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Bibliography of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute

Brigitte BERNIER

FRÉCHET, A., B. BERNIER, 2011. Assessment of the Greenland Halibut stock in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2010. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2011/013, 13 p .

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FRÉCHET, A., B. BERNIER, 2011. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2010. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2011/013, 14 P .

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ARCHAMBAULT, D., H. BOURDAGES, B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, J. LAMBERT, L. SAVARD, 2011. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2011 dans l’estuaire et le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey in August 2011 in the Estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2011/112, 108 p .

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In 2011, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the Estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted from August 1st to 29th onboard the CCGS Teleost. One of the primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the main groundfish species (cod, Greenland halibut, Atlantic halibut and redfishes – Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella -), and for the Northern shrimp, and to identify the spatial distribution and biological characteristics of these species. The two other main objectives of the survey included monitoring the biodiversity of the Estuary and the northern Gulf, and describing oceanographic conditions observed in August for the sampling area. This report describes preliminary results on the catch rates and distribution of 25 taxa, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with results from the historical survey series that began in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI to the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. In 2011, the abundance and biomass indices of many species were stable or decreased compared to 2010. In fact, the two redfish species, cod, black dogfish and longfin hake showed index values below their respective means calculated for the comparative period of 1990-2010. Even if Atlantic halibut, witch, thorny skate, hagfish, northern shrimp and snow crab indices decreased from 2010 to 2011, they were comparable or higher than the mean estimated for the 1990-2010 period. Five species (Greenland halibut, white hake, American plaice, capelin and herring) showed an increase for their indices in 2011. Except for white hake, the indices for these species were similar or higher than the 1990-2010 period means. The geographic distributions of catches recorded for the different species in 2011 showed the same pattern as in previous years. Finally, the size distributions ranges determined for each species remains relatively stable for the entire time of the historical series. However, for some species (Greenland halibut, thorny skate, white hake, witch, American plaice, hagfish and northern shrimp), some size classes observed in 2011 were clearly dominant, and their abundance well above the calculated average for the comparative period.

BERNIER, B., 2010. Assessment of the Greenland Halibut stock in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2009. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2010/028, 14 p .

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BOURDAGES, H., ARCHAMBAULT, D., BERNIER, B., FRECHET, A. GAUTHIER, J. GREGOIRE, F, LAMBERT, J, L. SAVARD, 2010. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2010 dans l’estuaire et le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey in August 2010 in the Estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Série des comptes rendus ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Proceedings Series, 2010/107, 98 p .

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In 2010, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the Estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted from August 2nd to September 1st onboard the CCGS Teleost. One of the primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the main groundfish species (particularly cod, Greenland halibut, Atlantic halibut and redfishes - fasciatus and mentella-), and for the Northern shrimp, and to identify the spatial distribution and biological characteristics of these species. Other objectives included monitoring the biodiversity of Estuary and the northern Gulf and describing oceanographic conditions observed in August. This report describes preliminary results on the catch rates and distribution of 18 taxa, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with results from the historical survey series that began in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert the data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI to the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. In 2010, the abundance and biomass indices of many species were stable or decreased compared to 2009. In fact, the two redfish species (Sebastes fasciatus and S. mentella), cod, black dogfish, white hake and longfin hake show index values below the historical series means. Even if the Northern shrimp and snow crab indices presented a small decrease, they were in the range of the historical series means. Six species (Atlantic Halibut, Greenland Halibut, hagfish, American Plaice, witch, thorny skate) showed an increase for their indices in 2010. Except for Greenland Halibut, the indices for these species were among the highest values of their respective historical series. Besides the fact that no fishing activities took place along the southwestern part of Newfoundland due to mechanical problems, the geographic distributions of catches recorded for the different species in 2010 showed the same pattern as in previous years.

BERNIER, B., 2010. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2009. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2010/028, 14 p .

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BERNIER, B., 2009. Assessment of the Greenland halibut stock in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2008. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2009/020, 16 p .

