Contenu archivé

L’information archivée est fournie à des fins de référence, de recherche ou de tenue de documents. Elle n’est pas assujettie aux normes Web du gouvernement du Canada et n’a pas été modifiée ou mise à jour depuis son archivage. Pour obtenir cette information dans un autre format, veuillez communiquer avec nous.

Bibliographie de l'Institut Maurice-Lamontagne

Kenneth LEE

MERLIN, F.-X., P. PINVIDIC, C. CHAUMERY, J. OUDOT, R.P.J. SWANNELL, A. BASSERES, C. DALMAZZONE, J. DUCREUX, K. LEE, T. REILLY, 2005. Bioremediation: results of the field trials of Landevennec (France). Pages 732-735 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Results of studies performed all around the world on bioremediation techniques are not often comparable because they have been performed through different methodologies. To address this problem, several organizations have combined their efforts to define a common methodology to assess bioremediation techniques' efficiency through field experiments. To confirm the validity of this protocol, a 9 month experiment was performed on oiled plots on a sheltered estuarine beach in France. In the experiment, biodegradation efficiency was assessed though multiple analyses (chemical and microbiological) including changes in chemical composition of the residual oil.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

MUELLER, D.C., J.S. BONNER, R.L. AUTENRIETH, K. LEE, K. DOE, 2005. The toxicity of oil contaminated sediments during bioremediation of a wetland. Pages 8491-8494 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Inorganic nutrients were applied to oiled wetland sediments during an experiment to assess the effect of enhanced bioremediation on petroleum degradation and toxicity reduction. For a period of 6 months after the controlled application of oil to experimental plots, oiled wetland sediment samples were tested for acute toxicity. The three treatments evaluated were an oiled control, inorganic nutrient addition, and inorganic nutrient addition plus an alternate electron acceptor. Sediment toxicity was assessed using Microtox® and amphipod bioassays. The Microtox® 1OO % Test detected significant sediment toxicity up to 29 days after oil and treatment application while the SolidPhase Test detected significant sediment toxicity up to Day 15. The Microtox 100 %® Test showed elevated toxicity on Day 8 for nutrient plus alternate electron acceptor plots and reduced toxicity on Day 15 for nutrient plots, relative to oiled controls. The observed decrease in sediment toxicity from the Microtox® assays correlated with petroleum losses. Oiled sediments were initially highly toxic to amphipods with average mortality rates ranging from 86 to 92 %. Amphipod mortality decreased significantly 71 days after treatment to between 47 and 28 %. However, a significant increase in mortality was observed at Day 140 in plots receiving nutrient amendments, possibly due to elevated ammonia levels.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, S.E COBANLI, 2005. Bioremediation of oiled beach sediments : assessment of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Pages 708-723 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
The effects of inorganic (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) and organic (fish bone-meal) fertilizers on the biodegradation rates of Venture condensate within a sand-beach environment were assessed over 333 days. Field results showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated microbial growth and metabolic activity to the greatest extent. However, based on chemical analysis of residual oil concentrations and composition, the application of inorganic fertilizers was the superior bioremeditation strategy. This paradox between microbiological and chemical results was attributed to the selective growth of different bacterial populations, the preferential use of components within the organic fertilizer over oil by the indigenous microflora, and the production of toxic metabolic by-products from the degradation of the organic fertilizer.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, J.E.H. WILSON, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 2005. Natural recovery reduces impact of the 1970 ARROW oil spill. Pages 4999-5003 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
In 1970 the tanker ARROW ran aground releasing 2,000 m3 of Bunker C crude oil along 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline, of which only 10 % was subjected to cleanup, the rest was left to degrade naturally. Sediment and interstitial water collected in 1993 and 1997 from Black Duck Cove in Chedabucto Bay, a representative untreated site, showed that the remaining residual oil has undergone substantial biodegradation. The environmental significance of this intrinsic remediation process was assessed with a battery of microscale biotests: CYP1A and mixed function oxygenase induction in winter flounder, Amphipod Survival, Echinoid Fertilization, Grass Shrimp Embryo-Larval Toxicity, Microtox® Solid-Phase and 100 % Tests. While much oil remains in the sediment (426-12,744 ppm), results of the biotests show that it is of low toxicity and habitat recovery is evident from the level of benthic diversity.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., F.-X. MERLIN, R.P.J. SWANNELL, T. REILLY, P. SVEUM, J. OUDOT, M. GUILLERME, J. DUCREUX, C. CHAUMERY, 2005. A protocol for experimental assessments of bioremediation strategies on shorelines. Pages 6638-6642 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
An experimental protocol has been developed for assessing the efficacy of bioremediation strategies for the treatment of petroleum contaminated shoreline sediments. It is a framework for the design of experimental field trials that enables independent organizations to compare the results of experiments conducted in different environments. Coordinated studies of this nature are needed to formulate operational guidelines for the application of bioremediation agents during oil spill response situations.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, 2005. Evaluating the addition of fine particles to enhance oil degradation. Pages 2699-2704 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Natural biodegradation rates of oil within the marine environment are partly controlled by surface availability, as microbial attack primarily occurs at the oilwater interface. Therefore, increasing the surface area of residual oil by the addition of fine oleophilic particles may prove to be an effective bioremediation strategy. Considering commercial availability and cost, heat-treated peat was identified to be a promising particle source as it has high oil absorption properties and does not compete with oil as an alternative carbon source to oil-degrading bacteria. A preliminary laboratory experiment conducted with a respirometry system demonstrated the feasibility of nutrient and peat additions to enhance the metabolic activity of bacteria within oil-contaminated sand beach sediments. Field trials were conducted with similar peat and nutrient concentrations in a north-temperate beach environment with weathered Scotian Light crude oil over a 138-day period. The rates of microbial respiration and productivity were enhanced significantly above unoiled and oiled control sediments with the addition of inorganic nutrients with and without peat amendments. Treatment of sediments with inorganic nutrients and peat did not increase the toxicity of the residual oil. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis was used to quantify bioremediation success by normalizing the loss of individual components to the conserved marker 17α(H), 21β(H)-hopane. While there is evidence of a stimulatory effect with the addition of peat, results suggest that nutrient availability in the interstitial water limited optimal rates of oil bioremediation.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., E.M. LEVY, 2005. Bioremediation : waxy crude oils stranded on low-energy shorelines. Page 736 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, S.E. COBANLI, M. GRIFFIN, 2005. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation : a paradox between laboratory and field results. Pages 626-634 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference : prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, May 15-19, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
In both shaker-flask and mesocosm-scale experiments, a commercial oleophilic bioremediation agent containing biostimulation (nutrients) and bioaugmentation (bacterial inocula) properties was more effective in enhancing oil biodegradation rates than that of no treatment and/or periodic inorganic nutrient addition. However, similar results were not obtained from subsequent 129-days field trial conducted in a sand beach environment. In this case, periodic additions of inorganic nutrients, with and without the commercial bioremediation agent, enhanced the number of heterotrophic bacteria and microbial respiration rates within the oiled sediments. The commercial product appeared to elevate the number of oil-degrading bacteria within the oiled sediment between days 17 and 89. However, the addition of inorganic nutrients alone, on a periodic basis, was the most effective means of enhancing the extent of oil biodegradation within the residual oil and of reducing sediment toxicity. By retaining residual oil and altering the physical and chemical characteristics of the treated sediment, the oleophilic product suppressed both the rate and extent of oil loss by tidal activity and biodegradation. This is not to say that the use of the product was ineffective in protecting the environment or was detrimental to it; the product does enhance natural biodegradation rates, and it limits the transport of beached oil to more sensitive areas. This study clearly illustrates the complexity associated with the selection of bioremediation agents, the need for improved experimental protocols for evaluating the performance and toxicity of bioremediation agents, and the potential of nutrient enrichment as a bioremediation strategy.©2005 The Authors

