels).©2006 Inter-Research