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BERNIER, B., 2009. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2008. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2009/020, 16 p .

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BERNIER, B., J.-D. LAMBERT, 2008. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2007. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2008/044, 15 p .

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BOURDAGES, H., D. ARCHAMBAULT, B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, J. LAMBERT, L. SAVARD, 2008. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2007 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey from August 2007 in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2008/046, 77 p .

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In 2007, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the Quebec region was conducted from August 3rd to September 1st in the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence on board the CCGS Teleost. One of its primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the main groundfish species, including the three species targeted by the survey (cod, Greenland halibut, redfish) and Northern shrimp (also targeted by the survey), identify spatial distribution and their biological characteristics. Among the other objectives, the survey aimed at providing a concurrent portrait of environmental conditions in the Gulf for 7 of the Gulf’s 8 geographic regions considered in the assessment of the Gulf’s physical conditions. This report describes for 14 species the preliminary results for catch rate and distribution, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with the results from the historical survey series introduced in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert the data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI with the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. None of the species showed much variation compared with the two previous years, except for Atlantic halibut with a still increasing abundance index in 2007. The geographic distribution of catches recorded for the different species in 2007 can be compared to the five previous years. In 2007, the temperatures recorded for surface waters and for the cold intermediate layer (CIL) were generally colder for the entire covered area compared with the temperatures recorded in 2006. The layers <1°C and <0°C of the CIL were much thicker in 2007 than in 2006. However, the temperatures recorded for deep water (300+m) were similar during these two years. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Estuary waters were still considered hypoxic in 2007.

BERNIER, B., J.-D. LAMBERT, 2008. Assessment of the Greenland halibut Stock in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2007. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2008/044, 15 p .

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BOURDAGES, H., D. ARCHAMBAULT, B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, J. GAUTHIER, F. GRÉGOIRE, J. LAMBERT, L. SAVARD, 2008. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d'août 2008 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent ; Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey from August 2007 in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Rapp. stat. can. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1210, 84 p. .

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In 2008, the annual summer survey for the assessment of abundance and distribution of groundfish and shrimp in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence was conducted from July 24th to August 25th onboard the CCGS Teleost. One of the primary objectives was to estimate abundance indices for the principal groundfish species, including the three fish species targeted by the survey (cod, Greenland halibut and redfish), and for the Northern shrimp, identify for each of them their spatial distribution and biological characteristics. One of the other objectives, the survey aimed at providing a concurrent portrait of environmental conditions observed in August in the Gulf. This report describes for 14 species the preliminary results for their catch rate and distribution, as well as their size frequency distribution. These results were compared with results from the historical survey series that began in 1990, taking into account the equivalency factors used to convert the data from the tandem CCGS Alfred Needler-URI with the tandem CCGS Teleost-Campelen. While the biomass index in 2008 is still increasing for Atlantic halibut, the indices obtained for the other species are comparable to the means of the last three years. The geographic distributions of catches recorded for the different species in 2008 show the same pattern as for the five previous years.

BERNIER, B., J.-D. LAMBERT, 2007. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2006. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2007/044, 15 p .

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BERNIER, B., J.-D. LAMBERT, 2007. Assessment of the Greenland halibut stock in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2006. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2007/044, 15 p .

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BERNIER, B., J.-D. LAMBERT, 2006. Assessment of the Greenland halibut stock in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2005. DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report, 2006/011, 13 p .

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BERNIER, B., J.-D. LAMBERT, 2006. Évaluation du stock [i.e. des stocks] de flétan du Groenland du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2005. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Avis scientifique, 2006/011, 14 p .

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DUTIL, J.-D., R. MILLER, C. NOZÈRES, B. BERNIER, D. BERNIER, D. GASCON, 2006. Révision des identifications de poissons faites lors des relevés scientifiques annuels de l'abondance des poissons de fond et de la crevette nordique dans l'estuaire et le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2760, 87 p .