SWANNELL, R.P.J., D. MITCHELL, D.M. JONES, S. PETCH, I.M. HEAD, A. WILLIS, K. LEE, J.E. LEPO, 2005. Bioremediation of oil contaminated fine sediments. Pages 698-706 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
Bioremediation of oil contamination has been shown to be effective for cobble and sandy shorelines. To assess the operational limitations of this technology, this project studied its potential to treat buried oil in fine sediments. The effectiveness of bioremediation by nutrient enrichment with watersoluble mineral fertilizers was quantified experimentally with a randomised block design with three replicate blocks. Each block consisted of an untreated control plot, a plot treated with fertilizer alone, an oiled plot and an oiled plot treated with fertilizer. The sediment in each plot was retained in mesh enclosures and buried at a depth of O.15m. Weathered and emulsified Arabian Light crude oil was applied to the appropriate plots at 3.7 kg.m·2. Bioremediation success was monitored by examining in situ CO2 production rates, changes in residual hydrocarbons normalized to 17 α(H), 21 β(H) - hopane and the response of hydrocarbon-degrading micro-organisms. Fertilizer treatments significantly increased the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (p=O.OOOI) in the buried sediments. These conclusions were supported by in situ CO2 production data. Microbiological analyses showed that nutrient addition increased the numbers of hydrocarbon-degraders on the oiled plots 10 fold. The results clearly show that bioremediation can trea.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, E.M. LEVY, 2005. Bioremediation : application of slow-release fertilizers on low-energy shorelines. Page 730 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
In situ biodegradation, the activation of microbial processes capable of destroying contaminants where they are found in the environment, is a biological process that responds rapidly to changing environmental factors. Accordingly, in situ sediment enclosures were used to test the efficacy of selected nutrient formulations to enhance the biodegradation of a waxy crude oil in a low-energy shoreline environment. The addition of soluble inorganic fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) and slow-release nutrient formulations (sulfur coated urea) stimulated microbial activity and prolonged the period of oil degradation, despite a decline in seasonal temperatures. Low temperatures reduced the permeability of the coating on the slow release fertilizers, effectively suppressing nutrient release. Of the nutrient formulations evaluated, we recommend the application of granular slow-release fertilizers (such as sulfur-coated urea) when the overlying water temperatures are above 15 °C, and the application of soluble inorganic fertilizers (such as ammonium nitrate) at lower temperatures. Comprehensive analysis of the experimental results indicate that application protocols for bioremediation (form and type of fertilizer or type and frequency of application), be specifically tailored to account for differences in environmental parameters (including oil characteristics) at each contaminated site.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

JÉZÉQUEL, R., K. LEE, 2005. The influence of microorganisms on oil-mineral fine interactions in low energy coastal environment. Pages 3851-3857 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

