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BOURGEOIS, M., R. DUFOUR, 2007. Ecologically and biologically significant areas (EBSA) in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence : identification and characterization. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2007/016, 14 p .
BOURGEOIS, M., R. DUFOUR, 2007. Zones d'importance écologique et biologique (ZIEB) de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent : identification et caractérisation. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2007/016, 15 p .
BOURGEOIS, M., M. GILBERT, B. CUSSON, 2001. Évolution du trafic maritime en provenance de l'étranger dans le Saint-Laurent de 1978 à 1996 et implications pour les risques d'introduction d'espèces aquatiques non indigènes. Rapp. tech. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2338, 34 p .
The maritime traffic from foreign countries bound for fresh and marine water ports of the St. Lawrence river, estuary and gulf was analyzed from the Transport Canada ECAREG-VTS (Eastern Canada Region-Vessel Traffic Service) data base, with the objective of determining its pattern and tendencies between 1978 and 1996. Some temporal trends have been detected, the most significant being the increase in the ballast capacity of the fleet, which reached ca 30 MT in 1996, approximately twice the 1978 value. This increase is primarily related to the ships' size. On the marginal sea routes, which require longer transits, the traffic had increased from 7 % to 12 % of the total traffic into the St. Lawrence between 1978 and 1996, with most of the increase occurring during the later years of the study. Since 1978, thirty countries have been added to the 137 found on the ships' origin list. In terms of foreign maritime traffic, Montreal Harbour is the largest of the whole St. Lawrence/Great Lakes system, with an average of 735 annual visits. On another hand, the ports at Baie-Comeau, Sept-Îles and Port-Cartier receive annually from foreign ships a quantity of ballast water estimated at nearly 9,75 MT, exceeding by three times the quantity carried towards all the other ports of the St. Lawrence/Great Lakes system. A marked increase in foreign traffic occurred in the southern gulf between 1978 and 1996. The maritime traffic pattern in the St. Lawrence, and its various tendencies, are discussed relative to the potential risk of introducing nonindigenous species through ballast water discharges.
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