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Long time series of data are a source of invaluable information to put a current situation in a historical perspective. The data obtained from the scientific research surveys for the assessment of demersal fish and northern shrimp abundance conducted annually in the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence are regularly used for this purpose. The validity of these data is not questioned with regard to the identification of commercial species managed by our region, but this overall statement may not apply as well to the identification of non commercial fish species. Following a workshop held at IML in 2005, a working group has determined whether the data on the identification of non commercial species and commercial species not being managed by our region and collected between 1978 and 2003 are valid. For these species, the sampling protocol varied markedly over time. Not all fish were identified to the species level and in many instances very broad taxonomic levels were used. The identification of some species was inadequate, particularly in the Cottidae, Liparidae and Zoarcidae families. Overall, this data set must be used with caution if one is interested in the rare species, in measuring biodiversity, or in studying the temporal trends in the case of the species which are not managed by our region. In this report, we identify the weaknesses and suggest solutions to improve quality in the historical data as well as in the process of acquisition of new data.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 2003. Évaluation du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 2002 ; Assessment of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 2002. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2003/088, 75 p .

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The 2002 landings increased by 25 % compared to 2001 levels, primarily because Newfoundland fishermen exceeded their allocation by around 100 T and because significant catches (275 T) were made during an experimental fishery in Quebec. Yet again, the total allowable catch (TAC) was not reached, despite a 1,000 tons reduction. The catch rates of gillnet fishermen rose in 2002, mainly in the Esquiman Channel. Landings consisted of females for the most part. As mean catch size has decreased since 1998, the number of Greenland halibut per landed ton grew of 30 % between 1998 and 2002. A comparative fishing experiment conducted in Quebec in 2002 using 5.5-inch and 6-inch mesh showed a high proportion of females in landings (greater than 80 %) with either mesh size. Mean catch sizes for the 5.5-inch and 6.0-inch mesh were 43 cm and 45 cm, respectively, while the proportions of immature females in landings made with 5.5-inch and 6-inch mesh were 62 % and 42 %, respectively. However, catch per unit effort (CPUE) was at least three times higher when using 5.5-inch mesh. Biomass indices from surveys increased between 1995 and 2000, but were down in 2001 and 2002. However, the 2002 DFO survey index was still higher than the 1990s index average. It should be noted that the DFO survey index was boosted by the large year-classes of 1997 and 1999. Survey indices show that abundance of fish of 44 cm and more (fish available to the fishery) has been declining since 1999. The individual growth rate of the large 1997 year- lass was lower than that of the previous year-classes in the western Gulf, which means that it will take longer for the 1997 year-class to reach the commercial size. The lower growth rate was less marked in the Esquiman Channel, which explains why fishing was better there in 2002. However, in 2002, the feeding, condition and growth rate of juvenile Greenland halibut improved, and size at sexual maturity increased for males. Although the abundance of pre-recruits (1997 and 1999 yearclasses) is high, it is difficult to predict how successful the fishery will be in 2003 considering the weaker growth rate of the 1997 year-class.

BERNIER, B., B. MORIN, 2002. Description des relevés par grille de sébaste dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent de 1998 à 2000 ; Description of redfish grid surveys in the Gulf of St. Lawrence from 1998 to 2000. Rapp. can. ind. sci. halieut. aquat. ; Can. Ind. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 265, 39 p .