GRENON, S., V. JARRY, D. LONGPRÉ, K. LEE, A.D. VENOSA, 2005. Logistics for the conduct of controlled oil spill experimenton biorestoration of freshwater wetlands. Pages 4383-4385 in 2005 International Oil Spill Conference: prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Miami Beach, Florida, May 15-19, 2005.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
The St. Lawrence River, situated between Canada and the United States, provides a major transport route in North America for the transport of millions of tons of crude oil, condensates, and refined products each year. In addition, as one of the largest rivers in the world, it is of major ecological significance. For example, over 55,000 hectares of wetlands are found along the St. Lawrence alone. These areas provide habitat for wildlife, the nurseries for fisheries, and control coastal erosion are highly vulnerable to oil spills. Furthermore, as traditional oil spill cleanup methods may be ineffective or cause more damage, emergency responders are considering less intrusive methods such as biorestoration as operational countermeasures. A biorestoration experiment was designed to measure the effectiveness of this method in the St. Lawrence River. To conduct this experiment, 1,200 liters of crude oil were to be spilled in a controlled manner over an experimental zone of 750 m2 in a marsh area. To obtain regulatory approvals from governmental agencies, environmental groups and , more importantly, to avoid the "not in my backyard" protests from the local communities, site selection, emergency planning, contingency measures, and especially community meetings, were all necessary steps towards the acceptance of the project. This controlled spill was done in June 1998 without any incident. Sampling of the experimental site will be completed in the fall of 2000. This paper aims to provide insights on the steps needed to gain acceptance from concerned citizens for the conduct of a controlled oil spill experiment.©2005 American Petroleum Institute

LEE, K., G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, A.D. VENOSA, L.E.J. LEE, M.T. SUIDAN, S. GARCIA-BLANCO, 2001. Monitoring habitat recovery and toxicity reduction in an oiled freshwater wetland to determine remediation success. Environ. Can. AMOP Proc., 24: 195-210.

TREMBLAY, G.H., K. LEE, 2001. Nettoyage en cas de déversement d'hydrocarbures: la biorestauration expérimentée en milieu d'eau douce. Naturaliste can., 125(2): 68-71.

GARCIA-BLANCO, S., M. MOTELEB, M.T. SUIDAN, A.D. VENOSA, K. LEE, D.W. KING, 2001. Restoration of an oil-contaminated St. Lawrence River shoreline : bioremediation and phytoremediation. Pages 303-308 in 2001 International Oil Spill Conference : global strategies for prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Tampa, Florida, May 25-29, 2001.

WRENN, B.A., H. ZHENG, E.S. KOHAR, K. LEE, A.D. VENOSA, 2001. Effect of pulsed additions of nutrients on oil biodegradation in continuous-flow beach microcosms. Pages 339-344 in 2001 International Oil Spill Conference: global strategies for prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Tampa, Florida, May 25-29, 2001.

CRANFORD, P.J., K. LEE, J.W. LODER, T.G. MILLIGAN, D, K. MUSCHENHEIM, J. PAYNE, 2001. Scientific considerations and research results relevant to the review of the 1996 offshore waste treatment : guidelines. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2364, 25 p.

Cliquer pour voir tout le texte

Le présent rapport a été établi par des scientifiques de la Région des Maritimes, de la Région Laurentienne et de la Région de Terre-Neuve du MPO, à la demande de la haute direction du MPO, qui sollicitait un avis scientifique pour étayer ses recommandations de changements aux Lignes directrices relatives au traitement des déchets dans la zone extracôtière (1996). Il a pour but de résumer les résultats des travaux de recherche actuels du MPO sur le transport, le devenir et les effets biologiques des résidus du forage opérationnel et de la production dans l'est du plateau continental canadien. Grâce au financement du Programme de recherche et de développement énergétiques, le ministère des Pêches et des Océans effectue depuis la fin des années 1980 des recherches sur le transport, le devenir et les effets des résidus de forage ainsi que sur l'élaboration de mesures de lutte contre les déversements d'hydrocarbures. La recherche internationale s'est, quant à elle intéressée parallèlement aux controverses constantes sur l'impact de l'industrie du pétrole et du gaz extracôtiers. On s'inquiète de plus en plus de ce que les eaux résiduaires évacuées puissent contaminer le poisson et son habitat, et avoir sur eux d'autres effets. Les données environnementales sur les eaux résiduaires sont limitées et il y a eu peu d'études au sujet de leurs effets létaux et sublétaux sur les organismes marins. La fraction particulaire des résidus de forage évacués inquiète aussi parce que sa dérive, sa dispersion et sa dilution sont généralement plus profondes que celles des résidus dissous ou flottants. La collecte et l'interprétation de données d'océanographie physique, chimique et biologique ont permis de comprendre les phénomènes qui influent sur le dépôt des résidus de forage sur le fond marin et sur leur redistribution subséquente. Les recherches révèlent que les résidus de forage évacués ne se dispersent pas toujours en concentrations négligeables sur le plateau continental, mais qu'ils peuvent au contraire se concentrer à proximité du fond marin (couche limite de la zone benthique). Des modèles exhaustifs en trois dimensions, élaborés pour améliorer notre capacité d'estimer la zone d'influence des résidus de forage évacués, indiquent qu'on peut s'attendre à ce que l'exposition des organismes à des concentrations de résidus de forage susceptibles d'être délétères varie considérablement d'un lieu de forage à un autre. L'exposition à long terme des organismes résidants à de faibles concentrations de contaminants représente une inquiétude majeure associée à la mise en valeur du pétrole et du gaz extracôtiers. Les risques des effets létaux et sublétaux chroniques de faibles concentrations de résidus n'ont été étudiés que sur une très petite partie des organismes marins et de leurs stades biologiques. Les études du MPO sur les effets biologiques chroniques des résidus de forage ont surtout porté sur l'établissement d'une relation dose-réaction, parce qu'on cherchait à estimer la grandeur possible des zones d'impact des déversements ou rejets des lieux d'exploitation. Des études réalisées en laboratoire sur les plies et le pétoncle géant révèlent qu'il y a peu de risques de toxicité des résidus de forage au-delà d'un rayon de 1 à 2 km des zones de forage de production. Un faible niveau d'induction enzymatique d'OFM a été observé chez des plies canadiennes prélevées près du site de mise en valeur d'Hibernia. Une induction prolongée ou répétée d'OFM, en particulier à de hauts niveaux, risque de produire diverses conditions physiques et pathologiques chez le poisson. Bien que les impacts observés des résidus de forage aient en général été attribués à la toxicité chimique ou aux effets de l'enrichissement organique des fluides connexes d'origine pétrolière ou synthétique, il y a de plus en plus de preuves, sur le terrain et en laboratoire, que les fines particules des résidus de forage contribuent grandement aux effets observés alentour des plates-formes de forage. Les études sur le pétoncle géant révèlent que l'interférence physique des particules de bentonite et de baryte présentes dans les résidus de forage peut influer considérablement sur la croissance et la reproduction, si ces particules sont présentes dans le milieu en quantité suffisante. Des études de modélisation du devenir et des effets des résidus de forage sur le pétoncle semblent indiquer qu'en ce qui concerne le forage exploratoire dans certains secteurs de l'est du plateau canadien, il existe une faible probabilité d'effets décelables et importants à l'échelle des populations et de l'écosystème. Le volume d'eaux résiduaires produit augmentera sans aucun doute avec l'expansion des opérations de production de pétrole et de gaz extracôtiers au Canada atlantique. Quoique la dilution rapide des matières en suspension dans les effluents diminuera vraisemblablement les concentrations à des niveaux qui n'ont pas d'effets toxiques aigus pour les organismes marins, on ne peut exclure la possibilité d'effets chroniques à long terme. Les résultats préliminaires ont révélé une forte variabilité spatiale et temporelle des contaminants dans des échantillons d'eaux de production résiduaires prélevées dans la Région de l'Atlantique. De plus, il a été prouvé que les contaminants des eaux de production résiduaires peuvent se concentre dans des parties de l'environnement qui sont notoirement importantes (p. ex. mince couche de surface, couche limite de la zone benthique). Il subsiste des lacunes importantes dans les connaissances des facteurs qui influent sur la dispersion des résidus de forage et des effets écotoxicologiques chroniques des activités pétrolières et gazières dans les eaux extracôtières. La mise en place de programmes de surveillance rigoureux, axés sur une approche écosystémique permettant de prévenir à l'avance les impacts environnementaux néfastes, constitue un moyen important de composer avec les incertitudes. La surveillance environnementale et les plans de protection devraient porter sur des éléments propres au lieu de forage et à l'activité ainsi que sur les risques d'impacts d'autres sources. De façon générale, les champs pétroliers qui sont situés dans des lieux de pêche importants et qui déversent de grandes quantités d'eaux de production résiduaires et de résidus de forage dans une zone exposée aux déversements de champs adjacents sont ceux qui risquent le plus d'occasionner des effets cumulatifs.