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Surveys, conducted by GEAC (Groundfish Enterprise Allocation Council) in collaboration with DFO, were carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence according to a definite sampling strategy. The main objectives of these grid surveys were to describe the distribution of redfish in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and at the mouth of the Gulf and to construct an abundance index. To fulfil these objectives, a systematic grid sampling plan was used. The distribution of the redfish catches for the three years showed the highest concentrations of redfish were found at the mouth of the Gulf, in NAFO Divisions 4T, 4Vn, and 4R. The summer GEAC grid survey catch rate index showed a decreasing trend between 1998 and 2000. The length frequency distributions for the redfish from the summer surveys (1998 to 2000) display two modes: between 13 and 19 cm, corresponding to the 1993-1005 year-classes, and between 28 and 37 cm, dominated by the 1980 year-class. The continuation of the GEAC early-summer surveys should provide information that will be useful for better describing the distribution pattern of redfish and to extend the series of this new abundance when redfish are more likely to be found in their summer geographic range in the Gulf. This index can be compared to the other abundance indices from surveys (DFO and Sentinel) conducted in the summer and fall.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, H. BOURDAGES, D. BERNIER, R. CAMIRAND, 2001. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) en 2000 ; The status of the redfish stock in unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence) in 2000. MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document, 2001/001, 73 p .

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The fishery in management unit 1 [divisions 4RST +  3Pn and 4Vn (Jan.-May)] has been closed since 1995. Before the fishery was closed, the catch was dominated by fish born in the early 1970s and around 1980. Both groups consisted of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1988 year-class, composed mainly of S. fasciatus, has decreased rapidly since 1991. The reasons for the small size of the current stock are heavy past exploitation and lack of recruitment. Following the 1995 closure of the fishery, the stock’s abundance seems to have stabilized; the abundance index derived from DFO’s research surveys has been stable, if low. Two cohorts of juveniles were observed in DFO’s 2000 research survey: the 1996 and 1998 year-classes. Most of these redfish are S. fasciatus, and both of these yearclasses seem relatively weak compared with that of 1988. The catch rate index obtained from the Groundfish Enterprise Allocation Council (GEAC) grid surveys trended downward from 1998 to 2000. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) figures from the index fishery were similar in 1999 and 2000, but lower than those obtained before the fishery was closed in 1995. The indices from the sentinel fishery surveys have also been stable for the period 1995-1999, but the value from the summer 2000 survey amounts to only about half of the 1999 estimate. Overall, the outlook for this stock remains poor for the foreseeable future.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1999. Assessment and biology of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 1998 ; Évaluation et biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1998. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 99/185, 57 p .

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The largest summer concentrations of Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence are found in the west and north of Anticosti Island and near the west coast of Newfoundland in the Esquiman Channel. Gillnets have been the most widely used fishing gear since the mid-1970s. Preliminary landings for 1998 totalled 3,989 t, while total allowable catch (TAC) was 4,000 t. The CPUEs of gillnet fishers in 1998 rose by 25 % over 1996 and 1997. The abundance indices for Greenland halibut show an increase in biomass since 1990 and an increase in commercial size fish since 1994. However, the biomass index and the abundance of adults in the DFO research survey declined slightly in 1998. Finally, a new very abundant year-class (1997) was observed in 1998 on the research survey. On the basis of histological criteria, the size at which 50 % of females reach maturity was estimated at 46 cm in 1998.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, N. ST-HILAIRE, 1999. The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence) in 1998 ; L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence) en 1998. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 99/132, 38 p .

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The fishery in management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] has been closed since 1995. Before it was closed, it was dominated by fish of species Sebastes mentella born around 1980 and in the early 1970s. Abundance of the 1988 year-class, chiefly species S. fasciatus, declined sharply starting in 1991. The small size of the stock at present is due to heavy fishing and lack of recruitment. Stock abundance seems to have stabilized since the fishery was closed in 1995. DFO research surveys and the sentinel fisheries seem to indicate decreased availability of redfish to trawls from August on. The DFO research surveys have found a new year-class (1996), but it will take several years of survey data before its true size can be determined. Catches of approximately set, the level established last year for redfish industry surveys, are not likely to result in a high exploitation rate if the abundance index remains at its current level.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, E. ALBERT, 1998. Assessment and biology of Greenland Halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 1996 and 1997 ; Évaluation et biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1996 et 1997. DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document ; MPO, Secrétariat canadien de consultation scientifique, Document de recherche, 98/07, 57 p .

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The main Greenland halibut concentrations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summer are found west of Anticosti Island and, to a lesser extent, north of this Island and in the Esquiman Channel, near the west coast of Newfoundland. Gillnets are the main gear type used in this fishery since the mid-1970s. The 1997 preliminary landings totalled 2 459 t. The total allowable catch (TAC) was set at 3 000 t in 1997. On the whole, the CPUEs of index fishermen were twice as high in 1996 and 1997 as during the period 1991 to 1995. Abundance indices for Greenland halibut have risen since 1990, with a more pronounced increase since 1994. The abundance of commercial-size individuals (over 40 cm) has increased since 1994 owing to the presence of strong year-classes. In 1996 and 1997, the number of juveniles rose significantly. In addition, the length at which 50 % of females reach maturity was estimated at 50 cm during this period. Preliminary results from microscopic analyses of ovaries have revealed evidence of maturation that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Parasite research has shown that the Greenland halibut concentrated in the Cabot Strait area in winter probably come from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1997. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) ; The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence). MPO, Secrétariat canadien pour l'évaluation des stocks, Document de recherche ; DFO, Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat, Research Document, 97/112, 23 p .

The fishery in management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] has been closed since 1995. Commercial catches before the closing were dominated by fish born around 1980 and at the beginning of the 1970s and were mainly of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1988 year-class has decreased rapidly since 1991 and these fish were identified as being S. fasciatus. Research survey indicated that the redfish stock abundance has remained stabel since 1996. The high rate of exploitation and the lack of recruitment have resulted in the current low stock size. With the closure of this fishery in 1995, the abundance of the stock seems to have stabilized. At this time, there is no sign of any significant incoming recruitment.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, R. ARTHUR, G. CHOUINARD, A. FRÉCHET, P. GAGNON, 1996. L'évaluation et la biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1995 ; Assessment and biology of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) in 1995. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research document, 96/53, 59 p .

The main concentrations of Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summer are found on the west side of Anticosti Island and to a lesser extent north of this Island and in the Esquiman Channel near the west coast of Newfoundland. Gillnet is the main fishing gear used in this fishery since the mid 1970's. Preliminary landings of 1995 reached 2300 t. The total allowable catch (TAC) was fixed to 4000 t since 1993. In 1996, it was reduced to 2000 t. Abundance indices increase slightly since 1990. Also, the abundance of commercial sizes (over 40 cm) Greenland halibut has increased since 1994 because of the presence of good year-classes. However, large size (over 50 cm) fish were still not numerous in the population in 1995 and the number of juveniles in 1995 was still lower than the average of 1990-1995. The length at which 50 % of the females reach maturity was estimated at 49 cm in 1995. The weight of fish according to length (or condition) increased slightly in 1995 for fish over 40 cm. In winter, the Greenland halibut concentrated in the Cabot Strait area are probably coming from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, G.A. CHOUINARD, 1996. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) ; The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence). MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research document, 96/112, 31 p .

The fishery in management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] was closed in 1995 and remained closed in 1996. Commercial catches before the closing were dominated by fish born around 1980 and at the beginning of the 1970's and were mainly of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1988 year-class has decreaded rapidly since 1991 and those fish were identified as being S. fasciatus. Research surveys indicated that the redfish stock abundance has declined slightly in 1996 in comparison to 1995. The high rate of exploitation and the lack of recruitment have resulted in the current low stock size. With the closure of this fishery in 1995, the rate of decline of the abundance of the stock should be much slower. At this time, there is no sign of any significant incoming recruitment.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, D. CHABOT, J.J. MAGUIRE, 1995. Évaluation et biologie du flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) en 1994. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 95/59, 47 p .