LEE, K., P. STOFFYN-EGLI, E.H. OWENS, 2001. Natural dispersion of oil in a freshwater ecosystem : Desaguadero pipeline spill, Bolivia. Pages 1445-1448 in 2001 International Oil Spill Conference: global strategies for prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Tampa, Florida, May 25-29, 2001.

LEE, K., K.G. DOE, L.E.J. LEE, M.T. SUIDAN, A.D. VENOSA, 2001. Remediation of an oil-contaminated experimental freshwater wetland : II. Habitat recovery and toxicity reduction. Pages 323-328 in 2001 International Oil Spill Conference: global strategies for prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Tampa, Florida, March 26-29, 2001.

LEE, K., P. STOFFYN, 2001. Characterization of oil-mineral aggregates. Pages 991-996 in 2001 International Oil Spill Conference: global strategies for prevention, preparedness, response, and restoration, Tampa, Florida, May 25-29, 2001.

STOFFYN-EGLI, P., K. LEE, S. BLENKINSOPP, G. SERGY, 2000. Field tests for the verification of oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation. Environ. Can. AMOP Proc., 23(2): 1041-1050.

KEPKAY, P.E., J.B.C. BUGDEN, K. LEE, P. STOFFYN-EGLI, 2000. Application of ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectroscopy to monitor oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation. Environ. Can. AMOP Proc., 23(2): 1051-1064.

LONGPRÉ, D., K. LEE, G.H. TREMBLAY, V. JARRY, 2000. The response of Scirpus pungens to Crude Oil Contaminated Sediments.. Page 127 in Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2331.

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, J.E.H. WILSON, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1999. Natural recovery reduces impact of the 1970 Arrow oil spill. Pages 1075-1078 in Proceedings : 1999 International Oil Spill Conference (Beyond 2000, Balancing Perspectives), March 8-11, 1999, Seattle, Washington.

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1999. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia. In Actes du colloque Vingt ans après l'Amoco Cadiz, Brest, France, October 15-17, 1998.

LEE, K., S.E. COBANLI, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, 1999. Evaluating the addition of fine particles to enhance oil degradation. Pages 765-770 in Proceedings : 1999 International Oil Spill Conference (Beyond 2000, Balancing Perspectives), March 8-11, 1999, Seattle, Washington.

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1999. Persistance, biodégradation et impacts biologiques des résidus de Bunker C à Black Duck Cove, Nouvelle-Écosse. In Actes du colloque Vingt ans après l'Amoco Cadiz, Brest, France, October 15-17, 1998.

JÉZÉQUEL, R., K. LEE, 1999. The influence of microorganisms on oil-mineral fine interactions in low energy coastal environment. 7 p in 1999 International Oil Spill Conference XVI, March 8-11, 1999, Seattle, Washington.

[Résumé disponible seulement en anglais]
When spilled in the environment, oil frequently interacts with fine minerai particles to form aggregates. This process contributes to the natural shoreline restoration process as the residual oil remains mobile and becomes more accessible to oil-degrading biota. Studies have been undertaken to accelerate this mechanism of natural oil dispersion as an oil spill countermeasure (e.g., surf-washing). Maing energy (waves) has been considered a key factor controlling the formation of oil-mineral fine aggregates. While most laboratory studies have used strong mixing energy to induce the formation of oil-mineral fine aggregates, they have also been observed to occur in the environment under moderate levels of agitation. To test this hypothesis, experiments were undertaken in mesocosms, recreating a sandy shoreline environment subject to identical levels of moderate wave activity and tidal movement. Microcosm experiments with oiled sediments amended with nutrients and bacteria have been conducted over a 4-week period with and without the addition of clay. Results and observations show positive influence of microbial activity on the formation of oil-mineral fine aggregates, which subsequently accelerates the rate of oil removal from the sand by the tide.©1999 American Petroleum Institue

LEE, K., S. DE MORA, 1999. In situ bioremediation strategies for oiled shoreline environments. Environ. Technol., 20: 783-794.

CRANFORD, P.J., D.C. GORDON Jr., K. LEE, S.L. ARMSWORTHY, G.-H. TREMBLAY, 1999. Chronic toxicity and physical disturbance effects of water- and oil- drilling fluids and some major constituents on adult sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus). Mar. Environ. Res., 48: 225-256.

WEISE. A.M., C. NALEWAJKO, K. LEE, 1999. Oil-mineral fine interactions facilitate oil biodegradation in seawater. Environ. Technol., 20: 811-824.

LEE, K., P. STOFFYN-EGLI, G. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, J. GAUTHIER, S. ST-PIERRE, G.H. TREMBLAY, S.E. COBANLI, R. PRINCE, R.E. BARE, R.M. GARRETT, M.J. GROSSMAN, G. SERGY, E.H. OWENS, C.C. GUENETTE, T. JOHNSON, 1999. In-situ Treatment of Oiled Sediment Shorelines, Volume 4. Environmental Impact and Validation of Oil-Mineral Aggregate Formation. Environment Canada, 60 p + appendices.

LEE, K., 1999. Bioremediation of oil impacted shorelines. Pages 69-85 in T. Murphy & M. Munawar (ed.). Aquatic restoration in Canada, 1999, Backhuys Publishers, The Netherlands.

LEE, K., J.J. NAGLER, M. FOURNIER, M. LEBEUF, D.G. CYR, 1999. Toxicological characterization of sediments from Baie des Anglais on the St. Lawrence Estuary. Chemosphere, 39: 1019-1035.

LEE, K., F.X. MERLIN, 1999. Bioremediation of oil on shoreline environments: development of techniques and guidelines. Pure Appl. Chem., 71(1): 161-171.

PRINCE, R.C., R.M. GARRET, C.E. HAITH, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, S. COBANLI, D. MOSSMAN, K. LEE, 1998. The role of biodegradation in the weathering of oil from the 1970 arrow spill. Pages 717-728 in Proceedings : Twenty-first Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, June 10 to 12, 1998, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

JEZEQUEL, R., S. LEFLOCH, F.-X. MERLIN, J. DREWES, K. LEE, 1998. The influence of microorganisms on oil-mineral fine interactions in low energy coastal environment : preliminary results. Pages 957-962 in Proceedings 21st Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 10-12, 1998, Edmonton, Alberta.

WOOD, P.A., T. LUNEL, F. DANIEL, R. SWANNELL, K. LEE, P. STOFFYN-EGLI, 1998. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction. Environ. Can. AMOP Proc., 21(1): 51-77.

LEE, K., P.G. WELLS, C. BLAISE, 1998. Microscale testing in aquatic toxicology : conclusions and future directions. Pages 647-652 in P.G. Wells, K. Lee & C. Blaise (ed.). Microscale aquatic toxicology : advances techniques and practice. CRC Press.

LEE, K., 1998. Accelerating natural processes for oil spill remediation. ICES C.M., 1998/V:11, 15 p.

SERGY, G.A., C.C. GUÉNETTE, E.H. OWENS, R.C. PRINCE, K. LEE, 1998. The Svalbard shoreline oilspill field trials. Pages 873-889 in Proceedings : Twenty-first Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, June 10 to 12, 1998, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

WELLS, P.G., K. LEE, C. BLAISE, 1998. Microscale testing in aquatic toxicology : advances, techniques, and practice. CRC Press, 679 p.

TAY, K.L., K.G. DOE, A.J. MACDONALD, K. LEE, 1998. The influence of particle size, ammonia, and sulfide on toxicity of dredged materials for ocean disposal. Pages 559-574 in P.G. Wells, K. Lee, C. Blaise (ed.). Microscale testing in aquatic toxicology : advances, techniques, and practice. CRC Press.

BLAISE, C., P.G. WELLS, K. LEE, 1998. Microscale testing in aquatic toxicology : introduction, historical perspective, and context. Pages 1-12 in P.G. Wells, K. Lee & C. Blaise (ed.). Microscale aquatic toxicology : advances techniques and practice. CRC Press.

LEE, K., P. STOFFYN-EGLI, P.A. WOOD, T. LUNEL, 1998. Formation and structure of oil-mineral fines aggregates in coastal environments. Pages 911-921 in Proceedings : Twenty-first Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, June 10 to 12, 1998, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

LEE, K., G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, G.H. TREMBLAY, J.H. VANDERMEULEN, D.C. MOSSMAN, K.G. DOE, P.M. JACKMAN, R.C. PRINCE, R.M. GARRETT, C.E. HAITH, 1998. Residual hydrocarbon toxicity in sediments impacted by the 1970 Arrow spill. Pages 485-504 in Proceedings : Twenty-first Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, June 10 to 12, 1998, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

LEE, K, K.L. TAY, 1998. Measurement of microbial exoenzyme activity in sediments for environmental impact assessment. Pages 219-236 in P.G. Wells, K. Lee, C. Blaise (ed). Microscale testing in aquatic toxicology : advances, techniques, and practice. CRC Press.