Since 1992, Greenland halibut of Divisions 4RST is managed as a distinct population on the basis of yield per recruit. The main concentrations of Greenland halibut in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the summer are found on the west side of Anticosti Island and to a lesser extent north of this Island and in the Esquiman Channel near the west coast of Newfoundland. Preliminary results on sexual maturity of Greenland halibut in the estuary of the St. Lawrence River had showed that the length where 50 % of the male and the female were mature were 39 and 56 cm respectively in 1993-94. Landings of 4RST Greenland halibut have increased from 2,800 t to 3,600 t between 1993 and 1994. Gillnet is the main fishing gear used in this fishery since the middle of the 1970's. The size of fish caught by gillnet in 1994 was mainly between 41-45 cm and 70 % of these fishes were female. Thus, the majority of the catch were immature fish. Abundance indices showed that the biomass of Greenland halibut is low but relatively stable since 1990. Exploitation rate is probably high and the low number of large fish results in the concentration of this exploitation on the annual recruitment. Thus, it is important to protect juveniles in order to allow the spawning biomass to increase.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, A. FRÉCHET, 1995. L'état du stock de sébaste de l'unité 1 (golfe du Saint-Laurent) ; The status of redfish in Unit 1 (Gulf of St. Lawrence). MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche ; DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 95/109, 49 p .

The preliminary estimate of total landings of redfish from the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1994 was 19,500 t. The TAC in 1994 was 30,000 t for management Unit 1 [Divisions 4RST + 3Pn and 4Vn (Jan. to May)] and the fishery was closed in 1995. Commercial catches in 1994 were dominated by fishes born around 1980 and 1970 and were mainly of the species Sebastes mentella. The abundance of the 1985 and 1988 cohorts have decreased rapidly since 1991 and these fish were identified as being S. fasciatus. Research surveys indicated that the stock abundance is declining and that the exploitation rate was between 20 and 30 % for the 1970 and 1980 year-classes during the 1990-1994 period. This is well above the generally accepted F0.1 reference level of 12 % for redfish. This high exploitation combined with the lack of recruitment to the fishery has resulted in the low current stock size. With the closure of this fishery in 1995, the decline in the abundance of the stock should be at a much lower rate. At this time there is no sign of any significant incoming recruitment.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, L. BOURASSA, 1994. Le stock de flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) : état de la ressource en 1993. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 94/25, 31 p .

[Abstract only available in French]
Les débarquements de flétan du Groenland de 4RST ont diminué de 3,400 t à 2,800 t de 1992 à 1993. Cette baisse est principalement due aux engins mobiles et particulièrement pour les crevettiers à la suite de l'introduction de la grille Nordmore. Le filet maillant est l'engin le plus utilisé depuis le milieu des années 70. La taille des poissons capturés en 1992 se situait principalement entre 41 et 43 cm, correspondant à la classe d'âge de 1988. Une grande majorité des captures sont des poissons immatures. Une analyse préliminaire des taux de captures des pêcheurs-repères suggère que les PUE ont diminué de 1992 à 1993. L'indice d'abondance du relevé d'été montre une baisse importante entre 1992 et 1993 et des classes d'âge (1989-1991) plus faibles que la classe d'âge de 1988. D'après les informations disponibles, il est important de réduire l'effort de pêche et la proportion de poissons immatures pêches afin de permettre une conservation de cette ressource dans le Golfe.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1994. Le stock de sébaste (Sebastes spp.) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST + 3Pn4Vn [jan.-mai] : état de la ressource en 1993. MPO, Pêches de l'Atlantique, Document de recherche, 94/24, 62 p .

[Abstract only available in French]
Les débarquements totaux préliminaires de sébaste du golfe du Saint-Laurent en 1993 ont atteint 51,000 t. Le TAC pour 1993 était de 60,000 t pour la nouvelle unité de gestion 1 (divisions 4RST + 3Pn et 4Vn (janvier-mai). Il a été réduit de façon préventive à 30,000 t en 1994. La pêche en 1993 a été dominée par les poissons nés vers 1980 et ceux nés au début des années 1970. Les poissons de ces deux groupes sont principalement de l'espèce Sebastes mentella. Les cohortes de 1985 et 1988 ont vu leur abondance diminuer rapidement depuis 1991 et ce sont des poissons identifiés comme S. fasciatus. Selon des relevés d'abondance, la biomasse du stock est en diminution et le taux d'exploitation est aux environs de 28 % ce qui est très élevé pour une espèce à croissance lente comme le sébaste et ce niveau est supérieur à F 0.1. La réduction du TAC à 30,000 t en 1994 va permettre de réduire le taux d'exploitation. Toutefois, ce niveau de capture n'est probablement pas soutenable à moyen terme, étant donné la biomasse présente (probablement en-dessous de 200,000 t) et l'absence de recrutement important.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST) : the fishery in 1992 and the state of the stock. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 93/41, 56 p .