LUN, R., K. LEE, L. DE MARCO, C. NALEWAJKO, D. MACKAY, 1998. A model of the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 17: 333-341.

LEE, K., A.M. WEISE, S. ST-PIERRE, 1997. Enhanced oil biodegradation with mineral fine interaction. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull., 3: 263-267.

LEE, K., A.M. WEISE, T. LUNEL, 1997. Marine oil spills : enhanced biodegradation with mineral fine interaction. Pages 365-370 in In situ and on-site bioremediation, volume 4.

WEISE, A.M., K. LEE, 1997. The effect of clay-oil flocculation on natural oil degradation. Pages 955-956 in 1997 International Oil Spill Conference : improving environmental protection : progress, challenges, responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, J. GAUTHIER, S.E. COBANLI, M. GRIFFIN, 1997. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation : a paradox between laboratory and field results. Pages 697-705 in 1997 International Oil Spill Conference : improving environmental protection : progress, challenges, responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

LEE, K., A.M. WEISE, S. ST-PIERRE, 1997. Enhanced oil biodegradation with mineral fine interaction. Pages 715-722 in Proceedings : Twentieth Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, June 11 to 13, 1997, Vancouver, British Columbia.

LEE, K., T. LUNEL, P. WOOD, R. SWANNELL, P. STOFFYN-EGLI, 1997. Shoreline cleanup by acceleration of clay-oil flocculation processes. Pages 235-240 in Proceedings : 1997 International Oil Spill Conference Improving Environmental Protection : Progress, Challenges, Responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

COLCOMB, K., D. BEDBOROUGH, T. LUNEL, R. SWANNELL, P. WOOD, J. RUSIN, N. BAILEY, C. HALLIWELL, L. DAVIES, M. SOMMERVILLE, A. DOBIE, D. MITCHELL, M. McDONAGH, K. LEE, S. SHIMWELL, B. DAVIES, D. HARRIES, 1997. Shoreline cleanup and waste disposal issues during the Sea Empress incident. Pages 195-203 in Proceedings : 1997 International Oil Spill Conference Improving Environmental Protection : Progress, Challenges, Responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

MEARNS, A.J., A.D. VENOSA, K. LEE, M. SALAZAR, 1997. Field-testing bioremediation treating agents : lessons from an experimental shoreline oil spill. Pages 707-712 in Proceedings : 1997 International Oil Spill Conference Improving Environmental Protection : Progress, Challenges, Responsibilities, April 7-10, 1997, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

BÉLANGER, C., B. DESROSIERS, K. LEE, 1997. Microbial extracellular enzyme activity in marine sediments : extreme pH to terminate reaction and sample storage. Aquat. Microbiol. Ecol., 13: 187-196.

SWANNELL, R.P.J., D.J. MITCHELL, D. MARTIN JONES, A. WILLIS, K. LEE, J.E. LEPO, 1997. Field evaluation of bioremediation to treat crude oil on a mudflat. Pages 401-406 in In situ and on-site bioremediation, volume 4.

SWANNELL, R.P.J., D.J. MITCHELL, D. MARTIN JONES, A.L. WILLIS, K. LEE, J.E. LEPO, 1997. An evaluation of bioremediation of oiled sediments buried within a mudflat environment. Pages 703-714 in Proceedings : Twentieth Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 11 to 13, 1997, Vancouver, British Columbia.

WOOD, P. T. LUNEL, N. BAILEY, K. LEE, P. STOFFYN-EGLI, 1997. Clay-oil flocculation during surf washing at the Sea Empress incident. Pages 1085-1105 in Proceedings : Twentieth Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 11 to 13, 1997, Vancouver, British Columbia.

TAY, K.L., K.G. DOE, A.J. MACDONALD, K. LEE, 1997. Monitoring of the Black Point Ocean Disposal Site, Saint John Harbour, New Brunswick, 1992-1994. Environment Canada, Environmental Conservation Branch, Environmental Protection Branch and Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Marine Environmental Sciences Division, 129 p.

BÉLANGER, C., K. LEE, 1996. Potential use of endemic bacteria to assess sediment toxicity. 17th Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Washington, DC (USA), Nov 17-21.

SWANNELL, R.P.J., K. LEE, M. McDONAGH, 1996. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation. Microbiol. Rev., 60: 342-365.

PACKARD, T.T., E. BERDALET, D. BLASCO, S.O. ROY, L. ST-AMAND, B. LAGACÉ, K. LEE, J.-P. GAGNÉ, 1996. Oxygen consumption in the marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica predicted from ETS activity and bisubstrate enzyme kinetics. J. Plankton Res., 18: 1819-1835.

LUNEL, T., K. LEE, R. SWANNELL, P. WOOD, J. RUSIN, N. BAILEY, C. HALLIWELL, L. DAVIES, M. SOMMERVILLE, A. DOBIE, D. MITCHELL, M. McDONAGH, 1996. Shoreline clean up during the Sea Empress incident : the role of surf washing (clay-oil flocculation), dispersants and bioremediation. Pages 1521-1540 in Proceedings : 19th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 12-14, 1996, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

PACKARD, T., E. BERDALET, D. BLASCO, S.O. ROY, L. ST-AMAND, B. LAGACÉ, K. LEE, J.-P. GAGNÉ, 1996. CO2 production predicted from isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and bisubstrate enzyme kinetics in the marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica. Aquat. Microbiol. Ecol., 11: 11-19.