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Redfish (Sebastes spp.) stock of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (4RST + 3Pn4Vn [Jan.-May]) : state of the resource in 1992. DFO, Atlantic Fisheries, Research Document, 93/42, 56 p .

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Le stock de sébaste (Sebastes spp.) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST+3Pn-4Vn [jan.-mai]) : état de la ressource en 1992. MPO, Document de recherche sur les pêches dans l'Atlantique, 93/42, 56 p .

Preliminary estimates put total 1992 landings of redfish from the Gulf of St. Lawrence at 77,384 t. Winter fishing (Jan.-April) has increased sharply in recent years and represented 47 % of landings in 1992. Catches continued to rise in 3Pn and 4Vn in 1992. Most landings were made by Shilikov-Turbo midwater trawls (71 %) and bottom trawls (27 %). The dominant commercial length frequency is the 29-31 cm mode, which corresponds to the 1981 year-class. A second mode, 35 to 37 cm, is made up of the year- classes from the early 1970s. The standardized catch rate series for bottom and midwater trawls combined and for bottom trawls only reveal three peaks, the last of which began in 1988. Catch rates increased 20 % in 1992. Summer research survey results show that biomass declined 20 % in 1992, while length frequency modes are similar to those of the commercial fishery. In addition, a juvenile fish mode at 14 cm (1988 year-class) is also evident. The 1981 year-class will constitute the main component of the fishery for the next three to four years, before the next recruitment. Until then, catch rates and biomass should decline, and if catches remain constant over this period, the exploitation rate should rise.

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1993. Le flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent (4RST) : la pêche en 1992 et l'état du stock. MPO, Document de recherche sur les pêches dans l'Atlantique, 93/41, 56 p .

Since 1988, landings of Greenland halibut from 4RST have declined sharply to 2,200 t in 1991, and increased again to 3,400 t in 1992. The fishing gear most used in this fishery since the mid-1970s is the gill net. Most of the fish caught in 1992 were in the 41 to 45 cm range, corresponding to the 1985-86 year- classes. The catch rates for the Index Fishers Program were higher in 1992 than in 1991. The biomass estimates from the research surveys fell in 1988 and 1989, but increased again thereafter. Research survey results indicate that the 1988 year- class seems to be good; however, it will be impossible to estimate its size or compare it with the 1980-81 age groups, which sustained the fishery in 1986-88, before it begins contributing significantly to the fishery.

MORIN, B., A. FRÉCHET, M. APARICIO, L. LEFEBVRE, B. BERNIER, 1992. Évaluation du stock de flétan du Groenland (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) du golfe du Saint-Laurent. CSCPCA doc. rech., 92/85, 39 p .

MORIN, B., B. BERNIER, 1992. Évaluation du stock de sébaste (Sebastes spp.) du golfe du Saint-Laurent : 4RST + 3Pn4Vn (jan.-mai). CSCPCA doc. rech., 92/59, 45 p .

GIGUÈRE, L.A., J.-F. ST-PIERRE, B. BERNIER, A. VÉZINA, J.-G. RONDEAU, 1989. Can we estimate the true weight of zooplankton samples after chemical preservation?. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 46: 522-527 .

LAMBERT, J.-D., B. BERNIER, 1989. Observations on 4RST capelin in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (a retrospective, 1984-1987). CAFSAC Res. Doc., 89/8, 33 p .