TAY, K.L., K.G. DOE, A.J. MACDONALD, S.J. WADE, J.D.A. VAUGHAN, A.L. HUYBERS, G.D. WOHLGESCHAFFEN, K. LEE, R. LAROCQUE, 1995. Environmental assessment of a dredged material dump site using multitrophic level sediment bioassays and a bioaccumulation test. Pages 50-51 in G.F. Westlake, J.L Parrott & A.J. Niimi (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop : October 3-5, 1994, Sarnia, Ontario. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2050).

LEE, K., C. BLAISE, P.G. WELLS, 1995. Development and application of microscale bioassays in aquatic ecotoxicology. Pages 170-173 in G.F. Westlake, J.L Parrott & A.J. Niimi (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop : October 3-5, 1994, Sarnia, Ontario. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2050).

LEE, K., R. LAROCQUE, K.L. TAY, 1995. Development of environmental impact assessment tests based on the exoenzyme activity of indigenous bacteria. Pages 173-175 in G.F. Westlake, J.L. Parrott & A.J. Niimi (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop : October 3-5, 1994, Sarnia, Ontario. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2050).

LEE, K., R. SIRON, G.H. TREMBLAY, J. LAVOIE, 1995. Application of the microtox solid-phase test to monitor the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies. Pages 152-156 in G.F. Westlake, J.L. Parrott & A.J. Niimi (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st Annual Toxicity Workshop, October 2-5, 1994, Sarnia, Ontario. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci, 2050).

SILVERBERG, N., J.-M. GAGNON, K. LEE, 1995. A benthic mesocosm facility for maintaining soft-bottom sediments. Neth. J. Sea Res., 34: 289-302.

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, 1995. Oil spill bioremediation studies in low-energy shoreline environments. Pages 175-177 in G.F. Westlake, J.L Parrott & A.J. Niimi (ed.). Proceedings of the 21st Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop : October 3-5, 1994, Sarnia, Ontario. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2050).

LEE, K., R. SIRON, G.H. TREMBLAY, 1995. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments. Pages 117-127 in R.E. Hinchee, C.M. Vogel & F.J. Brockman (ed.). Microbial processes for bioremediation. Battelle Press (Bioremediation 3-8).

LEE, K., 1995. Bioremediation studies in low-energy shoreline environments. Pages 27-36 in Proceedings of the 2nd International Oil Spill Research and Development Forum, International Maritime Organization, May 23-26, 1995, London, United Kingdom.

MERLIN, F.X., A. BASSÈRES, C. CHAUMERY, C. DALMAZZONE, J. DUCREAUX, K. LEE, J. OUDOT, T. REILLY, R.P.J. SWANNELL, 1995. Oil remediation : results of Landvennec Field Trials France, October 1993 - June 1994. Centre de documentation de recherche et d'expérimentations sur les pollutions accidentelles des eaux (CEDRE), Plouzane, France, 2 vol.

MEARNS, A., K. DOE, W. FISHER, R. HOFF, K. LEE, R. SIRON, C. MUELLER, A. VENOSA, 1995. Toxicity trends during an oil spill bioremediation experiment on a sandy shoreline in Delaware, USA. Pages 1133-1145 in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 14 to 16, 1995, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

SWANNELL, R.P.J., J.E. LEPO, K. LEE, P.H. PRITCHARD, D.M. JONES, 1995. Bioremediation of oil contaminated fine-grained sediments in laboratory microcosms. Pages 45-55 in Proceedings of the Second International Oil Spill Research and Development Forum, International Maritime Organization (IMO), May, 23-26, 1995, London, UK.

CROFT, B.C., R.P.J. SWANNELL, A.L. GRANT, K. LEE, 1995. Effect of bioremediation agents on oil biodegradation in medium-fine sand. Pages 423-434 in R.E. Hinchee, J.A. Kittel & H.J. Reisinger (ed.). Applied bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Battelle Press (Bioremediation, 3-6).

NALEWAJKO, C., K. LEE, M. OLAVESON, 1995. Responses of freshwater algae to inhibitory vanadium concentrations : the role of phosphorus. J. Phycol., 31: 332-343.

SWANNELL, R.P.J., B.C. CROFT, A.L. GRANT, K. LEE, 1995. Evaluation of bioremediation agents in beach microcosms. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull., 2: 151-159.

LUNEL, T., R. SWANNELL, J. RUSIN, P. WOOD, N. BAILEY, C. HALLIWELL, L. DAVIES, M. SOMMERVILLE, A. DOBIE, D. MITCHELL, M. McDONAGH, K. LEE, 1995. Monitoring the effectiveness of response operations during the Sea Empress incident : a key component of the successful counter-pollution response. Spill Sci. Technol. Bull., 2: 99-112.

NALEWAJKO, C., K. LEE, T.R. JACK, 1995. Effects of vanadium on freshwater phytoplankton photosynthesis. Water Air Soil Pollut., 81: 93-105.

LEE, K., F.-X. MERLIN, R.P.J. SWANNELL, T. REILLY, P. SVEUM, J. OUDOT, M. GUILLERME, J. DUCREUX, 1995. A protocol for experimental assessments of bioremediation strategies on shorelines. Pages 901-902 in Proceedings : 1995 International Oil Spill Conference (Achieving and Maintaining Preparedness) : February 27 - March 2, 1995, Long Beach, California.

MERLIN, F.-X., P. PINVIDIC, A. BASSERES, C. CHAUMERY, C. DALMAZZONE, J. DUCREUX, J. OUDOT, K. LEE, R.P.J. SWANNELL, T. REILLY, 1995. Bioremediation : results of the field trials of Landevennec (France). Pages 917-918 in Proceedings : 1995 International Oil Spill Conference (Achieving and Maintaining Preparedness) : February 27 - March 2, 1995, Long Beach, California.

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, S.E. COBANLI, 1995. Bioremediation of oiled-beach sediments : assessment of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Pages 107-113 in Proceedings of the 1995 International Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control and Cleanup), Long Beach, California, February 27 - March 2, 1995.

TAY, K.L., K.G. DOE, A.J. MACDONALD, S.J. WADE, J.D.A. VAUGHAN, A.L. HUYBERS'D, K. LEE, R. LAROCQUE, 1994. Application of sediment bioassays for the environmental assessment of ocean dump sites. Pages 48-49 in Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, October 17-21, 1993, Quebec City, Quebec. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989).

MERLIN, F.X., K. LEE, R. SWANNEL, J. OUDOT, A. BASSÈRES, T. REILLY, C. CHAUMERY, C. DALMAZZONE, P. SVEUM, 1994. Protocol for experimental assessment of bioremediation agents on a petroleum polluted shoreline. Pages 465-478 in Proceedings of the Seventeenth Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 8-10, 1994, Vancouver, British Columbia.

SILVERBERG, N., J.-M. GAGNON, K. LEE, 1994. The IML benthocosm : a mesocosm facility for the study of deep soft bottom benthic environments. Pages 137-138 in Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, October 17-21, 1993, Quebec City, Quebec. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989).

DeMARCO, E., K. LEE, 1994. La biodégradation des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) dans les sédiments du fjord du Saguenay. Pages 86-87 in J.-M. Sévigny & C.M. Couillard (éd.). Le fjord du Saguenay : un milieu exceptionnel de recherche. Ministère des pêches et des océans (Rapp. manus. can. sci. halieut. aquat., 2270).

SWANNELL, R.P.J., A. BASSÈRES, K. LEE, F.X. MERLIN, 1994. A direct respirometric method for the in situ determination of bioremediation efficacy. Pages 1273-1286 in Proceedings of the Seventeenth Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 8-10, 1994, Vancouver, British Columbia.

LEE, K., R. LAROCQUE, 1993. Development of environmental impact assessment tests based on the exoenzyme activity of indigenous bacteria. Pages 252 in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Aquatic Toxicology Conference, Québec, Québec.

LEE, K., G.-H. TREMBLAY, E.M. LEVY, 1993. Bioremediation : application of slow-release fertilizers on low-energy shorelines. Pages 449-454 in Proceedings : 1993 International Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Preparedness, Response), March 29 - April 1, 1993, Tampa, Florida.

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, 1993. Bioremediation : composition changes in experimentally-oiled sand beach sediments. Page 353 in Proceedings 16th Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program, Calgary, Alberta.

LEE, K., G.H. TREMBLAY, 1993. Oil spill bioremediation studies in low-energy shoreline environments. Pages 252 in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Aquatic Toxicology Conference, Québec, Québec.

MARSHALL, C.T., K. LEE, 1992. Uptake of dissolved glycine by sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus, Gmelin 1791) larvae. Pages 60-66 in S.E. Shumway & P.A. Sandifer (ed.). An international compendium of scallop biology and culture. World Aquacult. Society.

LEE, K., 1992. La lutte biologique contre la marée noire. L'Euskarien, 14(1): 58-60.

LEE, K., E.M. LEVY, 1992. Microbial degradation of petroleum in an intertidal beach environment : in situ sediment enclosure studies. Pages 140-155 in C.S Wong & P.J. Harrison (ed.). Marine ecosystem enclosed experiments : proceedings of a symposium held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 9-14 May 1987. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.

LIN, R., Y. LIN, J. WU, K. LEE, W. LI, 1992. Response of bacterioplankton to Corexit 9527 and Corexit-dispersed Shengli crude oil : marine ecosystem enclosed experiments. Pages 332-341 in C.S. Wong & P.J. Harrison (ed.). Marine ecosystem enclosed experiments : proceedings of a symposium held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 9-14 May 1987. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.

LEVY, E.M., K. LEE, 1991. Soil microbiology. Pages 395-398 in S.P. Parker (ed.). The 1991 McGraw-Hill yearbook of science and technology. McGraw-Hill, New York.

LEE, K., 1991. Bioremediation for the Oceania Region. Pages 7-9 in Proceedings of the Emerging Oil Spill Response Options Workshop for the Oceania Region, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 13-15, 1991. United States Coast Guard.

LEE, K., E.M. LEVY, 1991. Bioremediation : waxy crude oils stranded on low-energy shorelines. Pages 541-547 in Proceedings : 1991 International Oil Spill Conference : prevention, behavior, control, cleanup, March, 4-7, 1991, San Diego, California. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C..

LEE, K., K.L. TAY, E.M. LEVY, C.N. EWING, S.E. COBANLI, 1990. Application of microbial exoenzyme activity measurements to assess the impact of dredge spoils disposal in Pictou Harbour, Nova Scotia and the Miramichi River, New Brunswick. Environment Canada, Atlantic Region, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Ocean Dumping Report, 6), 95 p.

LEE, K., K.L. TAY, C.N. EWING, E.M. LEVY, 1990. Toxicity and environmental impact assessment tests based on the activity of indigenous bacteria. Environment Canada, Atlantic Region, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Ocean Dumping Report, 4), 138 p.

LEE, K., K.L. TAY, E.M. LEVY, C.N. EWING, S.E. COBANLI, 1990. Microbial exoenzyme activity at the Heron Island ocean dumpsite (Chaleur Bay) : 10 years after the disposal of dredged sediment from Dalhousie, New Brunswick. Environment Canada, Atlantic Region, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Ocean Dumping Report, 5), 82 p .